Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Māori fiction – ngā tuhinga paki

by Jeffrey Paparoa Holman

Nō te tekau tau 1950 rā anō ka maiangi ake ngā tuhinga paki a te Māori. Mai i tērā wā, ā, mohoa noa nei kua tū whakahī ngā kaituhi Māori ki te atamira o te motu me te ao katoa. Ko Witi Ihimaera rāua ko Patricia Grace tērā i whakaputa pukapuka i te tekau tau 1970, ā, i te tau 1985 ka riro i a Keri Hulme te tohu Booker Prize.  


Roots of Māori fiction

Nō te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi ka eke  ngā pukapuka paki o Aotearoa ki ngā taumata teitei o te ao, arā, i ngā tuhinga paki a Katherine Mansfield. Nō te tekau tau 1950 rawa ka puta tētahi whakaputanga Māori.  

Ngā tūāpapa

He mea tuku ā-waha te kōrero tuku iho a te Māori. Nō te rautau 1800 rā anō ka tīmata te tuhituhi a ngā mihinare me ngā kaimātai momo tangata i ngā pūrākau me ngā pakiwaitara a te Māori. I tuku kōrero atu te Māori ki ngā Pākehā pēnei i a Hōri Kerei rāua ko Te Pēhi. Ko ngā tuhinga nui a te Māori i hāngai ki ngā niupepa Māori, ngā tuhinga tātai kōrero o nehe, me ngā tuhinga e pā ana ki ngā hāhi, pērā i te Pai Mārire, te Ringatū, i te Iharaira me te Rātana.

Ka noho ko ēnei tuhinga te tūāpapa mō ngā kaipānui Māori o muri.

Te taenga tōmuri mai o te pakimaero

He tōmuri te tae o ngā tuhinga paki ki ngā koroni, nā te mea, me mātua haere te tangata ki te kura ki te ako ki te pānui pukapuka, kātahi anō ka āhei te tuhi, te pānui i ngā pukapuka pēnei. 

Te rironga o te reo

I maumahara a Mihi Edwards ki tōna rīringa e te kaiako mōna i kōrero Māori ki te kura i te tekau tau 1920. ‘Ka tonoa au ki mua o te karāhe, ā, ka kohetengia au kia kaua au e kōrero Māori anō i te kura. Kātahi ka patua ōku waewae. Tangi hotuhotu ana ahau. Nā tētahi au i whāki atu, nā te mea kāore ngā kaiako i reira. I whakatūpatongia au e Hone engari i wareware i a au tērā tohutohu āna. Mai i tērā wā, ka oati au e kore anō au e kōrero Māori ki te kura.’1

I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 e tītoko ake ana te Māori i ngā whakawhiu o te raupatu, o te urupatu me te ngaronga o te reo Māori. Ka tāmia rātou i te kōrero Māori ki te kura, ā, noho rawa te mātotoru ki ngā taiwhenua tae mai ki te tekau tau 1940. Kīhai tonu te nuinga i hiahia kia uru ki roto ki te ao o te mātauranga Pākehā.

Nō muri rā anō i te Pakanga Tuarua ka puea ake tētahi hunga Māori tauwaenga (middle class). I te tekau tau 1940 e tuhituhi ana a Te Rangi Hīroa rāua ko Āpirana Ngata i ā rāua tuhinga pono (te mātauranga tikanga tangata, te waiata me ngā mōteatea). Kīhai tonu te nuinga i aro ki te pakimaero, kāhore hoki he putanga mō ngā tuhinga paki. 

Ko te whītiki o te kī, ko Ngata

I te tau 1892 ka tuhi te taitamatāne nei a Āpirana Ngata i tōna ruri e kīia nei ‘A scene from the past’. I riro i a Ngata te tohu toa mō tēnei ruri i te whakataetae tito ruri o Canterbury College Dialectic Society. Ka kōrero te ruri mō ngā pānga kino o te ao Pākehā ki te ao Māori me tana whakanui i ngā tūāhua kaha o te ahurea Māori. 

Noho Tāone 

Ko te hekenga ki ngā tāone me te mātauranga ngā huarahi nui atu ki te tuhi paki a te Māori i roto i te reo Ingarihi.

I muri i te Pakanga Tuarua he waipuke tonu te mātotoru o te Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai. Nō te tekau tau 1950 ko te nuinga kei ngā taone kē e noho ana. Nō konei anō ka whai wāhi nui ki ngā mātauranga kura tuarua, whare wānanga hoki. Kātahi ka ākona ngā tamariki ki te whakapuaki kōrero i roto i te reo Pākehā me te tuhituhi. Ka nui haere te hunga pānui, ā, ko ētahi ka hua hei kaituhi.

Nō te pokapū o te tekau tau 1970 kua taunga te tuhinga paki ki te Māori, ā, neke atu i te 80 ōrau o ngā Māori e noho ana ki te tāone. 

Footnotes
    • Mihi Edwards, from Mihipeka: early years. In Te ao mārama, edited by Witi Ihimaera. Tāmakimakaurau: Reed, 1992, pp. 67–68. Back

Development of Māori fiction

Nō te rautau 1800 noa te Māori ka ako ki te pānui, me kī, i kune hohoro mai ngā tuhinga paki i te rautau mai i 1900. I roto i te rautau ka panoni te iwi mai i te  kōrero tuku iho, ā, ka ako ki te tuhi kōrero paki. He uaua kia riro mai he pukapuka, kia whai wāhi hoki ki te pānui me te tuhituhi. He wāhi nui tēnei pakanga a te tangata whenua, kia whai wāhi ki te ao pukapuka, nō te rapu ōritenga, me te whakaū i tō rātou rangatiratanga.

Te Ao Hou

He mea whakaputa te maheni o Te Ao Hou e Te Tari Māori. I te tuatahi ko Erik Schwimmer te ētita. He huarahi tēnei i puta ai te tokomaha o ngā tuhinga paki a te Māori. Mai i te Hakihea o te tau 1955, ka whakaputa a Te Ao Hou i ngā tuhinga ōpaki a ngā kaituhi Māori pērā i a Arapera Blank rātou ko Rowley Habib me Patricia Grace. Ko te kaituku kōrero ki Te Ao Hou, ko Pat Baker te Māori tuatahi kia whakaputa i tāna ake pakimaero, arā, ko Behind the tattooed face i te tau 1975.

Ko J. C. Sturm

Ko Jacquie Sturm o Te Whakatōhea me Taranaki, te whāea o te pakimaero Māori. Ko ia te kaituhi Māori tuatahi ki Te Ao Hou, kia whai tohu wānanga. Nōna e tuhi ana e kimikimi tonu ana ia i te tūturutanga o tēnei mea te pakimaero Māori, ā, he uaua ki te whakaputa ki roto i te ao pāpāho a te Pākehā. Ko tāna tuhinga ‘For all the saints’, te pakimaero reo Ingarihi tuatahi kia puta i roto ki Te Ao Hou nā te Māori i tuhi.

Ka whakamātautau a Sturm i ngā momo tuhinga, ā, ka puta tōna ake reo i ngā tuhinga paki poto. Inā kē te tokomaha o āna tuhinga i tuhi ai, engari nā ngā pōrarurarutanga, nō te tau 1983 rā anō ka puta tāna pukapuka tuatahi a The house of the talking cat. Ko te rōpū mana wahine ko Spiral Collective ngā kaiwhakaputa.

Ko Witi Ihimaera

Ko Witi Ihimaera (nō Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki me Rongowhakaata) te kaituhi Māori tuatahi ki te whakaputa pukapuka tuhi poto, pakimaero hoki. Ko tāna pukapuka tuatahi, a Pounamu, pounamu, he kohinga mahara nō mua i te hekenga nui a te Māori ki ngā taone. He mahinga hautipua tēnei ki ngā kaituhi Māori o te wā. I whakatinana a Ihimaera i ngā pūmanawa e ora ai te kaituhi Māori.

I riro i tana pakimaero tuatahi a Tangi (1973) te tohu toa ā-tau mō ngā pukapuka a Wattie, ka mutu i te tau i mua atu ka eke a Pounamu, pounamu ki te tūranga tuatoru. I reira kua piki atu ia hei whetū mārama i roto i te ao pakimaero. I te tau 1982 ka ētitangia e Ihimaera te pukapuka o Into the world of light, he kohinga o ngā tuhinga Māori.

Tana rāhui i tāna ake mahi tuhituhi

I te tau 1975 ka whakatau a Ihimaera ki te whakamutu i āna tuhinga. E mea ana ia i tirohia āna mahi hei whakaahua tūturu o te ao Māori. Ki a ia, nō te ao kōhatu rawa tōna titiro. Nō te tau 1986 rā anō ka whakaputaina e ia tōna pukapuka whai i muri.

Mai i te tekau tau 1980 ka puta nga tuhinga awe tōrangapū, ā, ko The matriarch (1986) tērā, i whakaarahia ake ai ngā kōrero e pā ana ki te poropiti o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ki a Te Kooti. I te tau 1997 ka puta tōna pakimaero e pā ana ki te poropiti o Tūhoe, ki a Rua Kēnana. I tōna wā he tangata wehi a Te Rua ki te Pākehā, engari nāwai ka kōrerotia a ia ki roto ki ngā pakimaero.

Ka tuhi anō a Ihimaero mō te takatāpui me te pakanga i Whitinamu, me tana mahi nui ki te whakahou i āna tuhinga o mua. Ko tōna pakimaero a The whale rider tērā i momoho hei kiriata i te tau 2002. 

Ko Patricia Grace

Rite tonu ki a Witi Ihimaera mā, i tīmata a Patricia Grace (nō Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Raukawa me Te Āti Awa) ki te maheni o Te Ao Hou. Ko tāna tuhinga tuatahi ko The dream (1966). Ko tōna whakairo a Waiariki te kohinga kōrero tuatahi nā tētahi wahine Māori. 

Te rongonui i te ao

I te tau 2008 ka tohua a Patricia Grace ki te tohu o Neudstadt mō ngā tuhituhi. Kotahi noa iho te tohu nui ake tōna mana, ko te Nobel Prize tērā. E pā ana te tohu Neudstadt ki ngā mahi katoa o te kaiwhakamānawa.

Ka tukituki ia ki ngā kaupapa e pā ana ki te moe manene i roto i tāna pukapuka o Mutuwhenua: the moon sleeps (1978); ki te murunga o ngā whenua i roto i tana pukapuka a Pōtiki (1986), me te whakahere o te Māori ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao i roto i te pukapuka o Tu (2004). I riro i a Tu te tohu Mētara Deutz me te tohu pakimaero toa ki ngā tohu pukapuka o Montana. He maha ngā pukapuka tamariki i titoa e Grace. He tino kaituhi ia, kua whakawhiwhia ki ngā honore mahi, ahakoa i te kāinga, i tāwāhi. 


Confronting reality

Ko ngā pakimaero Māori i whai atu i ngā tuhinga a Witi Ihimaera rāua ko Patricia Grace i pā ki ngā whakawhiu o te ao ki runga ki ngā Māori noho taone.

Ko ngā tuatangata a Ihimaera rāua ko Grace ka hokihoki tonu ki te marae, ahakoa he noho tāone rātou. Heoi kīhai te reanga o muri mai i hokihoki ki te wā kāinga. Ka mutu ko ngā tuhinga a Apirana Taylor, a Bruce Stewart, a Ngāhuia Te Awekōtuku mā i te tekau tau 1980 i pā katoa ki te mahi tūkino, ki te rawakore me te pūranga paru. Ko ngā pakimaero me ngā whakaari a Renée ka tiro ki ngā take taha wahine, taumata mahi, take hōkakatanga hoki. 

Ko Keri Hulme

He maha ngā momo tuhinga kua tāia e Keri Hulme (nō Ngāi Tahu me Ngāti Māmoe), pērā i ngā ruri, ngā pakimaero poto me ngā tuhinga pono. E kitea ana tana tohunga ki te kupu i tana pakimaero huatahi a the bone people (1983). I riro kē nā Spiral Collective i whakaputa te puka, nā nga uauatanga ki te kimi kaiwhakaputa Pākehā hei ētita i tāna puka. I whakamana a Hulme i te tuakiri o Ngāi Tahu me te mana wahine i te tuatangata o te pakimaero, a Kerewin Holmes, he moke e noho moai ana ki ngā pari tahataha o te Tai Poutini.

Kei roto i te pukapuka ngā auheke o te tūkino whānau me te kimi i te mea ngaro. He hōnore nui tōna whiwhinga i te Booker Prize i te tau 1985. 

Ko Alan Duff

Kua tuhi anō a Alan Duff (nō Ngāti Rangitihi me Tūwharetoa) mō ngā take tūkino, inu waipiro ki waenganui i ngā hapori Māori. Ko Duff te mokopuna a Oliver Duff, te ētita tuatahi o Listener. He uaua tōna pakeketanga, inā rā he wāri i whiua ki te whare herehere mō ngā tamariki taka ki te hē. Nā tēnei tūāhua i puea ake tāna titonga i a Once were warriors i te tau 1990. Nā te tiro a Duff ki ngā pōrarurarutanga o te waipiro me te pūroi i waenganui i ngā whānau Māori e noho tāone ana, ka tumeke te marea, ka oho. I te tau 1994 ka hangā te kiriata o Once were warriors, hei mīharotanga mā ngā iwi katoa o te ao, hei whakaatu hoki i ngā hua kino tonu a te urupatu o te whakataiwhenuatanga, e pā tonu nei ki ngā iwi taketake. 

Te kaupapa o Books in Homes 

I te tau 1992 ka whakatū a Duff i te kaupapa Books in Homes hei whakarato pukapuka mā ngā tamariki rawakore, me ngā rauemi pānui. Mai i te tīmatanga o te kaupapa i te tau 1995, e 8 miriona ngā pukapuka kua tukuna ki ngā tamariki.

Ka whai tonu a Duff i ngā auheke o te whānau Heke i roto i te kiriata tuarua a What becomes of the broken hearted? I te tau 1996 (i riro te tohu Montana Fiction Book of the Year i te tau 1997 i tēnei pukapuka), me te kiriata tuatoru a Jake’s long shadow (i te tau (2002).

Te ao mārama

I waenganui i ngā tau 1992 me 1996, e rima ngā whakaputanga o Te ao mārama i tāia. Ko Witi Ihimaera te ētita, ā, he kōrero paki, kōrero pono hoki kei roto i ngā reo e rua. Ko Te ao marama te kohinga kōrero nui rawa o ngā tuhinga Māori e pā ana ki ngā momo take katoa. 


A new breed of writers

Nō te tekau tau 2000 ka whakawhānui te reanga kaituhi Māori i ngā kaupapa tuhi i whakatakotoria e te hunga i mua i a rātou. Ko ētahi ka rere ki tāwāhi ki te whakawhanake i ā rātou mahi. 

Te maruwehi

I tīmata a James George ki te tuhi i te tau 1995, ‘nō te matenga ō tōku whāea ka taka iho te huatau he tangata noa ahau. I reira ka tahuri au ki te whakatinana i ngā tūmanako me ngā wawata kāore au i whai wā (he māngere hōnea rānei) ki te whakatinana.’ I tae atu ia ki tētahi awheawhe tuhi nā te kaituhi nā Judith White i whakahaere, ā, ka ‘oho ake ōku kahanga pohewa’, ka tīmata tonu atu i reira ki te whai i te huarahi o te tuhituhi.1

Ko James George

Ko te pakimaero tuatahi a James George ko Wooden horses, he mea whakaputa i te tau 2000. Whai muri ko Humingbird, i tū ki te whiringa toa o te Montana New Zealand Book Awards i te tau 2004. I te tau 2006 ka puta ko Ocean roads. I te tau 2013, he mema komiti a George (nō Ngāpuhi) nō Te Hā, he rōpū i whakatūria ki raro i te awe o Toi Māori Aotearoa hei whakatairanga i ngā tuhinga kaituhi Māori.  

Ko Paula Morris

He ngaio a Paula Morris (nō Ngāti Wai) i mahi ki ngā ahumahi pūoro, whakatairanga hoki ki tāwāhi. I whiwhi ia i te Tohu Paerua mō te Tuhi Auaha mai i Wikitōria i Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ā, i te tau 2003 ka tohua koia hei kaituhi noho ki te wānanga whai mana o te Whare Wānanga o Iowa. Nā Morris mā i whakatakoto te tauira, ka taea e ngā kaituhi Māori te kake ki ngā maunga tiketike mehemea ka whai wāhi tonu ki ngā huarahi o te mātauranga.

Ko ētahi o āna pakimaero, tuhinga poto hoki ko Queen of beauty (2002), ko Forbidden cities (2008) me Rangatira (2011). I ētita anō a Morris i te Penguin book of contemporary New Zealand short stories (2009). He manu rererangi, he manu topa noa. I te tau 2013, i Ingarangi ia e noho ana. Kei roto i āna mahi ka whakaatu i te atamai me te tau o ngā Māori kei tāwāhi e noho ana. 

Ko Kelly Ana Morey

I mahi tuatahi a Kelly Ana Morey (nō Ngāti Kurī, Te Rarawa me Te Aupouri) hei tumu kōrero mahi toi. I puta tana mahi tuatahi a Bloom i te tau 2003, nō muri mai i tana whakatā ki Te Tai Tokerau, he taurikura i tōna tamarikitanga. I te tau 2004 ka tuhia ko Gracie is gone. Ko Quinine (2010) i tauiratia i tōna pakeketanga ki Papua New Guinea me tōna papamuri ki te ao toi. I roto i tāna pukapuka ka raweke ia i ngā kōrero mō te whakataiwhenuatanga me te oranga o te ringa toi, mai i Aotearoa ki tētahi wāhi whai pānga mai. 

Ko Tina Makereti

He maha ngā tuhinga poto kua whakaputaina e Tina Makereti (nō Tūwharetoa, Te Āti Awa me Ngāti Maniapoto) ki ngā hautaka, ngā maheni me ngā paenga kōrero. I roto i tāna pukapuka a Once upon a time in Aotearoa (2010), ka tūhonotia te ao tipua ki ngā kōrero o nāianei. I te tau 2011 ka whakamanatia te pukapuka ki te tohu pakimaero i te rā tuku taonga o Ngā Kupu Ora.

Ko Alice Tawhai

Ko te marutuna a Alice Tāwhai (nō Tainui me Ngāpuhi) ko te pukapuka o the bone people nā Keri Hulme.  Ko te kaupapa o ana tuhinga poto e toru, ko te whakamutunga ko Dark jelly (2011), he mātai ake ki ngā momo tirohanga a te tangata ki te ao. He rite te hunga i tēnei pukapuka ki te hunga tū ki waho a Hulme, arā, ka mātakina te noho a te hunga takaware ki Aotearoa. Inā kē te tawhiti atu o ana kaupapa tuhinga i ērā a Katherine Mansfield me J. C. Sturm mā. Hei aha koa, he ōrite tonu ngā huarahi taki kōrero, ngā momo, te kōrero paki wairua pono, me te paki poto hopu kimonga ao tangata, hei whakaatu i te noho a ngā iwi i te rautau mai i 2000. 

Huia Publishers

I waihangatia a Huia Publishers i te tau 1991 hei whakatairanga i ngā kaituhi Māori me ngā tuhinga reo Māori. I te tau 1995, ka whakatū rāua ko te Māori Literature Trust te tohu whakamānawa mō ngā kaituhi Māori (nō muri ka rangona ko Pikihuia Awards). Kua whakaputa a Huia i ngā tino a ngā whakaihuwaka o Pikihuia.

Ka tautoko anō a Huia i ngā kaituhi o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa , ā, ka taunaki hoki i te hōtaka o Papa Tupu. I hangaia tēnei rōpū e te Māori Literature Trust hei poipoi i ngā kaituhi Māori. 

Ngā pakimaero reo Māori

Ko te nuinga o ngā pakimaero ka tuhia e te Māori kei roto kē i te reo Pākehā. Heoi, arā tonu ētahi wāhanga reo Māori o ngā tohu Pikihuia. Ko tētahi tohu mō te tuhinga poto toa, ko tētahi mō te tuhinga toa taumata kura tuarua i roto i te reo Māori.

Ko Ngā waituhi o Rehua (2012) te pakimaero reo Māori nā Kāterina Te Heikōkō Mataira i tito mō ngā rangatahi tokowhā e noho ana ki aorangi kē. I te tau 2013 ka whakamānawatia te pukapuka ki te tohu reo Māori.

Kua whakamāoritia ngā pakimaero a Witi Ihimaera rāua ko Patricia Grace. 

Ngā Kupu Ora

I te tau 2009 ka whakatūria e Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa te tohu tuku taonga o Ngā Kupu Ora hei tohu i te Wiki o te Reo Māori. I te tau 2011 ka tāpirihia te wāhanga pakimaero. 

Footnotes

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Jeffrey Paparoa Holman, 'Ngā tuhinga ōpaki', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tuhinga-opaki/print (accessed 19 September 2019)

Story by Jeffrey Paparoa Holman, published 22 Oct 2014