Kōrero: Ngā whakataunga tiriti

Whārangi 4. Ngā huarahi whakatau rerekē

Ngā whakaahua

Te taraipiunara, te kāwanatanga rānei

Ahakoa ngā pōhēhē a Nāhinara i te pakanga pōti o te tau 1990, kua kaha rawa te ahu whakamua o te mana o te tangata whenua. Heoi i hōhā ētahi Māori i te pōturi o te tukanga whakataunga, me te nui o te utu o te haere ki te taraipiunara. Ka mutu i hiahia hoki ngā minenga iwi o Waikato-Tainui ki te kōrero whiriwhiri tōtika ki te kāwanatanga. Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero i pā ki te pāhuatanga o Waikato i te tau 1864.

Ka mutu ko tā ētahi iwi ka haere tika tonu ki te kāwanatanga hei whakatau i ōna nawe, ā, ka whakahipaina te taraipiunara. Ko te tauira mō ngā kōrero whiriwhiri he mea kapo mai i Kānata, ā, ko te Rangapū Tiriti o Waitangi i te ihu o te waka ki te whakamōhiohio i ngā tari kāwanatanga mō ngā whakataunga – me ngā pūrongo, kitenga hoki a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. 

Mai te pouri ki te ao mārama

Nāwai ko te Minita Ture ko Doug Graham te minita i whai wāhi nui ki ngā whakataunga tiriti, ā, i te tau 1993 ka riro tūturu i a ia te tūnga hōu hei minita mō ngā take Tiriti. Nō konā kua tīmata kē ētahi kōrero i waenganui i ētahi iwi nui pērā i a Waikato-Tainui me Ngāi Tahu o Te Waipounamu; tae atu hoki ki ētahi kerēme iti. Ko tā Kereama he tuku ki te Māori te whakataunga pai rawa e puta ai rātou mai i te pouri ki te ao mārama.1 Ahakoa he kongakonga noa iho ngā utu i te wāriu ake o te whenua i ngaro; ko te whāinga kia tukuna ki ngā iwi te āheinga ki te whakatipu i a rātou anō. Hei kīnaki i ngā whakataunga, ko te whakapāha a te Karauna mō ōna hara o mua. Ko tā te titiro a ētahi Māori, he pīnati noa iho ngā utu, engari i kite tonu rātou he huarahi pea tēnei hei whakakaha i te iwi. 

Te tino māharahara

I roto tonu i te whakataunga a Tainui-Waikato ko te whakapāha a te Kuini o Ingarangi, a Irihāpeti tuarua; i puakina e ia i tōna haerenga mai ki Aotearoa i te tau 1995. Ko ētahi o ngā kōrero ēnei o taua whakapāha:

‘1. Ka whakaae te Karauna i mahi hē ngā māngai me ngā kanohi o te Karauna, i takahia hoki te Tiriti o Waitangi i āna whiriwhiri ki te Kiingitanga me Waikato i te tononga o ana marau ki tua o te aukati i Mangataawhiri i te Hūrae o 1863, me te kī teka he iwi whakakeke a Waikato.

‘2. Ka huaina e te Karauna tōna tino pāpōuri me tōna whakapāha nui mō ngā tāngata i whakamatea i te pāhuatanga me te orotātanga o ngā kāinga me te pāpori.’

Te whakataunga a Waikato Tainui

I te maramara o Mei 1995 ka hainatia te whakataunga raupatu i waenganui i te Karauna me Waikato-Tainui. Ko te tuatahi o ngā whakataunga raupatu tēnei ki ngā iwi, ā, ko ētahi o ngā īnati o roto, he whenua kāwanatanga, he moni, hui katoa neke atu i te $170 miriona te wāriu. Nāwai i te tau 2010 ka tatū ngā kerēme a Waikato ki te awa o Waikato.

Whakataunga ki a Ngāi Tahu

I pā te kerēme a Ngāi Tahu ki te 34.5 miriona eka whenua i hokona e te Karauna i waenganui i te tekau tau 1840 me te tekau tau 1860. E ai ki te pūrongo a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1991; he kore whakaaro noa tā te kāwanatanga hokohoko haere i ngā whenua me tōna takatakahi i te tiriti. Ko te whakautu a te Karauna ko te whakatinana i te hiahia o te iwi kia whakahokia mai ōna mana kohi taonga, ōna mana ki te taiao me āna taonga tae rawa atu ki ngā whenua kei te papa atawhai. I te tau 1998 ka hua ko te $170 miriona hei whakamahu i ngā mamae o mua. Tāpiri atu ko ētahi whakamahutanga ahurea me te mana pupuri o te pounamu. Kātahi ka whakahokia te maunga o Aoraki ki Mt Cook, ā, ka whakahokia hoki tērā ki a Ngāi Tahu. Nā Ngāi Tahu i takoha anō ki te hapori o Aotearoa.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Douglas Graham, Trick or treaty? Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Institute of Policy Studies, 1997, p. 49. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Richard S. Hill, 'Ngā whakataunga tiriti - Ngā huarahi whakatau rerekē', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-whakataunga-tiriti/page-4 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Richard S. Hill, published 20 Jun 2012