Kōrero: Ngā tuhinga ōpaki

Whārangi 2. Te whanaketanga o ngā tuhinga paki

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Nō te rautau 1800 noa te Māori ka ako ki te pānui, me kī, i kune hohoro mai ngā tuhinga paki i te rautau mai i 1900. I roto i te rautau ka panoni te iwi mai i te  kōrero tuku iho, ā, ka ako ki te tuhi kōrero paki. He uaua kia riro mai he pukapuka, kia whai wāhi hoki ki te pānui me te tuhituhi. He wāhi nui tēnei pakanga a te tangata whenua, kia whai wāhi ki te ao pukapuka, nō te rapu ōritenga, me te whakaū i tō rātou rangatiratanga.

Te Ao Hou

He mea whakaputa te maheni o Te Ao Hou e Te Tari Māori. I te tuatahi ko Erik Schwimmer te ētita. He huarahi tēnei i puta ai te tokomaha o ngā tuhinga paki a te Māori. Mai i te Hakihea o te tau 1955, ka whakaputa a Te Ao Hou i ngā tuhinga ōpaki a ngā kaituhi Māori pērā i a Arapera Blank rātou ko Rowley Habib me Patricia Grace. Ko te kaituku kōrero ki Te Ao Hou, ko Pat Baker te Māori tuatahi kia whakaputa i tāna ake pakimaero, arā, ko Behind the tattooed face i te tau 1975.

Ko J. C. Sturm

Ko Jacquie Sturm o Te Whakatōhea me Taranaki, te whāea o te pakimaero Māori. Ko ia te kaituhi Māori tuatahi ki Te Ao Hou, kia whai tohu wānanga. Nōna e tuhi ana e kimikimi tonu ana ia i te tūturutanga o tēnei mea te pakimaero Māori, ā, he uaua ki te whakaputa ki roto i te ao pāpāho a te Pākehā. Ko tāna tuhinga ‘For all the saints’, te pakimaero reo Ingarihi tuatahi kia puta i roto ki Te Ao Hou nā te Māori i tuhi.

Ka whakamātautau a Sturm i ngā momo tuhinga, ā, ka puta tōna ake reo i ngā tuhinga paki poto. Inā kē te tokomaha o āna tuhinga i tuhi ai, engari nā ngā pōrarurarutanga, nō te tau 1983 rā anō ka puta tāna pukapuka tuatahi a The house of the talking cat. Ko te rōpū mana wahine ko Spiral Collective ngā kaiwhakaputa.

Ko Witi Ihimaera

Ko Witi Ihimaera (nō Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki me Rongowhakaata) te kaituhi Māori tuatahi ki te whakaputa pukapuka tuhi poto, pakimaero hoki. Ko tāna pukapuka tuatahi, a Pounamu, pounamu, he kohinga mahara nō mua i te hekenga nui a te Māori ki ngā taone. He mahinga hautipua tēnei ki ngā kaituhi Māori o te wā. I whakatinana a Ihimaera i ngā pūmanawa e ora ai te kaituhi Māori.

I riro i tana pakimaero tuatahi a Tangi (1973) te tohu toa ā-tau mō ngā pukapuka a Wattie, ka mutu i te tau i mua atu ka eke a Pounamu, pounamu ki te tūranga tuatoru. I reira kua piki atu ia hei whetū mārama i roto i te ao pakimaero. I te tau 1982 ka ētitangia e Ihimaera te pukapuka o Into the world of light, he kohinga o ngā tuhinga Māori.

Tana rāhui i tāna ake mahi tuhituhi

I te tau 1975 ka whakatau a Ihimaera ki te whakamutu i āna tuhinga. E mea ana ia i tirohia āna mahi hei whakaahua tūturu o te ao Māori. Ki a ia, nō te ao kōhatu rawa tōna titiro. Nō te tau 1986 rā anō ka whakaputaina e ia tōna pukapuka whai i muri.

Mai i te tekau tau 1980 ka puta nga tuhinga awe tōrangapū, ā, ko The matriarch (1986) tērā, i whakaarahia ake ai ngā kōrero e pā ana ki te poropiti o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ki a Te Kooti. I te tau 1997 ka puta tōna pakimaero e pā ana ki te poropiti o Tūhoe, ki a Rua Kēnana. I tōna wā he tangata wehi a Te Rua ki te Pākehā, engari nāwai ka kōrerotia a ia ki roto ki ngā pakimaero.

Ka tuhi anō a Ihimaero mō te takatāpui me te pakanga i Whitinamu, me tana mahi nui ki te whakahou i āna tuhinga o mua. Ko tōna pakimaero a The whale rider tērā i momoho hei kiriata i te tau 2002. 

Ko Patricia Grace

Rite tonu ki a Witi Ihimaera mā, i tīmata a Patricia Grace (nō Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Raukawa me Te Āti Awa) ki te maheni o Te Ao Hou. Ko tāna tuhinga tuatahi ko The dream (1966). Ko tōna whakairo a Waiariki te kohinga kōrero tuatahi nā tētahi wahine Māori. 

Te rongonui i te ao

I te tau 2008 ka tohua a Patricia Grace ki te tohu o Neudstadt mō ngā tuhituhi. Kotahi noa iho te tohu nui ake tōna mana, ko te Nobel Prize tērā. E pā ana te tohu Neudstadt ki ngā mahi katoa o te kaiwhakamānawa.

Ka tukituki ia ki ngā kaupapa e pā ana ki te moe manene i roto i tāna pukapuka o Mutuwhenua: the moon sleeps (1978); ki te murunga o ngā whenua i roto i tana pukapuka a Pōtiki (1986), me te whakahere o te Māori ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao i roto i te pukapuka o Tu (2004). I riro i a Tu te tohu Mētara Deutz me te tohu pakimaero toa ki ngā tohu pukapuka o Montana. He maha ngā pukapuka tamariki i titoa e Grace. He tino kaituhi ia, kua whakawhiwhia ki ngā honore mahi, ahakoa i te kāinga, i tāwāhi. 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Jeffrey Paparoa Holman, 'Ngā tuhinga ōpaki - Te whanaketanga o ngā tuhinga paki', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tuhinga-opaki/page-2 (accessed 18 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Jeffrey Paparoa Holman, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014