Kōrero: Ngā Toi Hōu

I kapohia ake e te Māori ngā ao e rua, kia hua ake he toi whakahirahira rawa, nō Aotearoa. 

Story by Jonathan Mane-Wheoki
Te āhua nui: Te Hono ki Hawaiki, ki Te Papa Tongarewa

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Te tīmatanga 

Tere tonu te whāwhā a te Māori ki ngā rākau a te Pākehā mō ana toi. Nō te rautau 1900 kua whakamahi ētahi i ngā papa peita. Ka mutu he nui ngā mahi a Ta Āpirana Ngata mā i ora anō ai te whakairo me te mahi raranga. 

Nō muri tonu i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao he huhua te iwi Māori ka neke ki ngā Tāone, ā, ka whakauru ki ngā akoranga toi i ngā whare wānanga. Ka whai wāhi hoki ētahi ki te kaupapa ako a Gordon Tovey, arā, kia whakangungua te kaiako kura tuarua ki ngā mahi toi. Ka hua ake ētahi tino mātanga, tae atu ki ō rātou tauira.

Toi hou, toi tāukiuki rānei?

Nō te takiwā o ngā tekau tau 1950-1960 ka māpuna ake te toi hou a te Māori. Nō reira tīmata ai te whāwhā o tētahi ringa ki ngā mātauranga toi o te ao. Ko Ralph Hōtere rātou ko Paratene Matchitt ko Cliff Whiting mā ētahi ka tīmata ki te whenumi i ngā toi tawhito a te Māori ki ngā tūāhua toi hou. Ka wānangatia te take i te tau 1960, i te hui mō ngā tohunga toi Māori o te motu. Ka hua i tērā hui ko te Taiopenga Toi Māori i tū i te tau 1963. Ko ētahi i whakahē ki te taumau i ngā toi ake a te Māori ki ngā tūāhua toi hou. 

Ngā whanaketanga hou

Nō te tau 1975 ka tū te hui tuatahi a te Kāhui o ngā Kaitā me ngā Kaituhi Māori. Ia tau ka tū te hui i runga marae. Mai i te tekau tau 1970 ka hāngai ngā toi ki te ao tōrangapū me te Tiriti o Waitangi. 

I te tau 1984 ka tū te whakakitenga o Te Māori ki Amerika. Heoi kāore i tāpiritia atu ngā toi Māori hou. Nō te hokinga mai o Te Māori kātahi ka whakaaturia hoki ngā toi hou i te taha. 

Nō te paunga o te tekau tau 1970 ka ea ake ngā kaitā wāhine pērā i a Robyn Kahukiwa rātou ko Emare Karaka, ko Shona Rapira Davies. Nō te tīmatanga o ngā tau iwa tekau ka huri haere te whakakitenga toi Māori hou ki Amerika. He tawhito, he hou hoki ngā raranga i whakaaturia. 

He kura ukiuki te mahi uku nō Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nō te taenga ki Aotearoa ka ngaro i te Māori ēnei pūkenga. Nō te tekau tau 1950 kātahi anō ka tīmata anō te whakamiha atu ki ngā mahi uku i ngā mahi a ngā iwi taketake o Amerika. 

Te Tau Ruamano

Mai i te tekau tau 1990 ka puta mai ngā autaia i te whare wānanga pērā i a Shane Cotton rātou ko Lisa Reihana, ko Peter Robinson me Michael Parekōwhai, ā, tau ana ki te ao. Kātahi ka tūhonohono haere ngā kaitoi Māori ki ō rātou hoa taketake o tāwāhi. 

I te tekau tau 1990 ka whakatūria ngā hōtaka ako i ngā takiura me ngā wānanga. Ka whakatūria ngā wharenui hou, ā, ko te marae i Te Papa Tongarewa tētahi tauira o ngā mahi hou. 

I ngā tau rua mano, e tiketike tonu mai ana ngā Māori i roto i te ao toi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, 'Ngā Toi Hōu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-hou (accessed 25 June 2019)

Story by Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, published 22 Oct 2014