Kōrero: Ngā uniana

Mai anō i te tūranga o ngā uniana ki Aotearoa, kuhu ai ngā kaikuti hipi Māori – me kī, nō te wā hurihia ai ngā tikanga me ngā ture ārahi ki te reo Māori. Nāwai ā, ka tū mai ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā whare patu mīti hei wāhanga kaha o ngā uniana.

Story by Cybèle Locke
Te āhua nui: He tīkiti mō te uniana

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā kaimahi ahuwhenua

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka tīmata te kuhu a te Māori ki ngā mahi kuti hipi. He mahi whānau te āhua o tā rātau mahi. Ka kuhu rātou ki te uniana o ngā kaikuti hipi, me kī, nō te whakamāoritanga o ngā tikanga me ngā ture ārahi ki te reo Māori.

Atu i te tau 1894, me whiriwhiri ngā kaiwhakawhiwhi mahi me ngā uniana whai rēhita i ngā take utu me ngā ritenga mahi. Mēnā kāore ngā taha e whakaae, mā te kōti e whakatau. Heoi, kāore te ture nei i hōrapa ki ngā kaikuti hipi, ngā kaipatu mīti me ngā kaimahi ahuwhenua. Ka tautoko ngā Māori i ngā mautohe kia whai wāhi ai ki ngā uniana.

Te hūnuku ki ngā tāone

Nō ngā tekau tau o 1950 me 1960 ka hūnuku te nui o te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai. Ka whai mahi ki ngā whare patu mīti, ngā mira kani rākau, ngā momo kawe utanga, te hanga whare, ngā wheketere hoki. Tokomaha i kuhu ki ngā uniana. He wāhi matua tō ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā uniana mahi wāpu me ngā uniana i ngā whare patu mīti.

Ngā wāhine Māori i ngā uniana

Ka kuhu ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā mahi i ngā tāone. He tokomaha i kuhu ki ngā uniana, heoi, ruarua noa i eke hei kaiārahi.

He āpiha a Joyce Hawe o Te Arawa i te Uniana Tuitui Kākahu o Pōneke. Koia te wahine Māori tuatahi ka eke ki komiti ā-motu o te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa. He nui ngā wāhine Māori i ngā uniana kaimahi karaka, hōtera, hōhipera, wharekai hoki.

Te paheketanga o te ōhanga

Atu i te tekau tau 1970, ka hōrapa te koremahi ki ngā kaimahi hanga whare, whakangao, tae atu ki ngā kaimahi i ngā toa hokohoko – he nui ngā Māori i ēnei tūmomo mahi. Ka kati ngā whare patu mīti. Tae rawa ki te tau 1992, kō atu i te hauwhā o ngā kaimahi Māori kīhai he mahi. He nui ngā Māori i kuhu ki ngā uniana mō te hunga koremahi.

He nui ngā auporo i te tekau tau atu i 1980 – te nuinga e tohe ana i ngā topenga utu, e whai ana rānei i ngā utu whakamutu mahi mō te hunga kua whakamutua.

Ngā tōrangapū uniana ā-motu

Nō te tau 1937 ka whakatūria e ngā uniana Te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa hei māngai ā-motu mō rātou. Ko Bob Tūtaki o te uniana kaikuti hipi anake te āpiha Māori i tae ki taua hui tuatahi. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1980, ka whakatūria he komiti Māori e te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa.

Tērā te whakapae a ētahi, kīhai ngā uniana i te tiaki i ngā kaimahi Māori. Waihoki, ka toko te hiahia kia tū he uniana Māori motuhake – heoi kāore tēnei take i whāia, ko te whakaaro ia, he pai ake te noho i ngā uniana, ka tohe kia nui atu te wāhi ki ngā kaimahi Māori.

Te mautohe Māori

I te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka oraora te mautohe Māori, ki ngā take whenua, ki te whakaoranga o te reo Māori, aha atu. Me te aha, ka tohe ngā Māori kia nui atu te wāhi ki roto i ngā uniana. He āpiha uniana, he mautohe mō te mana Māori a Syd Jackson, nāna te whakahau kia tokomaha atu ai ngā Māori i ngā uniana. Ka tahuri anō hoki a ia ki te akoako i ngā kaiuniana Pākehā mō ngā take ka pā ki te Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Cybèle Locke, 'Ngā uniana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-uniana (accessed 20 October 2019)

Story by Cybèle Locke, published 11 Mar 2010