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Ngā tāone nui – Māori and the city

by Aroha Harris

Nō te tuwheratanga o te ao ki a rātou, ka tāwhai te Māori i runga kaipuke ki te mātakitaki i te ao o ngā Pākehā me ngā tikanga hangarau hou kei Poihākena me Ingarangi. Ko te hunga rangatira i haere ki Rānana, ka powhirihia e ngā roera o reira. Hāunga ki Niu Tīreni, i te tūhanga o ngā tāone kaitā, ka riro ngā whenua Māori.


Māori visit overseas cities

Māori ki Poihākena me Rānana

Kīhai he tāone tūturu ki Aotearoa, ā, tae rawa ki te tau 1865, i te whakataunga o Ōtepoti hei tāone. I taua wā he nui a Poihākena me Rānana ki a Niu Tīreni.

Ko Poihākena tētahi o ngā pokapū matua mō te tauhokohoko, ā, koinei te wāhi i peka ai ngā kaipuke mai i Rānana, e kawe ana i ngā painga ki Niu Tīreni. Ko Rānana te pokapū o te kāhui ariki o te Emepaea o Peretānia. Ko Poihākena me Rānana ngā tāone matua i haerea e te Māori atu i te takiwā whakamutunga o te rau tau 1700. Ka nui ngā tauwhitiwhitinga a te Māori i ēnei tāone nui i roto i ngā tau.

Māori ki Poihākena

Atu i te paunga o te rau tau 1700, ka hōrapa haere te Māori i te ao. Ko te nuinga he kauhoe i ngā kaipuke nui. Atu i te rau tau 1800, ka rapu te Māori i ētahi tuwheratanga ki Poihākena, pērā i te mahi kāmura me te ngaki māra. Ko Poihākena tētahi wāhi i whakakao ai te Māori me ngā āphiha, ngā mihinare hoki. Hei tauira, i te tau 1804, ka tono te rangatira o Rangihoua, a Te Pahi, i tana tama i a Mataara ki Poihākena kia mātaki i te hunga Pākehā. Nā te kāwana o Niu Taute Wērā, nā Phillip Gidley King a ia i manaaki. Nō tōna hokinga ki te kāinga, ka whiwhia ngā whao me ētahi taonga e ia. I te tau 1805, ka haere ko Te Pahi ki Poihākena, ka noho me Kāwana King mō ētahi marama. Ka ako rātou ko ōna hoa ki ngā mahi kāmura, te ngaki māra, te raranga, porotaka hoki.

I te tau 1805, ka whakatika atu ko Ruatara. Nā tōna mahi ki runga i ngā waka patu tohorā me te kēkeno, e rua āna haerenga ki Poihākena, hāunga, nō te tau 1809 ka tae a ia ki Rānana, heoi kāore i tukuna kia heke. I te tau 1810, ka tae anō a ia ki Poihākena ka noho me Te Mātenga ki Parramatta mō ngā marama e waru. Nō te tau 1812 ka hoki a ia ki Pēwhairangi. Waimaria a ia, tērā he Māori i runga i te kaipuke Atlantis, ka hemo i te hikoinga uira ki Poihākena i te tau 1806.

I a ia i Poihākena, ka riro mai ngā pū e waru me ngā pītara e rua. Ahakoa te mīharo ki te pū i taua wā, ka rangatira ake a Hongi Hika i te hokonga i ngā taonga i riro i a ia ki Rānana mō te pū ki Poihākena.

Kia tae ki te tekau tau o 1810, rongohia ai te reo Māori ki ngā wāpu o Poihākena. Kia tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1840, neke atu i te kotahi mano ngā tāne Māori kua tae ki tāwāhi, ko te nuinga ki Poihākena. Nā te nui haere o te Māori ki reira, hauwarea te tātai tokohia rātou. Ko Poihākena tētahi tāone nui whakaharahara tonu ki te Māori. Tae rawa ki ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, tini te Māori ki reira, ka hau kaha ana ngā tikanga Māori me ngā mahi pāpāho Māori.

Nūpepa Māori

I te tau 1859, ka tae a Wiremu Toetoe rāua ko Hēmara Te Rerehau o Waikato ki Ateria mā runga i te kaipuke Novara. Ka whakangungua rāua ki ngā mahi tā ki te whare tā o te kāwanatanga ki Vienna. I tō rāua wehenga i te marama o Mei i te tau 1860, ka kohaina e Ātitiuka Maximillian ki a rāua tētahi perehi, i kawea ki Ngāruawāhia. Nō te paunga o te tau 1861, ka whakamahia te perehi hei whakaputa nūpepa, Te hookioi e rere atu na, te nūpepa a te Kīngitanga. I whakamātau te tokorua nei ki te hoko mai i tētahi raiona, auare ake. I te wā o ngā pakanga whenua, ka wāwāhia te perehi e ngā hōia Pākehā.

Māori ki Rānana

Ko Moehanga tētahi o ngā Māori tuatahi kia tae ki Rānana, i te tau 1805. I tūtaki a ia ki a Kīngi Hōri III. I tae a Hongi Hika rātou ko Waikato, ko te mihinare a Te Kēnara ki Rānana i te tau 1820. Nā rātou i tuhituhi te papakupu tuatahi i roto i te reo Māori. Ka tūtaki a Hongi ki a Kīngi Hōri IV.

He tūranga nui tō Hoani Wiremu Hīpango ki te wawao i te tāone o Whanganui i ngā whakaekenga o iwi kē. He take tēnei i haere ai a ia ki te taha o te mihinare a Te Teira ki Ingarangi i te tau 1855. I a ia i Rānana, ka tūtaki a Hīpango ki a Kūini Wikitōria me Piriniha Arapeta. Tērā ētahi atu Māori i tae ki Rānana i aua tau, ko Māui, arā, ko Tommy Drummond, he kaiako ki te Kura Rātapu ki Rānana i te tau 1816. Ko Tuai rāua ko Titeri, i tae atu i te tau 1818. I te tau 1863, e rua ngā kapa haka Māori i Rānana.

Ki tā te Māori titiro, ko Rānana te pokapū o te Emepaea o Peretānia, te kāinga o te kūini, arā, te hoa o te Māori i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I ēnei haerenga ki Rānana, ka wawata te Māori kia tūtaki ki te hunga ariki; ko ētahi ka waimarie.

Ngā tikanga a te Māori me Rānana

I ngā wā ka haere mai te kāhui ariki o Peretānia ki Rotorua, kua pōwhiritia rātou e te iwi Māori. I te tau 1959, ka whakatūria te kapa haka o Ngāti Rānana. I ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, e kaha tonu ana tēnei kapa haka.


Cities and Māori land

Te korenga o ngā oati hoko

Ka tau ngā hoko whenua i runga i te kōrero mō ngā painga o te noho mai o te Pākehā. Ka hikaka te Māori ki ngā mākete, ngā taonga me ngā hangarau hou. Nā te Māori i whāngai ngā tāone tōmua ki te kai. Ka hokona ngā whenua Māori hei whakatū tāone. Nō te rironga o ngā whenua pāmu, ka riro ki ētahi atu te mahi whakataka kai mā ngā tāone. Orua te tū o ngā pokapū matua hei tāone nunui: arā ko Ōtepoti i te tau 1865, ko Ōtautahi i te tau 1868, ko Te Whanganui-a-Tara i te tau 1870, ko Tāmaki i te tau 1871.

Māori ki Ōtepoti

I te tau 1844 ka whakaae ngā rangatira o Ngāi Tahu a Taiaroa rāua ko Karetai kia hokona te poraka whenua o Otākou, kia wātea ai ki te noho Pākehā. I ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō te hoko, ka whakatauhia ngā ngā tumu herenga waka o te Māori ki Ōtepoti. Tāpiri atu, ka kōrerotia te rāhui i ngā whenua whakatekau, engari kīhai ngā Māori i whiwhi. Ka moe ngā kaipatu tohorā me ngā wāhine Māori. Taro kau iho ka matemate ngā Māori i ngā tahumaero a te Pākehā. Ko te wawata a Ngāi Tahu, ina ka noho te Pākehā, ka kaha ngā mahi hokohoko. Heoi, nō te tekau tau atu i 1840, nā te rironga o te whenua me te haumate o te iwi, hauwarea a Ngāi Tahu i te tāone o Ōtepoti.

Māori ki Ōtautahi

Ko te nuinga o te rohe o Waitaha ka hokona atu e Ngāi Tahu ki te kāwanatanga i te tau 1848. Ka waitohu ngā rangatira o Ngāi Tahu i te tāpaetanga hoko i whakaritea e te Kaikomihana e Te Keepa (Henry Tacy Kemp) ki Akaroa. Ki tā te tāpaetanga, ka pupuri tonu i a Ngāi Tahu ōna kāinga tae atu ki ētahi whenua rāhui. Heoi, nō te rūritanga o te whenua, ka whakakoretia, ka whakapakuhia rānei aua whenua rāhui. Koinei tētahi o ngā take nui i te kereme o Ngāi Tahu ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1986. Waihoki ki Ōtepoti, ka memeha ngā kaupapa tauhokohoko a Ngāi Tahu ki Waitaha i te rironga o ōna whenua.

Te Pōkiha

Ko Te Pura tētahi o ngā Pākehā tōmua ka hīkoikoi haere i ngā tiriti o Te Whanganui-a-Tara me te kōrero Māori ki a Ngatau Omahuru, tana kaiāwhina ture. I kāhakina a Omahuru i Taranaki i a ia e taitama ana, ā, nā Te Pōkiha te pirimia (William Fox) ia i whāngai. Nāna te tamaiti i tapa ki tōna anō ingoa. Ka kuraina ia ki te Kāreti o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, nō mua ka haere ki ngā whenua puta noa i te ao, kātahi ka ako i te ture. I te wā ka haere a Te Pura ki ngā kōti whenua i te raki, ka tūtaki anō te Māori nei ki tōna whānau ake. Nō muri, ka tautoko a Ngatau i a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai.

Māori ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara

Ko William Wakefield te kaihoko matua o te Kamupene Niu Tīreni. He nui ngā whenua i hokona e ia ki Pōneke. Nō ngā rangahau o te Kaikōmihana Kereme Whenua a William Spain, ka kitea ngā hapa i ngā tāpaetanga hoko. Kīhai ngā rangatira o ngā pā o Te Aro, o Pipitea me Kumutoto i whai wāhi ki ēnei hokonga. I whai whakaaro a Spain ki ngā taupori, arā e 3,500 ngā Pākehā, ā, e 500-600 anake te rahi o ngā Māori; i reira ka toko ake te whakaaro me whai utunga ngā tāngata i riro ai ō rātou whenua. Ka utua rā rātou, ā, ka puritia ētahi whenua whakatekau, arā te whakatekau o ngā whenua katoa ka hokona e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Tatū rawa iho ki te mano tau 2000, e whakahaerehia ana aua whenua e te Kaitiakitanga Whakatekau o Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

Ahakoa puritia ai ngā whenua, tae rawa ki te tau 1881, e 28 anake ngā Māori e noho ana ki Te Aro, tokoiwa ki Pipitea. Ki te tekau tau atu i 1890, he marae puehu a Te Aro me Pipitea. Taka rawa ki te rau tau 1900, kua kore te pā o Ngāūranga.

Māori ki Tāmaki

I te tau 1840, ka haina ngā rangatira o Ngāti Whātua, tae atu ki a Apihai Te Kawau i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka tono a Te Kawau ki a Rūtene Kāwana Wiremu Hopihana (William Hobson) kia whakatū i te tāone ki ngā wai o Waitematā. Kātahi ka hokona e Ngāti Whātua te whenua mō te tāone nui o Ākarana. Ko te wawata hoki a Ngāti Whātua nā te noho mai o te Pākehā e kaupare ai ngā marau a ngā iwi tū hoariri. Taka rawa mai ki te tau 1855, kua riro katoa ngā whenua o Ngāti Whātua i tua atu i tētahi poraka e 700 eka ki Ōrākei. I te tau 1869, ka whakatau te Kōti Whenua Māori e kore e taea te hoko i tēnei whenua. E rua tau tēnei i mua i te whakataunga o Ākarana hei tāone tūturu. Heoi, i te tekau tau atu i 1890, ka wāwāhia te whenua. I te tau 1951, ka tangohia e te kāwanatanga te toenga whenua e 12.5 eka i a Ngāti Whātua. I te tau 1986 ka kawea e Ngāti Whātua te take o te poraka o Ōrākei ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi.


The city and education

I te huringa o ngā tāone ririki hei tāone nunui i te rau tau atu i 1800, kua tutea kētia ngā Māori mai i ō rātou whenua papatipu. Hei ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, he mea rerekē te haere, te noho rānei o te Māori ki ngā tāone nui. I te tau 1900, e 95 ōrau o te iwi Māori e noho ana ki ngā taiwhenua. Ko ngā Māori ka noho ki ngā tāone i taua wā he ‘hāwhe kāhe’ me kī.

Ki Te Ika-a-Māui, he noho ā-hapū te noho a ngā Māori i te taiwhenua. Ki Te Wai Pounamu, noho ai ngā Māori ki ngā kāika kei ngā paenga tata ki ngā tāone. Tae rawa ki te tekau tau 1930, e 90 ōrau o te iwi Māori e noho taiwhenua tonu ana ki waho o ngā tāone. Me kī, ko te whai i te mātauranga me te rapu kāwanatanga anake ngā take haere ai te Māori ki te tāone.

Te mātauranga

Ko ngā kura tāone i haerea e te Māori he kura hāhi, tamatāne mai, tamawāhine mai. He kaupapa nui hoki ngā akoranga hāhi mō ngā taitamatāne Māori. Atu i te paunga o te rau tau 1800, kua tīmata ētahi Māori ki ngā whare wānanga, hāunga te kore āwhina kia takatū rātou ki ngā akomanga.

Ngā kura tamatāne Māori

I tīmata mai a Hato Tīpene hei kura tuatahi ako i ngā kōtiro Māori. Heoi, ka panoni hei kura tamatāne i te tau 1860. I te tīmatanga ka haere ngā tamatāne ki Te Aute kura ai, heoi i te tekau tau 1920, kua tū te kura tuarua o Hato Tīpene. Orua mai, kua amuamu a te poari mātauranga o Ākarana, te Kaunihera Tāone o Ākarana me ngā Pākehā o Parnell kia tukuna te whenua mō tētahi kura tuatahi a te kāwanatanga. I te tau 1931 ka neke a Hato Tīpene ki Bombay. Ka kati te kura i te tau 2000.

I tīmatahia a Hato Pētera e ngā Mill Hill Fathers. Nō te tau 1928, ka tuwhera ōna kuaha, ā, ko tōna ingoa i taua wā, ko St Peter’s Catechist School. E 13 anake āna ākonga. I te tau 1946, ka riro te mana whakahaere i te kura i a Marist Brothers, ka rēhitatia te kura hei kura tuarua. Nō konā ka hurihia te ingoa, ko Hato Pētera.

Ngā kura tamawāhine Māori

Nā te Tiuka o Ioka (whāia, ko Kingi Hōri te Tuarima) te kura o Kūini Wikitōria i whakatuwhera i te tau 1901. Ko tētahi take i whakatūhia te kura ko te whakaako i ngā wāhine Māori atamai kia moe i ngā tāne Māori atamai kei ngā kura tama Māori.

I whakatūria te Kāreti o Te Wai Pounamu ki Tuahiwi ki te rohe o Waitaha, nō muri ka nekehia ki Ōtautahi. Koinei anake te kura Māori mō ngā kōtiro ki Te Wai Pounamu.

Ngā Māori i ngā whare wānanga

Haere ai ngā ngaio Māori tōmua ki ngā tāone ki te whai i te mātauranga. Ko Te Rangi Hīroa rāua ko Tūtere Wī Repa i ako hei rata ki te whare wānanga o Ōtākou; ko Āpirana Ngata te rōia Māori tuatahi, i whakapōtaehia ki te whare wānanga o Waitaha i te tau 1895. I whakangungu a Edward Ellison hei tākuta ki Ōtākou i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900. Ko tōna tuakana ko Tom Ellison ka tū hei rōia.

Te whakapono me ngā hāhi

I whakangungua ngā Māori hei āpiha o ngā hāhi ki ngā tāone. Ko ētahi kura nui mō te whakapono ko St John’s College me Wesley College, kei Tāmaki. I tuwhera te kura o Wesley i te tau 1848 hei ako i ngā tikanga Karaitiana ki te Māori. I te wā o ngā pakanga whenua ka katia te kura; nō te tau 1876 ka tuwhera anō.

Ngā tapuhi Māori

Ka hau atu hoki ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā tāone ako ai hei nēhi. Ko Akenehi Hei o Te Whānau-a-Apanui me Te Whakatōhea te wahine tuatahi ka eke hei tapuhi. I kuraina a Mabel Mangakāhia ki Auckland Girls’ Grammar me te kura Kūini Wikitōria, ka whiwhi karahipi ki te ako hei tapuhi. I whakangungua ia ki te hohipera o Ākarana, nō te tau 1923 ka puta tōna ihu.

Te kāwantanga, ngā mema paremata

Nā te tōrangapū me te ture ētahi tāngata Māori i kukume ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ko te tikanga me noho ngā Māori e mahi ana ki roto Paremata ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I tua atu, haere ai ngā Māori ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te tautoko i ngā petihana, ki ngā komiti whiriwhiri take Māori, ki te tautoko, te whakahē rānei i ngā pire Paremata. Tērā ētahi kaitōrangapū Māori i tīmata hei kaiwhakamārama reo ki te Paremata, mā te Tari Māori rānei. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1900, tērā ētahi kaiwhakairo i whai mahi i te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa.


Māori migrate to the cities

Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I te tekau tau atu i 1930, e 10 ōrau anake o te taupori Māori e noho ana ki ngā tāone. I roto i ngā tau rua tekau, toru tekau, ka kake tērā ki te e 80 ōrau. I hua ake tēnei āhuatanga nā te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. Nā te Ture Manpower i aki i ngā tāne Māori kīhai i tae ki te pakanga kia haere ki ngā tāone nui mahi ai. Ko ngā wāhine Māori ka tonoa ki ngā wheketere kei ngā tāone mahi ai. Ka whakaritea e te Tari Māori ngā āpiha Māori tokoono hei āwhina i ngā wāhine kei waho atu i ō rātou wā kāinga.

Te heke whai muri i te pakanga

Kia tae ki te tau 1945, neke atu i te e 25 ōrau te taupori Māori e noho tāone ana. Heoi, he tokoiti tonu e noho ana ki ngā tāone nunui. Kotahi ōrau o te taupori o Pōneke he Māori. E rua ōrau o te taupori o Tāmaki he Māori.

Whai muri i te pakanga, ka kaha ake te heke a te Māori ki ngā tāone. Tokomaha ngā hōia Māori ka heke ki ngā tāone ki te whakamahi i ngā mōhiotanga i akona i te wā o te pakanga. Ko etahi ka whakangungu hei māhita, ka tūhono ki ērā kīhai i whakangungua hei kaiako i mua i te pakanga. Tae rawa ki te pokapū o te tekau tau 1950, kua kake te taupori noho tāone ki te e 35 ōrau. I te paunga o te tekau tau, neke atu i te haurua o te iwi Māori e noho tāone ana.

Te hūnuku

I te tau 1960, ka tautoko te Tari Māori i tēnei heke, i runga i tā rātou kaupapa whakanoho tāone. Ka ākina ngā whānau Māori kia whakarerea ō rātou kāinga ka haere ki te mahi i ngā tāone.

I roto i te rima tau, e 399 ngā whānau i nekehia e te tari. Waihoki, nā rātou i āwhina ngā whānau e 485 ki te neke. Tae rawa ki te tau 1966, kua kake te taupori Māori kei ngā tāone ki te e 62 ōrau, i te tau 1990, ki te e 80 ōrau.

Ngā whare Māori

He uaua te rapu whare a te Māori ki ngā tāone. Ka tū ngā momo whare noho ki ngā tāone mō te hunga rangatahi whai mahi. I te tīmatanga, ka noho ngā Māori ki te pokapū taone, he tata hoki ki ngā wāhi mahi – arā ngā wāpu, ngā wheketere, me ngā ahumahi nui.

Ka mahi tahi Te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora me te Tari Māori ki te kimi whare tika mō ngā whānau Māori. Ko te kaupapa a te kāwanatanga he whakanoho i te whānau Māori ki roto i te mātotoro o tauiwi.

Nā te horo o te heke ki ngā tāone, ka tīmata te whakatū I ngā whare maha. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960, ka whakatūhia ngā tapa tāone o Otara, o Māngere, o Te Atatū ki Ākarana, ko Porirua, ko Te Awakairangi, ko Wainuiōmata ki te Whanganui-a-Tara.


Māori adapt to city life

Te taunga ki te tāone

He maha ngā āhuatanga hou ki te Māori i te nekenga ki ngā tāone, ko te kimi mahi, ko te kimi whare, ko te whai mātauranga. Ka tuki rātou ki ētahi tikanga rerekē, ka mutu, he kaha ake ngā tikanga Pākehā, ā, ko te reo Pākehā te reo matua. Ko tētahi rongoā i tēnei, ko te hāpai i ngā tikanga Māori ki ngā tāone. Ka whakatūria ngā karapu, ngā whare karakia me ngā kapa hākinakina Māori.

He wāhi nui tō te Rōpu Wāhine Toko i te Ora, ngā whare karakia, me te Tari Māori i ngā kaupapa whai whare, toko i te ora, me ngā kaunihera ā-iwi.

Ngā kapa haka

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1930 he nui ngā Māori ka heke ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara mahi ai. Ka whakatūria te karapu Māori o Ngāti Pōneke i te tau 1937 hei whakakotahi i ngā taiohi Māori. He rōpū ā-iwi tēnei. I hua ake tō rātou ingoa i a Āpirana Ngata i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua. Ka whakangahau a Ngāti Pōneke i ngā tini manuhiri hei mahi moni mō ngā hōia kei tāwāhi. Nāwai, ka whakatūria ētahi atu ropū, perā i a Ngāti Akarana, me Ngāti Rānana ki Ingarangi.

Te Māori me ngā hāhi

Haere ai ngā Māori ki ngā whare karakia kei reira te tokomaha o te Māori, ki ngā wāhi rānei e kōrerohia ana te reo. Ko ētahi ka whakahaere karakia ki ō rātou kāinga, perā i ngā Mihingare, ngā Katorika, ngā Wēteriana, ngā Rātana, me ngā Ringatū.

Ngā marae tāone

Ka whakatūria ngā marae ki ngā tāone kia taea ai e te Māori te whakahaere i āna ake tikanga. Ko ētahi o ngā marae tāone nei ko Pipitea ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko Ngā Hau e Whā ki Ōtautahi, ko Araiteuru ki Ōtepoti, ko Hoani Waititi ki Tāmaki-makau-rau.

Ka hangaia hoki e ngā Perepitiriana, ngā Mihingare, ngā Katorika hoki ō rātou marae ki roto tāone. Ko ngā tauira ko Tātai Hono (Mihingare) me Te Unga Waka (Katorika) i Tāmaki.

Ko ētahi marae ka pū ki te iwi kotahi, pērā i te marae a Tūhoe ki Tāmaki, i a Te Tira Hou.

Ka tū hoki ngā marae o te mātauranga. I tīmata te kōhanga reo me te kura kaupapa i ngā tāone.

Taura here

Ka tūhono ngā uri o tēnā iwi, o tēnā iwi ki ngā taura here hei whakapūmau i te hononga ki te wā kāinga. Ka hono ēnei taura here ki ngā whakahaerenga me ngā rūnanga o ngā iwi. Ko Te Rūnanga nui o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Upoko o Te Ika te taura here mō ngā uri o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Pōneke. E rua ngā rōpū taura here a Ngāpuhi ki Tāmaki – arā, ko Te Taura Here o Ngāpuhi ki Manurewa me Te Taura Here ki Waitākere.

Ngā manatū tāone

I ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1900, ka whanake ētahi rōpū Māori hei āwhina ana i ngā Māori kei ngā tāone, arā, ko Te Whānau-o-Waipareira (Tāmaki ki te Uru), ko te Manukau Urban Māori Authority (Tāmaki ki te Tonga), ko Te Rūnanga o Kirikiriroa, ko Te Rūnanganui o te Upoko o Te Ika (Te Whanganui-a-Tara) ko Te Rūnanga o Ngā Maata Waka (Ōtautahi).


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Aroha Harris, 'Ngā tāone nui', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-taone-nui/print (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Aroha Harris, published 11 Mar 2010