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Māori musical instruments – taonga puoro

by Brian Flintoff

Nō te paunga o te rautau 1900 ka rangona anō te reo o ngā pūoro, o te kōauau, o te pūrerehua. 


Māori musical concepts

Ngā mātāpono turuki

He māmā noa iho ki tā te Māori whakaaro ngā mātāpono e pā ana ki te taonga puoro.

Ki te Māori ko te koiora he ritenga ā-wairua, ā-tinana hoki. Ka whakatangihia te kōauau hei whakaara i te hunga wairua hei whakamāmā i te whānau tamariki me te whakaora tūroro. Ka whakamahia hoki hei whakarata ipo, hei whakakata i te tangata. Nā ēnei tūāhua wairua ōna, he nui te mana o te taonga puoro.

Ko ngā mātua o te ao mārama ko Ranginui e tū iho nei, ko Papatūānuku e takoto ake nei. I roto i te ao Māori he mauri tō ngā mea katoa, nā reira ka whai ingoa tonu te taonga puoro. Ko tā te kaiwaihanga he āta tārei kia whai reo motuhake ia taonga, ka mutu kia ōrite anō ki te tangata.

He whānau tō ia taonga puoro. Ko kōauau mā ka heke mai i te whānau a Raukatauri. Ko ētahi he whānau anō – hei tauira, nō te whānau a Hinepūtehue te poi, inā rā he whiowhio tōna mahi, e hangarite ana ki te hue. Heoi ka āwhiowhio anō te poi, he momo nā te whānau a Tāwhirimātea, atua o ngā hau.

Ngā taonga puoro me ngā atua

Ko te rangi o te waiata, ko Rangi e tū iho nei. E ai ki te whakaaro ka maiangi ake ngā rangi ki a Rangi. Ko ngā manawataki a Papatūānuku e tuku ana i te paoro. Ka mutu he atua tonu atu te taonga puoro ki te Māori, inā rā he uri nā Rangi rāua ko Papa. 

Ngā puoro tūturu

Ki ngā tūpuna i ngā rā o mua, ka kore ana he kupu, ehara te waiata i te waiata. Ka whakakotahi ana te rangi ki te taki, kātahi ka whai kupu te waiata hei whakaū i ngā kare ā-roto me ngā mahi hoki. Mā te reo o te taonga puoro me ngā whakatautau hei tautoko i te waiata.

Ko te taonga puoro tētahi o ngā oranga nui o te kāinga Māori i mua. Ka mutu ka whai take anō te tangi o te taonga puoro ki te whakaora tūroro, te tuku karere, te waitohu taumata tangata, me ētahi atu kaupapa nui. E whakarehurehu tonu ana te reo o te taonga puoro, ka mutu e ngaro tonu ana ngā tikanga e pā ana ki ētahi.

Ka takea mai ngā tūāhua puoro Māori i ngā kare ā-roto a ngā atua Māori. He maha ngā waiata mōteatea e pā ana ki te hahani, te tangi, te mokemoke, te koronga, te harikoa, te āio me te aroha. 

Te puoro, te kai, te aroha

He rite tonu ngā puoro taketake Māori ki ō te Pākehā, arā, ko te whakawai i te ipo tētahi kaupapa nui o te taonga puoro Maori. E ai ki a Te Pēhi, ‘Ina mahia e te tangata tāna whio, ko tōna tino whāinga he whakawai i te tau o tōna ate.’ Pēnā he koretake ia ki te whio, ka noho rāua ko tētahi mātanga whio ki i roto i te whare pouri, ā, ka whakataruna nōna te reo whio rā. Ki te whakaponotia tana mahi māminga, ka takoha ia i te taonga, i te kākahu, i te rākau, i te tahua kai ki te mātanga whio rā.’1

Ngā momo taonga puoro

Inā noa te whānui o ngā taonga puoro Māori. Heoi kāore he kiri tarau, ka mutu ko te kū anake te taonga puoro i whai miro. Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi ōna ake ingoa mō ngā momo taonga puoro. 

Ngā momo tangi

Nā te mea he mauri motuhake tō te taonga puoro, kīhai i taurite tētahi taonga ki tētahi atu. Ka mutu i whakaritea ngā puare kia ōrite te whānui ki te āputa i waenga i ngā mona o te kaipupuri, ki tētahi kāhui whetū rānei. Mā tēnei momo whakatangi ka puta he reo kē. Ko ētahi taonga puoro he reo ngāwari mō ngā whare iti, ko ētahi ka pohū. 

Ngā orowāiti

Kīhai te Māori i whai i ngā huinga tangi puoro Pākehā. Ko ngā nekehanga i tēnā oro ki tēnā oro he semitone, engari he rerekē ngā huinga (scales). He tino tau te taonga puoro mō tēnei tūmomo huinga tangi. 

Footnotes
    • Elsdon Best, Games and pastimes of the Māori: an account of various exercises, games and pastimes of the natives of New Zealand, as practised in former times: including some information concerning their vocal and instrumental music. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1976 (originally published 1925), p. 253. Back

Melodic instruments – the family of Rangi

Te whānau a Raukatauri

Ko Raukatauri te atua o te pūtōrino. He pērā rawa te nui o tōna aroha mō tōna pūtōrino ka huri ia hei pepe kia kore ai rāua e noho momotu. E noho tonu ana ia i roto i te pūtōrino.

Ko te whānau a Raukatauri te whānau nui rawa o ngā momo taonga puoro. E whitu mirimita te roa o ētahi, ā, neke atu i te 700 mirimita te nui o ētahi.

He pūkenga mana nui te whakatangi taonga puoro i roto i te ao Māori. He maha ngā kōrero mō ngā tohunga whakatangi e kōingotia ana e te wahine. Ko te rangatira o Te Arawa ko Tūtānekai tērā i whakawai i a Hinemoa i te tangi o tōna pūtōrino. Heoi, e ai ki ngā kaumātua o Te Arawa he koretake a Tūtānekai ki te whakatangi pūtōrino, ā, ko tōna hoa ko Tiki kē te kaiwhakatangi. 

Tohunga taonga puoro

Ko tētahi o ngā tohunga whakamutunga o te ao kōhatu ki te whakatangi i te koauau me te pūtōrino ko Paeroa Wineera (nō Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Toa). I te tau 1895 pea, e 12 ōna pakeke, ka ākona ia ki te whakatangi e tōna matua kēkē, te tohunga whakamutunga o tērā takiwā ki te whakatangi taonga puoro. I te tau 1960 neke atu ia i te 80 tau, ka hopungia tōna reo me tāna  whakatangi i tāna kōauau. Ki a ia kāore i titoa he waiata mō te kōauau, engari ka kīnakitia atu ngā rangi o te kaiwaiata.

Te Pūtōrino

Ko Aotearoa anake te wāhi e kitea ai te pūtōrino. He kōekoeko ngā pito, Anō nei tōna hanga ko te tūngoungou pepe a Raukatauri. Kei tētahi pito he puare, ā, kei waenganui he puare nui. He mea pupuhi te pūtōrino mā te taha o te puare kia puta ai te reo o Raukatauri. Ki te pū pērā i te tētere, kua puta mai te reo o te tāne. Ko te puare tuatoru o waenganui, koirā te reo o te tamāhine muna a Raukatauri, ko Wheke. Koia te atua o ngā oro mumu i te ngahere. 

Te Kōauau

Ko te kōauau te taonga nui i ngā wā o mua, inā rā ka mahia ki te rākau, ki te rimu, ki te kōiwi toroa, ki te kōiwi o te tangata me te moa. E 100 mirimita ki te 385 mirimita tōna roa, ā, e toru ngā puare e kīia ana he wenewene. Mā ngā wiriwiri o te ārero me ngā tametame o ngā ngutu hei whakaputa haere i ngā oro rerekē anō. He mea whakatangi te kōauau ki ngā whakangahau, ki ngā whakaora tūroro, ki ngā tangihanga me ngā mahi whakamahu mamae. Ka whai kupu anō ngā puoro o te kōauau, engari me tohunga rawa e oho ai ōna momo tangi.

Te Pōrutu, whio and rehu

He roa ake te pōrutu me te whio i te kōauau, ka mutu kei runga ake tētahi wenewene i tōna rekereke. Ko te āhua ia he kaha ake te whakamahi o ēnei taonga puoro ki Te Waipounamu, ā, e rongonui ana mō te piki me te heke o ōna tangi.

He ōrite te rehu ki te pōrutu, engari kāre e kitea nuitia. Ko te ngutu kei raro kē, ā, he ōrite ki te whakatangi i te kōauau o Ūropi. 

Te Nguru

He poto te hanga o te nguru. E kōaro ana te pito ki raro. Ka mahia te nguru ki te kōhatu, ki te rākau, te rei paraoa rānei. Ko ētahi ka āhei te whakatangi mā te pōngāihu. He tapu ake te hā mai i te ihu. 

Te Pūmotomoto

Ko te āhua ia kua kore katoa ngā pūmotomoto tūturu o ngā kōrero tuku iho. I whakatangihia te pūmotomoto ki runga ake i te tamaiti kei roto tonu i te kōpū o tōna whāea, i muri atu hoki i te katinga o te pūmotomoto o te ūpoko. Ko tēnei tikanga he whakatō i te mauri o ngā kōrero ki roto ki te tamaiti. I ēnei rā kua hanga ētahi tāngata i ētahi pūmotomoto, he mea tauira i ērā i roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho. 

Te whānau a Hinepūtehue

Nō te wehenga o Rangi rāua ko Papa rangona ai te puoro tuatahi, arā, nō te tohenga o te riri nui a ngā atua kia wehea ō rātou mātua. Ko tētahi o rātou, ko te tamāhine tonu a Tāne, ko Hinepūtehue. Ka tangohia e ia te riri o ngā riri o ngā atua, ā, ka whakarotu i te riri mā ōna oro mārire. Nāwai ka mōhiotia koia te atua o ngā hue.

Ko ētahi hue iti ka mahia hei kōauau pongāihu. E toru ngā wenewene ka rawekehia kia puta ai te rōreka me te waiwaiā.

Ko ētahi hue ka mahia hei poi āwhiowhio hei whakatari manu, me ētahi atu kaupapa. Kotahi te aho, e rua ngā puare. Ka huri āwhiowhiohia kia puta te reo tīhau. Ko ētahi anō hue ka purua ki ōna kākano, ki te kirikiri rānei hei hue puruwai, hue rarā rānei.

Ko ngā hue nui ko ngā hue puruhau. Ka tapahia te kauru o te hue ka tīkarohia ngā kākano. Mā te pupuhi i te puare ka puta tōna hū pērā i te kākāpō. 

Te whānau a Tangaroa – ngā taonga anga moana me ētahi atu taonga whakatangitangi 

I muri mai i te pikinga o Tāne ki te toi o ngā rangi ka whakatangihia ngā pūtātara e rua hei pāho i te rironga i a ia o ngā kete o te mātauranga. Ko ngā kete ēnei nā Iomatuakore i hoatu ki a ia. Ka hangaia tēnei taonga ki te anga o te pūtātara o Tangaroa, me te ngutu rākau mai i a Tāne. 

Te Pūtātara

He mea tapahi te pito whāiti o te pūtātara ka whītiki ki te ngutu rākau. He reo pohū tō te pūtātara, e rongohia ana ki tawhiti. Ko ōna rauemi he pū mai i te atua o te moana a Tangaroa, he rākau mai i te atua o te ngahere a Tāne Mahuta. Ko te rongomau tēnei i waenganui i ngā whānau o ngā atua nei. Ko ētahi tauira kei roto i ngā whare taonga he poi ōna hei mokonaha. Ki te whakatangi tītahatia te pūtātara ka puta te reo o Hinemokemoke. Nā reira he taha tāne, he taha wahine tō tēnei taonga. 

Te Tetere

He nui ngā rauemi i mahia ai ngā momo tētere. Ko tētahi ka hangaia ki te harakeke, he mea toetoe kia haurua. Kātahi ka tākaikai hei koeko. Ka whakamahia te tētere i te wā e mata tonu ana te rau. Ko te tikanga o te tētere he karanga i te manuhiri tūārangi, he whakaōhiti hoki i ngā toa, pērā i te piukara. 

Te Pūkāea

He rākau te pūkāea, e 2.5 mita te roa. Ka wāhia te poro mataī, kātahi ka karohia a roto, ā, ka herea tahitia ki te akaaka o te kiekie. Kei tētahi pito whāiti ka whakairohia te ngutu, kei tētahi ka whānui haere. I ētahi wā ka tāpirihia ngā mātiti ki te pito kia ōrite ki te korokoro o te tangata. He pū pakanga te pūkāea, ka whakatangihia e ngā tūtei hei whakapāoho i te haerenga mai o te hoariri, hei whakaatu rānei kei te mataara te iwi. Ka whakamahia anō te pūkāea hei whakapāho ki te whakatuwheratanga o ētahi taiopenga. 


The family of Papa – rhythmic instruments

Te whānau Tumutumu

He mea hanga te tumutumu ki te kōhatu, ki te rākau rānei. He mea pākuru te tumutumu ki te kōhatu, ki te rākau anō. Ko te maramara pakohe ka mau ki te kapu o te ringa, kātahi ka tātā kia puta ai ōna momo tangi. Ko te tōkere he maramara rākau, anga rānei ka puritia ki te kapu o te ringa. Nā te mea he iti ētahi pahū, he tohu tērā i whakamahia te pahū i roto i ngā puoro.

Ko te hue puruwai me te hue rarā he taonga puoro whakararā, he kākano, he kirikiri rānei kei roto. He whakapapa maha ō te hue. I takea mai te hue i te whānau a Hinepūtehue, engari he uri hoki ia nō te whānau a Papa.

Te Pākuru

He rākau whakairo roa te pākuru, ka pūhia e te waha kia puta te oro tatangi, ka paopao hoki ki te rākau kia puta hoki tōna oro pā. I te paunga o te rautau 1800 ka tuhi a Tawa ‘he maha ngā kaimahi tohunga e tū ā-kapa ana, ā, e tīemiemi ana i ō rātou tinana me te taki paopao i ngā tātā … Inā te ataahua o tēnei tū.1  Ko te pākuru me te poi ngā taonga puoro ka whakamahia e te tokomaha. 

Te Rōria

He mea hanga te rōria i te aka o te kareao. E 8 ki te 10 henemita te roa. Ko tētahi pito ka mau ki te waha, ka mau ki ngā niho rānei, ā, ka tākirikiri mā ngā mati o te ringa wātea. Pēnā he tohunga te tangata ki te rōria, ka āhei ia te whakakōrero i taua taonga. 

Te Kū

He taonga puoro te kū, kotahi tōna  miro. He mea tātā te kū ki te tira iti, ā, ka whakamahia te waha hei whakaraweke i tōna tangi pērā i te pākuru me te rōria. 

Te whānau o Hineteiwaiwa

Ko Hine-te-iwaiwa te atua o ngā toi wahine pērā i te poi. Ko rātou ko ana tamāhine ērā te tira whakangahau tuatahi. He waiata, he haka, he kanikani te mahi. 

Te Poi

Ko te poi te taonga puoro Māori e rongonui ana tōna takitaki – he mea here ki te poi te aho hei piu, hei oro pātukituki, pākurukuru hoki. Ko te ope wāhine tonu ka kawe i te poi, inā noa atu tōna ataahua. 

Te kaitō mai i te marangai

Nō te tekau tau 1920 ka whakamārama te kaumātua o Ngāti Porou a Tuta Nihoniho mō te whakatangi tūrorohū. Ka whiu te kaiwhakatangi i te kapunga pungarehu ki te tonga (ki te pito marangai) kātahi ka piu haere i te tūrorohū kia puta ai tōna tangi rerehua. I taua wā ka whakapohane ia ki te tonga, ā, ka tuku i tāna karakia hahani. ‘Mā tēnei mahi rerekē…e hua ai he marangai ki te tonga.’2 

Te whānau a Tāwhirimātea

Ko te atua o ngā hau ko Tāwhirimātea. Kāore he tinana o ngā tamariki a Tāwhirimātea, he iwi wairua kē rātou. Ko ēnei momo taonga puoro ka kawe i ngā wawata a te kaiwhakatangi ki ngā hau e whā. 

Ko tā te pūrerehua, te tūrorohū rānei, he tangi wawau ina piua tōna aho. E kī ana ngā kōrero ka āhei tōna karanga te whakaara i te ua, i te roimata me te kai mai i ngā wāhi huna. 

He hanga kōpae te porotiti ka takaamiomio ki runga i tētahi aho. Ina takaamiomio tēnei taonga puoro e mōhiotia ana he kōrorohū. Ina pūhia te porotiti ka kīia he kōrerohua. Ka whakamahia hoki ēnei hei whakaora tūroro.  Ko ōna orooro tōiriiri ka whakawātea i te hūpē mai i ngā pōngāihu o te tamaiti, ka rongoā hoki i te kaikōiwi. 

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Mervyn McLean, Māori music. Tāmakimakaurau: Auckland University Press, 1996, p. 172. Back
    • Elsdon Best, Games and pastimes of the Māori: an account of various exercises, games and pastimes of the natives of New Zealand, as practised in former times: including some information concerning their vocal and instrumental music. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1976 (originally published 1925), p. 294. Back

Decline and revival of Māori instruments

Te paheketanga

I muri i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ka tāmate haere ngā taonga puoro. He maha ngā kaupapa i pēnei ai. Ko te nuinga o ngā ritenga Māori tūturu i whakatangihia ai te taonga puoro ka ngaro i te putanga o Te Rongopai. Ka mahue kau iho ngā taonga puoro. Ka kawea ngā puoro pērā i te ‘jew’s harp’, he rite ki te rōria. He tere tonu te Māori ki te kapo ake i ngā taonga puoro hou pērā i te patio, te piano, te paipa-pēke ngā taonga pēne parāhe tae rawa atu ki te rakuraku.

Nā te ongeonge kau o te taonga puoro ka kitea nuitia ki ngā whare taonga me ngā ringa o te hunga tūmataiti. Nō muri rawa ka ako anō te Māori ki te whakakōrero i ēnei taonga toi. 

Te pohū me te tīhau

I te tau 1994 ka pōhiringia ngā mātanga taonga puoro a Hirini Melbourne rāua ko Richard Nunns ki te hopu i ngā puoro o ā rāua taonga puoro ki runga kōpae. Ko te hua ko te kōpae puoro o Te kū te whē i hopungia ki te taiwhanga o Rattle Records ki Tāmaki-makaurau i roto i te rangi me te hāwhe. 19 ngā taonga puoro i whakamahia, ā, he nui te tāruatanga o ngā oro ki ngā hōtaka irirangi, whakaata maha. I kaha whakamahia tēnei kōpae puoro hei whakaatu i te taha Māori.1

Ko Haumanu

I te tau 1991 ka tū te hui a Ngā Pua Waihanga ki Te Araroa. Ko ētahi i tae ki te hui, ko Hirini Melbourne, he tohunga tito waiata, he tohunga puoro, he tohunga reo nō Ngāi Tūhoe; ko Richard Nunns, he kaiako, he kaiwaiata jazz; ko Brian Flintoff, he kaiwhakairo, kaihanga taonga puoro nō Whakatū. Nā Hirini te pōhiri ki a Nunns rāua ko Flintoff kia taki whakaara ake i te reo o ngā taonga puoro tūturu. I runga i te tauawhi a te hunga pakeke, ka huia mai e Melbourne ngā tohunga o te motu kia whai hua ai te whakaoranga o te waihanga, me te whakatangi, i te taonga puoro. Ko Haumanu te ingoa o te kāhui, arā, ko te hau o ngā manu. 

Ngā mahara tākirikiri

Neke atu i te 80 ngā taonga puoro a Richard Nunns, tae atu ki ētahi kōauau e rua i hangaia ki te kōiwi tangata. Ki tāna, ‘I whakatangi au i tētahi o ēnei kōauau ki te ana kōiwi i te karamatamata ki Maungapōhatu.’ (kei te manawa o Te Urewera). Kua roa a Nunns mā, arā te hunga ngaio,  e whakatangi ana i ngā taonga puoro ki ngā hau kāinga Māori puta noa i te motu. ‘Kua haramai ngā kuia ki a rātou, ka tangi, ka hoki mahara ki ngā oro kua roa e rehurehu ana i a rātou, āpānoa ngā oro tatangi a Hirini rāua ko Richard.2

Te taonga puoro i te tau ruamano

Nō tērā rautau ka rangona ngā oro motuhake o te taonga puoro Māori ki ngā whakaata, ngā kiriata, ngā atamira me ngā taiopenga. Kātahi ka tuwhera ngā ororongo pērā i a Te kū te whē me Te Hekenga a Rangi ki te marea. He nui ngā kaiwaiata o te ao ka whakamahi i te taonga puoro i ā rātou mahi, pērā i a Moana Maniapoto, ngā kaiwaiata jazz a Jeff Henderson rāua ko Evan Parker, me ngā kaitito a Gillian Whitehead rāua ko John Psathas. Otirā kua ora pū te taonga puoro hei taonga ora i ēnei rā.

Footnotes
    • Peter Beatson, ‘Richard Nunns: the renaissance of traditional Māori music.’ Music in the Air 16 (2003), p. 28. Back
    • ‘Richard Nunns: the renaissance of traditional Māori music,’ p. 25. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Brian Flintoff, 'Māori musical instruments – taonga puoro', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-taonga-puoro/print (accessed 11 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Brian Flintoff, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014