Kōrero: Ngā taonga puoro

Whārangi 1. Ngā huatau puoro Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā mātāpono turuki

He māmā noa iho ki tā te Māori whakaaro ngā mātāpono e pā ana ki te taonga puoro.

Ki te Māori ko te koiora he ritenga ā-wairua, ā-tinana hoki. Ka whakatangihia te kōauau hei whakaara i te hunga wairua hei whakamāmā i te whānau tamariki me te whakaora tūroro. Ka whakamahia hoki hei whakarata ipo, hei whakakata i te tangata. Nā ēnei tūāhua wairua ōna, he nui te mana o te taonga puoro.

Ko ngā mātua o te ao mārama ko Ranginui e tū iho nei, ko Papatūānuku e takoto ake nei. I roto i te ao Māori he mauri tō ngā mea katoa, nā reira ka whai ingoa tonu te taonga puoro. Ko tā te kaiwaihanga he āta tārei kia whai reo motuhake ia taonga, ka mutu kia ōrite anō ki te tangata.

He whānau tō ia taonga puoro. Ko kōauau mā ka heke mai i te whānau a Raukatauri. Ko ētahi he whānau anō – hei tauira, nō te whānau a Hinepūtehue te poi, inā rā he whiowhio tōna mahi, e hangarite ana ki te hue. Heoi ka āwhiowhio anō te poi, he momo nā te whānau a Tāwhirimātea, atua o ngā hau.

Ngā taonga puoro me ngā atua

Ko te rangi o te waiata, ko Rangi e tū iho nei. E ai ki te whakaaro ka maiangi ake ngā rangi ki a Rangi. Ko ngā manawataki a Papatūānuku e tuku ana i te paoro. Ka mutu he atua tonu atu te taonga puoro ki te Māori, inā rā he uri nā Rangi rāua ko Papa. 

Ngā puoro tūturu

Ki ngā tūpuna i ngā rā o mua, ka kore ana he kupu, ehara te waiata i te waiata. Ka whakakotahi ana te rangi ki te taki, kātahi ka whai kupu te waiata hei whakaū i ngā kare ā-roto me ngā mahi hoki. Mā te reo o te taonga puoro me ngā whakatautau hei tautoko i te waiata.

Ko te taonga puoro tētahi o ngā oranga nui o te kāinga Māori i mua. Ka mutu ka whai take anō te tangi o te taonga puoro ki te whakaora tūroro, te tuku karere, te waitohu taumata tangata, me ētahi atu kaupapa nui. E whakarehurehu tonu ana te reo o te taonga puoro, ka mutu e ngaro tonu ana ngā tikanga e pā ana ki ētahi.

Ka takea mai ngā tūāhua puoro Māori i ngā kare ā-roto a ngā atua Māori. He maha ngā waiata mōteatea e pā ana ki te hahani, te tangi, te mokemoke, te koronga, te harikoa, te āio me te aroha. 

Te puoro, te kai, te aroha

He rite tonu ngā puoro taketake Māori ki ō te Pākehā, arā, ko te whakawai i te ipo tētahi kaupapa nui o te taonga puoro Maori. E ai ki a Te Pēhi, ‘Ina mahia e te tangata tāna whio, ko tōna tino whāinga he whakawai i te tau o tōna ate.’ Pēnā he koretake ia ki te whio, ka noho rāua ko tētahi mātanga whio ki i roto i te whare pouri, ā, ka whakataruna nōna te reo whio rā. Ki te whakaponotia tana mahi māminga, ka takoha ia i te taonga, i te kākahu, i te rākau, i te tahua kai ki te mātanga whio rā.’1

Ngā momo taonga puoro

Inā noa te whānui o ngā taonga puoro Māori. Heoi kāore he kiri tarau, ka mutu ko te kū anake te taonga puoro i whai miro. Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi ōna ake ingoa mō ngā momo taonga puoro. 

Ngā momo tangi

Nā te mea he mauri motuhake tō te taonga puoro, kīhai i taurite tētahi taonga ki tētahi atu. Ka mutu i whakaritea ngā puare kia ōrite te whānui ki te āputa i waenga i ngā mona o te kaipupuri, ki tētahi kāhui whetū rānei. Mā tēnei momo whakatangi ka puta he reo kē. Ko ētahi taonga puoro he reo ngāwari mō ngā whare iti, ko ētahi ka pohū. 

Ngā orowāiti

Kīhai te Māori i whai i ngā huinga tangi puoro Pākehā. Ko ngā nekehanga i tēnā oro ki tēnā oro he semitone, engari he rerekē ngā huinga (scales). He tino tau te taonga puoro mō tēnei tūmomo huinga tangi. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Elsdon Best, Games and pastimes of the Māori: an account of various exercises, games and pastimes of the natives of New Zealand, as practised in former times: including some information concerning their vocal and instrumental music. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1976 (originally published 1925), p. 253. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Brian Flintoff, 'Ngā taonga puoro - Ngā huatau puoro Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-taonga-puoro/page-1 (accessed 10 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Brian Flintoff, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014