Kōrero: Ngā whakataunga tiriti

Whārangi 2. Ngā whakataunga me ngā arotake o mua

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ko ētahi tū āhua tōmua o te whakatika i ngā hapa o mua ko te:

  • te ture South Island Landless Natives Act 1906. Nā tēnei ture ka hoki ētahi tahua engari he kino te whenua
  • te whakaaetanga mō ngā roto moana o Rotorua me Taupō i ngā tau 1922 me 1926. I tukuna ki a rātou te kāpeneheihana i ia tau mō te tuku i tō rātou mana pupuri ki aua roto.
  • te whakaaetanga o te Karauna tērā te wā ka hoki mai ngā nawe whenua raupatu i ngā iwi ki te ngau i a rātou. 

Te whakakore i ngā kōrero

I tōna whakarewanga i te ture South Island Landless Natives 1906, ka mea te māngai a Tā Timi Kara, ‘E tata mai ana te wā me whakatau ngā kerēme nei…kua roa rawa te wā. Kua mate atu ngā tētē kura, kua noho kore hua ngā oati; engari kua eke te wā ki a tātou te whakatau i ēnei take kia horoi katoatia ngā ringaringa o te koroni me te Kāwanatanga.'’1

Kōmihana uiui

E rua ngā kōmihana arotake, arā, te Komihana Jones (1919-20) me te Komihana Sim (1926-27) i whakatepe he mea tūkino te Māori i ngā wā ō mua. E ai ki ngā kitenga a ngā komihana kīhai ngā kāwanatanga o mua i whakaatu i te wairua māhaki i ōna whiriwhiringa ki a Ngāi Tahu o Te Waipounamu, ki ngā iwi hoki i hinga i te raupatu. Ko tōna tūtohu ki te kāwanatanga kia utua ērā iwi.

Ngā whiriwhiri me ngā whakataunga

Kātahi ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki ngā iwi rarahi i whai wāhi ki ngā whakatau a te kōmihana. He roa te whawhai, i runga i te matapiko o te kāwana ki te whakahoki i te taonga nui rawa ki te Māori; ko te whenua. Nā te paheketanga ohaoha, te Pakanga Tuarua me te hiahia hoki o ētahi o ngā iwi kia whai wāhi atu; ka tōroatia ngā whakahaere. Heoi nō te tau 1944 ka whakatauria ngā kerēme o Taranaki me Ngāi Tahu, ā, i te tau 1946 ka whakatauria tēra o Waikato-Maniapoto. I ngā tau i muri iho ka tutuki anō ngā whakataunga o ērā atu iwi. Ko te utu he moni, ā, i whai te whakatau i te ia o ngā kōrero a aua kōmihana, e rua tekau, e toru tekau tau ki muri. Ko te utu o te iwi me whakaae ko te whakatau otinga tēnei mō te taha ki ō rātou whenua.

Ko te pūtea ka haere ki ngā poari iwi, ā, i tū tēnei tūāhua i muri i ngā whakataunga roto moana o te tekau tau 1920. He kongakonga anō ēnei –ka mutu e £3,000 i te tau ki a Ngāi Tahu mō te 30 tau ($230,000 i te tau 2011); £5,000 i te tau ki a Taranaki me Waikato hoki ($390,000 i te tau 2011); me ētahi moni tāpiri ki ētahi iwi o Taranaki. I roto i ngā tau i te whakapikinga o te utu ka heke rawa te wāriu o ngā kāpeneheihana. Arā ngā whakarerekētanga i mahia engari ka kitea he mea ā te Māori kia haina i aua whakataunga. Otirā ko te tikanga o ngā whakataunga he whakatau i ngā hapa o mua, ā, kāore i whakakitea ki te Māori tērā.

Te Noho Tāone

Nō muri i te Pakanga Tuarua ka tīmata te maunutanga nui ki ngā taone. Ahakoa te momotutanga mai i te wā kāinga ka mau tonu te Māori i tōna rangatiratanga mā ngā whakahaerenga iwi me te āta whakanohoho haere ki ngā taone nunui. Mai i te tekau tau 1970, nō te tītokotanga ake o te tuakiri ahurea a te Māori ka noho koia hei tauira ki ngā tāngata whenua o te ao e tāmia ana i ō rātou nā whenua.

I te uru whakaara ka kaha ake te whakatumatuma i te Karauna kia whai hōnore te Tiriti o Waitangi. He karanga tēnei i pāoho mai i ngā iwi maha, me ngā rāngai Māori i ngā tāone, me ngā kaitautoko Pākehā hoki. Ko te iho ko te whenua. Otirā mai i te tekau tau 1970 e tāmia ana te Māori e te paheketanga ōhanga. Nō reira ko te whakaora anō i te ohaoha a te Māori tētahi mea nui hei whakatau ake i te rangatiratanga.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Waitangi Tribunal, The Ngai Tahu report 1991. http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/reports/viewchapter.asp?reportID=D5D84302-EB22-4A52-BE78-16AF39F71D91&chapter=138 (last accessed 24 Mei 2011). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Richard S. Hill, 'Ngā whakataunga tiriti - Ngā whakataunga me ngā arotake o mua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-whakataunga-tiriti/page-2 (accessed 22 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Richard S. Hill, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012