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Ngā whakataunga tiriti – Treaty of Waitangi settlement process

by Richard S. Hill

Mai anō i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka takatakahi haere ngā kāwanatanga i te tiriti tonu. Nō te paunga o te rautau 1900 ka whakatauria ēnei whatinga ture i waenganui i te Karauna me ngā iwi maha, ā, ka āta kōrerohia ngā kaupapa whakaaetanga. 


Origins of the settlement process

II roto i te wāhanga Ingarihi o te tiriti ka oati te Karauna ki te Māori i tōna tino rangatiratanga ki āna taonga katoa, arā, ōna whenua, ōna ngahere, ōna mahinga ika me ērā atu o ā rātou taonga … kei a rātou te mana ki te pupuri tonu i ērā taonga’. Waihoki ki ērā o ngā tāngata whenua puta noa i te ao, ka ngaro te whenua, ka ngaro te ahurea me te reo, ka ngaro hoki te tangata. 

Ko ngā tū āhua e toru i ngaro ai te whenua Māori:

  • ngā hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga mō te kongakonga noa iho. Ka oatitia ētahi whenua rāhui ki a rātou. Ko ētahi kāore noa iho i tuku, ko ētahi he whenua haumate, kāore noa iho i rite mō ngā kāinga Māori.
  • ngā raupatu whenua whai muri i ngā pakanga whenua o te tekau tau 1860.
  • ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori, e whakatakitahi ana i ngā taitara whenua a ngā iwi, i māmā ai te hoko.

Ko ngā whatinga ture a te Karauna, me tō rātou whakaae ki ngā utu mō ēnei hapa te iho o te tukanga whakatau i ngā kerēme tiriti o Waitangi

Te apo whenua

Ka ahu mai te kupu ‘raupatu’ i te huanga ‘te rau o te patu’. Ka pā atu hoki tēnei kupu ki te murunga o ngā whenua Māori. Ko te tauira ko te pāhuatanga o Waikato e te Karauna i te tau 1864. Ko te 1.2 miriona eka (486,000 heketea) ka riro atu ki te Karauna nō ngā iwi kē te whenua. I tau te raupatu ki te riu o Waikato tae atu ki ngā whenua o ērā iwi e noho mārire ana. Ahakoa i kakari a Ngāti Maniapoto ki te Karauna, nā te takoto momotu o ō rātou whenua kāore he wāriu ki te Pākehā, ā, kīhai i tau te raupatu ki tērā rohe. I runga i tērā ka mana ngā whakapae a ngā iwi, arā ko te iho o te raupatu ko ngā whenua haumako e tūtata ana ki Tāmaki-makaurau.

Ngā nawe Māori

Nō te paunga atu o te rautau 1800 kua matemate ngā Māori, kua ngaro atu ngā whenua, me ngā taonga hoki. Ahakoa rā, ka ū tonu te Māori ki te rangatiratanga ka oati nei te tiriti; ka pūmau tonu ki te tuakiri ake i roto i te ao Pākehā me ngā mahi tōrangapū katoa. No te tau 1900 ka whakamāui ake te iwi Māori, ā, ka hau ōna rongo ki te pāremata. Ko te tīmatanga tērā o te āki a te Māori i te ture hei rākau whawhai mōna ki te Karauna mō te rironga o ngā whenua.

Ko te wero a ngā iwi ko te whakahoki mai o ngā whenua me ngā taonga me te whai utu hoki. Kotahi rautau i muri kāore noa iho i aro te Karauna ki ngā nawe a ngā iwi; he moroiti noa iho rānei ngā hua ka hoki ki ngā iwi. 


Early settlements and inquiries

Ko ētahi tū āhua tōmua o te whakatika i ngā hapa o mua ko te:

  • te ture South Island Landless Natives Act 1906. Nā tēnei ture ka hoki ētahi tahua engari he kino te whenua
  • te whakaaetanga mō ngā roto moana o Rotorua me Taupō i ngā tau 1922 me 1926. I tukuna ki a rātou te kāpeneheihana i ia tau mō te tuku i tō rātou mana pupuri ki aua roto.
  • te whakaaetanga o te Karauna tērā te wā ka hoki mai ngā nawe whenua raupatu i ngā iwi ki te ngau i a rātou. 

Te whakakore i ngā kōrero

I tōna whakarewanga i te ture South Island Landless Natives 1906, ka mea te māngai a Tā Timi Kara, ‘E tata mai ana te wā me whakatau ngā kerēme nei…kua roa rawa te wā. Kua mate atu ngā tētē kura, kua noho kore hua ngā oati; engari kua eke te wā ki a tātou te whakatau i ēnei take kia horoi katoatia ngā ringaringa o te koroni me te Kāwanatanga.'’1

Kōmihana uiui

E rua ngā kōmihana arotake, arā, te Komihana Jones (1919-20) me te Komihana Sim (1926-27) i whakatepe he mea tūkino te Māori i ngā wā ō mua. E ai ki ngā kitenga a ngā komihana kīhai ngā kāwanatanga o mua i whakaatu i te wairua māhaki i ōna whiriwhiringa ki a Ngāi Tahu o Te Waipounamu, ki ngā iwi hoki i hinga i te raupatu. Ko tōna tūtohu ki te kāwanatanga kia utua ērā iwi.

Ngā whiriwhiri me ngā whakataunga

Kātahi ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki ngā iwi rarahi i whai wāhi ki ngā whakatau a te kōmihana. He roa te whawhai, i runga i te matapiko o te kāwana ki te whakahoki i te taonga nui rawa ki te Māori; ko te whenua. Nā te paheketanga ohaoha, te Pakanga Tuarua me te hiahia hoki o ētahi o ngā iwi kia whai wāhi atu; ka tōroatia ngā whakahaere. Heoi nō te tau 1944 ka whakatauria ngā kerēme o Taranaki me Ngāi Tahu, ā, i te tau 1946 ka whakatauria tēra o Waikato-Maniapoto. I ngā tau i muri iho ka tutuki anō ngā whakataunga o ērā atu iwi. Ko te utu he moni, ā, i whai te whakatau i te ia o ngā kōrero a aua kōmihana, e rua tekau, e toru tekau tau ki muri. Ko te utu o te iwi me whakaae ko te whakatau otinga tēnei mō te taha ki ō rātou whenua.

Ko te pūtea ka haere ki ngā poari iwi, ā, i tū tēnei tūāhua i muri i ngā whakataunga roto moana o te tekau tau 1920. He kongakonga anō ēnei –ka mutu e £3,000 i te tau ki a Ngāi Tahu mō te 30 tau ($230,000 i te tau 2011); £5,000 i te tau ki a Taranaki me Waikato hoki ($390,000 i te tau 2011); me ētahi moni tāpiri ki ētahi iwi o Taranaki. I roto i ngā tau i te whakapikinga o te utu ka heke rawa te wāriu o ngā kāpeneheihana. Arā ngā whakarerekētanga i mahia engari ka kitea he mea ā te Māori kia haina i aua whakataunga. Otirā ko te tikanga o ngā whakataunga he whakatau i ngā hapa o mua, ā, kāore i whakakitea ki te Māori tērā.

Te Noho Tāone

Nō muri i te Pakanga Tuarua ka tīmata te maunutanga nui ki ngā taone. Ahakoa te momotutanga mai i te wā kāinga ka mau tonu te Māori i tōna rangatiratanga mā ngā whakahaerenga iwi me te āta whakanohoho haere ki ngā taone nunui. Mai i te tekau tau 1970, nō te tītokotanga ake o te tuakiri ahurea a te Māori ka noho koia hei tauira ki ngā tāngata whenua o te ao e tāmia ana i ō rātou nā whenua.

I te uru whakaara ka kaha ake te whakatumatuma i te Karauna kia whai hōnore te Tiriti o Waitangi. He karanga tēnei i pāoho mai i ngā iwi maha, me ngā rāngai Māori i ngā tāone, me ngā kaitautoko Pākehā hoki. Ko te iho ko te whenua. Otirā mai i te tekau tau 1970 e tāmia ana te Māori e te paheketanga ōhanga. Nō reira ko te whakaora anō i te ohaoha a te Māori tētahi mea nui hei whakatau ake i te rangatiratanga.

Footnotes

The Waitangi Tribunal and negotiated settlements

Ngā kerēme tiriti o mua

I 1975 i hanga te kāwanatanga Reipa i te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi; ki te tūtohu ki te kāwana, mā āna whakatau e pā ana ki ngā kerēme mohoa. Engari ko te nuinga o ngā kerēme mō ngā hapa tōmua o te whakataiwhenuatanga. Ka mārama ake tēnei āhuatanga i te tekau tau 1980, i te tūnga o Taihākurei Durie ki te piki tūranga heamana, ā, ka werohia a Reipa ki te whakamana i te taraipiunara kia rongo i ngā kerēme mai anō i te tau 1840. Taihoa i te rironga ki a Reipa te kōwhiringa pōti i te tau 1984, ka whakahoutia te ture Tiriti o Waitangi 1975, kia rangona hoki ngā kerēme mai i te tau 1840. Mai i konā ka puta ngā pūrongo maha a te taraipiunara ki ngā whenua, ngā taiao, ngā ahurea me te rironga o te reo – katoa i tūāpapatia i runga i ngā hapa o mua. 

I runga i ngā kitenga a te taraipiunara ka tautokotia ngā nawe kerēme. He nui ōna tūtohu whakawhiti whenua, moni hoki ki te ringaringa Māori. Tāpiri atu ko ngā utu mō ngā hinganga o mua, i taka ai te Māori ki te koremahi; tētahi take i whaiarotia. Nā te mea i whai whanaungatanga ngā take utu ki ngā mātāpono tiriti (i hua ake i ngā urupare ki ngā whakatau kōti me te taraipiunara), me whai hononga rawa te Karauna me te Māori. 

Rangapū Tiriti o Waitangi o Te Tari Ture 

Nā te tokomaha o ngā tūtohu whakataunga taraipunara, ka hangaia e te kāwanatanga te Rangapū Tiriti o Waitangi o Te Tari Ture (TOWPU). Ko tōna mahi he tuku āwhina ki ngā minita e pā ana ki ngā take tiriti. Ka mutu i te tau 1989 ka whakatakoto a Pirimia David Lange i ngā mātāpono tiriti e rima e pā ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te tuarima ka whakaae kei te Karauna te kawenga ki te tuku i tētahi tukanga e whai wāhi ai te whakaea i ngā nawe Tiriti.1

Ko te Rangapū Tiriti o Waitangi te kaipara i te huarahi o tēnei tukanga, ā, ko te tuatahi o ngā kerēme ko tō Waikato-Tainui. Ahakoa e āhei ana te takitahi kia whakatakoto kerēme ki te taraipiunara, ko te hiahia o te Karauna kia whiriwhiri kōrero ki ngā iwi, minenga iwi rānei. Nō reira hei roto i te whakataunga kotahi whakakapihia ai ngā kerēme maha.

Ngā whakataunga tiriti tuatahi 

Kīhai te Tiriti o Waitangi i whakauruhia i ngā whakataunga o te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900. Kāti, i te tau 1989 ka whakatauria tētahi kerēme whenua i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka mutu ko te whakahokinga tērā o ngā whenua i ngā ana i Waitomo (he wāhi tūruhi nui) ki ngā hapū nō rātou aua ana. Ko ngā whakahaerenga tūruhi me ētahi atu mahinga  whakahaere ngātahi i te taha o te Papa Atawhai; ko ngā moni mō te hungā tāpoi me ngā hoko taonga ka hauruatia e te Karauna me ōna kaipupuri Māori. Kātahi ka tuku te Karauna i te pūtea taurewa o te $1 miriona ki ngā kaipupuri hei wāhi ki ō rātou utu raihana.

Whakataunga hī ika

He rahi anō ngā whakataunga ka tatū i ngā tau tata i muri mai. Ko te mea nui rawa o ēnei ko te whakataunga kaimoana i te tau 1989. I te tau 1992 ka whakatau te kāwanatanga i te whakataunga mutunga mō ngā ahuika Māori. Koinei te tuatahi o ngā whakataunga mutunga mō ngā iwi katoa. Ka tautokotia rātou kia hoko i te 50 ōrau o Sealords; ka tītarihia te 20 ōrau o te pūnaha hī ika me te whakatūnga o tētahi kōmihana hei whakahaere i ā rātou rawa. Tōpū e $170 miriona te uara o tēnei whakataunga. I roto anō i te whakataunga ko te wawaotanga o ētahi tikanga mahi kai a te Māori.

Footnotes
    • Principles for Crown action on the Treaty of Waitangi. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Department of Justice, 1989 p. 15. Back

Different paths to settlement

Te taraipiunara, te kāwanatanga rānei

Ahakoa ngā pōhēhē a Nāhinara i te pakanga pōti o te tau 1990, kua kaha rawa te ahu whakamua o te mana o te tangata whenua. Heoi i hōhā ētahi Māori i te pōturi o te tukanga whakataunga, me te nui o te utu o te haere ki te taraipiunara. Ka mutu i hiahia hoki ngā minenga iwi o Waikato-Tainui ki te kōrero whiriwhiri tōtika ki te kāwanatanga. Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero i pā ki te pāhuatanga o Waikato i te tau 1864.

Ka mutu ko tā ētahi iwi ka haere tika tonu ki te kāwanatanga hei whakatau i ōna nawe, ā, ka whakahipaina te taraipiunara. Ko te tauira mō ngā kōrero whiriwhiri he mea kapo mai i Kānata, ā, ko te Rangapū Tiriti o Waitangi i te ihu o te waka ki te whakamōhiohio i ngā tari kāwanatanga mō ngā whakataunga – me ngā pūrongo, kitenga hoki a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. 

Mai te pouri ki te ao mārama

Nāwai ko te Minita Ture ko Doug Graham te minita i whai wāhi nui ki ngā whakataunga tiriti, ā, i te tau 1993 ka riro tūturu i a ia te tūnga hōu hei minita mō ngā take Tiriti. Nō konā kua tīmata kē ētahi kōrero i waenganui i ētahi iwi nui pērā i a Waikato-Tainui me Ngāi Tahu o Te Waipounamu; tae atu hoki ki ētahi kerēme iti. Ko tā Kereama he tuku ki te Māori te whakataunga pai rawa e puta ai rātou mai i te pouri ki te ao mārama.1 Ahakoa he kongakonga noa iho ngā utu i te wāriu ake o te whenua i ngaro; ko te whāinga kia tukuna ki ngā iwi te āheinga ki te whakatipu i a rātou anō. Hei kīnaki i ngā whakataunga, ko te whakapāha a te Karauna mō ōna hara o mua. Ko tā te titiro a ētahi Māori, he pīnati noa iho ngā utu, engari i kite tonu rātou he huarahi pea tēnei hei whakakaha i te iwi. 

Te tino māharahara

I roto tonu i te whakataunga a Tainui-Waikato ko te whakapāha a te Kuini o Ingarangi, a Irihāpeti tuarua; i puakina e ia i tōna haerenga mai ki Aotearoa i te tau 1995. Ko ētahi o ngā kōrero ēnei o taua whakapāha:

‘1. Ka whakaae te Karauna i mahi hē ngā māngai me ngā kanohi o te Karauna, i takahia hoki te Tiriti o Waitangi i āna whiriwhiri ki te Kiingitanga me Waikato i te tononga o ana marau ki tua o te aukati i Mangataawhiri i te Hūrae o 1863, me te kī teka he iwi whakakeke a Waikato.

‘2. Ka huaina e te Karauna tōna tino pāpōuri me tōna whakapāha nui mō ngā tāngata i whakamatea i te pāhuatanga me te orotātanga o ngā kāinga me te pāpori.’

Te whakataunga a Waikato Tainui

I te maramara o Mei 1995 ka hainatia te whakataunga raupatu i waenganui i te Karauna me Waikato-Tainui. Ko te tuatahi o ngā whakataunga raupatu tēnei ki ngā iwi, ā, ko ētahi o ngā īnati o roto, he whenua kāwanatanga, he moni, hui katoa neke atu i te $170 miriona te wāriu. Nāwai i te tau 2010 ka tatū ngā kerēme a Waikato ki te awa o Waikato.

Whakataunga ki a Ngāi Tahu

I pā te kerēme a Ngāi Tahu ki te 34.5 miriona eka whenua i hokona e te Karauna i waenganui i te tekau tau 1840 me te tekau tau 1860. E ai ki te pūrongo a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1991; he kore whakaaro noa tā te kāwanatanga hokohoko haere i ngā whenua me tōna takatakahi i te tiriti. Ko te whakautu a te Karauna ko te whakatinana i te hiahia o te iwi kia whakahokia mai ōna mana kohi taonga, ōna mana ki te taiao me āna taonga tae rawa atu ki ngā whenua kei te papa atawhai. I te tau 1998 ka hua ko te $170 miriona hei whakamahu i ngā mamae o mua. Tāpiri atu ko ētahi whakamahutanga ahurea me te mana pupuri o te pounamu. Kātahi ka whakahokia te maunga o Aoraki ki Mt Cook, ā, ka whakahokia hoki tērā ki a Ngāi Tahu. Nā Ngāi Tahu i takoha anō ki te hapori o Aotearoa.

Footnotes
    • Douglas Graham, Trick or treaty? Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Institute of Policy Studies, 1997, p. 49. Back

Refining the settlement process

Te awhi i te whanaketanga o ngā whakataunga

He maha ngā tūāhua i whakaurua hei awhi i te whanake haere o ngā whakataunga:

  • Kia tirohia rā anō e te Karauna kua mana i te iwi ōna māngai, kātahi ka kōrero whiriwhiri te Karauna ki ērā māngai.
  • Ko te hua o ngā kōrerorero whai muri i ngā pakanga ki te kōti; ko te taunga o ngā ‘whakamaharatanga’ ki runga ki ngā taitara whenua a te Karauna e whitikina nei ki ngā hinonga kāwanatanga. Ko te hunga ka hoko i ēnei rawa Karauna me whakaae rawa kia hoko anō i aua rawa ki te Karauna, āpā noa he whakataunga kokoraho ki ērā rawa.
  • Ko ērā toenga whenua Karauna ka tohea e ngā kaikokoraho i tō rātou whakataunga tiriti ka whakauruhia ki roto i tētahi pēke whenua, ara ‘land bank’. Nō te tau 2011, 15 ngā peke whenua ā-rohe ka taka ki raro i te Tari Whakatau Take Tiriti. I hangā te tari i te tau 1995 ki roto ki te Manatū Ture; hei whakakapi hoki i te Rangapū Ture o te Tiriti o Waitangi.
  • Ko ētahi atu kīnaki a te Karauna i roto i āna whakataunga ko ngā utu tauraro (down-payment) mō ngā whakataunga mutunga; te whakakore i te here a te Karauna ki ngā tahataha awaawa ka whakahokia; me te whakahokinga o ētahi atu taonga tuku iho. 

Ngā tūmomo wāhanga o te whakataunga

Ko ngā wāhanga nui ēnei e eke rawa ai tētahi kokoraho:

  • Ko te āta whakatau i te āhua ake o te hapa (mā ngā rangahau hōhonu me ētahi rongo kōrero i mua ake i te horanga ki mua i te aroaro o te taraipiunara)
  • Ko te āta whakatau kua whakamanahia te kaikerēme e tōna (ōna rānei) iwi ki te whiriwhiri whakataunga
  • Ko te whakatau i tētahi whakaaetanga tōmua, ka mutu mā te iwi rā anō e whakamana
  • Ko te whakatau i te whakataunga kerēme, me te āta whakatakoto i ngā taipitopito o te whakataunga me ngā kerēme e pā ana ki te Karauna
  • Ko te waihanga ture hei whakaū i te whakataunga.

Ngā wāhanga o tētahi whakataunga tiriti

Kei roto i te whakataunga tiriti:

  • ko tētahi whakaraupapatanga kōrero mō ngā take o te kerēme e whakaaetia nei e te Karauna me te rāngai tono
  • ko te whakaaetanga a te Karauna ki ōna hēnga me tāna kupu whakapāha ki a rātou
  • ko te whakaritenga o tētahi utu moni, whenua Karauna rānei hoki me ētahi atu āhuatanga – pērā i te mana tuatahi kia hoko whenua Karauna
  • ko te whakaritenga utu ahurea; pēnā i te whakahoki i te mana o te kaikerēme ki ōna wāhi kai me ētahi atu wāhi whai hiranga
  • ko te whakaaetanga ki te panoni i ngā ingoa ake o ngā wāhi; pēnei nei i Ninety Mile Beach; ka whakahokia ki tōna ingoa, a Te Oneroa a Tōhē.

Te whakakōpani i te whakataunga

He āhuatanga whakamāheahea katoa mō ngā taha e rua te tatūnga o tētahi whakataunga. Rua rau neke atu ngā uri o Waikato-Tainui i muimui i te taiwhanga pāremata i te tau 2010 ki te whakarongo ki te pānuitanga mutunga mō te pire e pā ana ki tō rātou awa a Waikato. Hei roto i te whakataunga ka whakahaere ngātahi a Waikato i te awa. Ka whakaaetia hoki te hī tuna, te hopu inanga, te whakarewa waka me te amo tūpāpaku ki ngā urupā.

Te whakataunga ‘Treelords’

Whai muri i te whakataunga o Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1998; 15 ngā whakataunga ka whakatauria, ā, tau iho ki te tau 2008. Kei ngā miriona tāra e haere ana te wāriu o ērā whakataunga. Ko te mea nui rawa atu ko tērā o Treelords’ i hainatia e ngā iwi o te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui. Tōpū e $196 miriona te uara o te whenua ngāherehere ka whakahokia ki ngā iwi. Tāpiri atu ko te whiwhi ki te utu rēti ($223 miriona) i heipū mai anō i te tau 1989. 

Te whanake haere o ngā whakataunga, tau 2011

Taka rawa ki te tau 2011 e 44 ngā kaitono kua whakatau kerēme. 15 anō ngā rōpū kua haina i ngā kaupapa whiriwhiringa me ngā whakaaetanga tōmua rānei – he tukanga tōmua ēnei i mua i te whakataunga. Ka mutu ko ēnei whiriwhiringa katoa i pā ki te nuinga o ngā rohe iwi o Aotearoa. 


Problems for treaty settlements

Ko te whakapae a te kaiārahi o Aotearoa Tuatahi a Winston Peters; he mahi touareare noa iho te kerēme a ētahi ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. 

Ko te māharahara a ngā kaitaunaki taiao ko te pānga o ētahi kerēme ki ngā whenua papa atawhai, ā, tērā hoki te māharahara o ngā Pākehā kei tāmia hoki ō rātou mana. Ko tētahi mea ka maharatia e te Karauna ko te whakatutū puehu anō i tōna whakatika i ngā hapa o mua; whāia ka whakahē ia ki te whakahokinga o ngā whenua kei te tūmataiti e pupuri ana. Ko Public Access NZ tētahi rōpū kōkirikiri i ngā take whakahē i ngā whakataunga tiriti.

Arā anō ngā uauatanga i ngā whiriwhiringa a te Karauna kia kōrerorero me ngā kaitono a ngā whakaminenga iwi nui. Ko tā ētahi he pai ake kia kōrero te Karauna ki ngā hapū. Engari ko te urupare a te Karauna he uaua rawa, ā, he maha ngā pōrarutanga i tērā huarahi.

Ko te mana whiriwhiri tonu ki ngā kerēme tētahi take e tautohe nuitia ana ki te Karauna; i waenganui hoki i ngā iwi.

Tāpiri atu ka taupatupatu hoki ko ngā paenga whenua iwi, hapu hoki; he take e whakatatūria haeretia nei i ēnei rā mā ngā whakaaetanga e pā ana ki te mana whakawhitiwhiti.

Te hōhā o te iwi ki te tiriti, me ētahi atu tautohetohe

Ko ētahi atu raru i pā ki te tukanga whakatau kokoraho tiriti:

  • ko te ‘hōhā ki te tiriti’ i waenganui i te  Pākehā
  • te meatanga a ngā kaitōrangapū me ētahi rōpū tauiwi he whakahāwea tērā ki ētahi atu iwi tāngata
  • ko te meatanga he takahi te tukanga whakataunga i te kotahitanga ā-motu, i te iwimahatanga rānei
  • ko te āhua tonu o ngā ture whakataunga ka noho hei painga anake mō ngā rangatira o ngā iwi, mō te iwi Māori anake rānei; ahakoa kua moemoe ngā tāngata o ngā iwi rerekē
  • Arā anō ngā raru mō te Karauna. I ngā rongo taraipiunara mō Ngāpuhi ka whakatau te iwi kāore ia i tuku i tōna mana i tōna hainatanga i te tiriti. 

Ngā whakaōritenga

Me āta tiro i ngā whakataunga ko te nui o te kerēme a te kaitono; me te kino o ngā whatinga o te tiriti. He uaua hoki ki te Karauna te whakatau i te whakataunga mutunga, me te kore whāki ki ngā kaitono i te tāpeke utu ka tukuna ki ētahi atu. Kāti i te tau 1994 nā te kāwanatanga i uruhi te kōpaki pūtea $1 piriona; hei utu mō ngā whakataunga tiriti katoa. Inā te huhua o ngā whakahē ka puta i te iwi Māori, ā, nāwai ka whakakorea. I taua wā kua oti kē te whakataunga tiriti o Tainui, ā, e 17 ōrau o te tāpeke ‘kōpaki pūtea’ (tau 1994). Nō muri mai ka noho ētahi ritenga whakaōrite (relativity clause) mō ērā iwi i whai i ērā ritenga ki roto ki ō rātou whakataunga. Arā, ki te neke atu te whika whakapau i te kotahi piriona, kua whakapikihia anō ngā utu ki ērā iwi (me te whakarite ki te whakapikinga utu mai i te tau 1994).

Te ia o ngā whakataunga 

Nō te rironga i a Michael Cullen (Pirimia tuarua o te kāwanatanga Reipa) te tūnga Minita Take Tiriti i te tau 2007, ka hohoro ake te haere o ngā whakataunga. Ka haere tonu ngā whakataunga i te ekenga o Nāhinara ki te kāwanatanga i te tau 2008; ko Chris Finlayson tōna Minita Take Tiriti. Nā te hohoro o te haere o ngā whakataunga ka whakapae ētahi kei te pēpēhi te kāwanatanga i ngā iwi kia āta tau. Engari arā anō ētahi i mea kua roa rawa nei rātou e tatari ana kia tirohia ā rātou kerēme.

Ngā rā kei mua

Ahakoa ngā piki me ngā heke kua whakaaetia te tukanga whakataunga e te hunga tōrangapū me te tūmatanui. I te tau 2008 ka whakatauria kāore e āhei te tono kerēme tiriti o mua, whai muri i te tau 2008. I tērā tau ka toa i a Nāhinara te kōwhiringa pōti ā-motu, ā, ka whakatau rātou ko te tau 2014 hei tau whakamutunga mō ngā whakataunga kerēme katoa.

He tere tonu te whakaotinga o ngā whakataunga, ā, kua whitikina ētahi taonga nui me te tukunga o ngā kupu whakapāha. Ki te whakatauritetia ki ērā tukanga whakataunga o te ao, kei runga noa atu a Aotearoa e haere ana mō te whakamahu i ngā nawe ki ngā tūkinotanga i runga i ngā iwi tāngata whenua.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Richard S. Hill, 'Ngā whakataunga tiriti', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-whakataunga-tiriti/print (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Richard S. Hill, published 20 Jun 2012