Kōrero: Ngā whare taonga

Whārangi 1. Ngā taonga Māori me ngā whare taonga Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua

Nō te taenga mai o Kāpene Kuki i te tau 1769 ka takoha te Māori i āna taonga ki te Pākehā. Ka riro te mana o ēnei taonga mai i te ao taketake a te Māori i te ture o te Pākehā, otirā i ōna whare pupuri taonga. Mai i taua wā ka riro te mano taonga i te Pākehā i te tuku whakaaetanga, i te hoko, i te tuopu me te tāhae. Ka hokona e ngā whare taonga me ngā kaipupuri taonga ngā taonga Māori, ka tuopu rānei mō ētahi taonga o tāwāhi, ā, tau rawa atu ngā taonga a te Māori ki ngā whare taonga nui whakaharahara o te ao.

I toko ake ngā whare taonga i te huanga whakamīharo o te ao ahumahi o Ūropi, me te whakamoana atu ki ngā whenua o iwi kē. Ko tā ngā mana nui o te ao, arā, a Peretānia, a Wīwī, a Tiamana, e Peina me Hōrana, he tohe mō te ao. Ko te kohinga tēnā o ngā taonga a ngā tāngata whenua o te ao me te whakaatu ki ngā pūtahi pērā i te Whare Taonga o Peretānia. Ka noho ko ngā taonga hei whakatinana i te whakataiwhenuatanga o te Pākehā.

I ēnei rā kāore tonu e ārikarika ngā taonga Māori kei ngā whare taonga o tāwāhi. He wā ka ngana te iwi Māori ki te whakahoki mai i ngā taonga, tae rawa ki ngā kōiwi tangata. Ko te whare o Ruatepupuke anō tētahi tauira. Kei te Whare Taonga o Chicago Field Museum tēnei whare, ka mutu, kua tau te kōrero i waenganui i te whare taonga me ōna uri me pēhea hoki te whakaatu atu i te wharenui.

Ngā tau o ngā whakakitenga

I hangaia ngā whare taonga tuatahi o Aotearoa i te wā e hīkaka ana te ao ki ngā whakakitenga pērā i te Whakakitenga Nui ki Rānana i te tau 1851. I tonoa hoki ngā taonga mai i Aotearoa ki ngā whakakitenga i tāwāhi, ā, he nui tonu ngā whakakitenga i tū ki Aotearoa tonu. Ka mutu ko tana kaupapa kē he whakaatu i te whanaketanga o te Pākehā. Ko te Whakakitenga ā-Ao i Philadelphia tētahi taiopenga i whai wāhi te Māori ki te whakaatu i āna taonga.

Ngā whare taonga koronī

I te whakatūnga o ngā kāwanatanga o ngā koroni, ka whakatūria wawetia hoki ngā whare taonga hei whakaatu i te whanaketanga o te Pākehā ki Amerika, ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia. I te tau 1852 ka whakatūria te kāwanatanga Pākehā tuatahi o Aotearoa ki Tāmaki-makaurau. Ōrua mai ko te whakatuwherahanga o te whare taonga tuatahi o te motu, arā, te Auckland Institute. Whai muri atu ka whakatūria te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa ki Pōneke (i te tau 1865), te Whare Taonga o Ōtākou ki Ōtepoti ( i te tau 1868) me te Whare Taonga o Waitaha ki Ōtautahi (i te tau 1870). Ka whakaaturia ngā ‘taonga rerekē’ ki ēnei whare taonga katoa. Ka noho ēnei taonga hei tauira o te muru raupatu o ngā rawa a te Māori.

Te kāhaki i Te Hau-ki-Tūranga

I waihangatia e Raharuhi Rukupō mā a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga i te tekau tau 1840 ki Ōrākaiapu, e pātata ana ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. I te tau 1867 ka murua e te Minita Māori e James Richmond te whare, ā, ka kāhakina ki te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara; ahakoa anō te whakahē a Rongowhakaata. I te tau 2011 e tū tonu ana te whare ki Te Papa Tongarewa. I tērā tau ka whakaaetia e te Karauna i te tau 2017 ka whakahokia te whare ki a Rongowhaaata.

Ngā taonga rerekē

Ka aua atu te wā, ā, ka panoni ngā whare taonga i ngā kupu hei whakamahuki i ngā taonga Māori. I te paunga atu o te rautau 1700 ki ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1800 ka kīia ngā taonga Māori ‘ko ngā hanga mīharo o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa’. Nō te wāhitanga o te ao Māori i te rironga o ngā whenua i te rautau 1800 ka kaha ake te riro atu o ngā taonga me ngā kōiwi tangata. I tērā wā ka kīia ngā taonga Māori ki roto i ngā whare taonga he taonga nā te iwi mate, ā tōna wā ka pikitia e te Pākehā.

Nō te tekau tau 1920 ko te mātauranga tikanga tangata te tikanga nui rawa hei rangahau i ngā pūtake mai o te tangata. Kātahi ka kohia ngā taonga hei rangahau, hei whakataurite atu ki ngā tauira o te ao mātauranga momo tangata, mātauranga taiao hoki. I roto i te mātauranga whaipara tangata, ka kīia te taonga Māori ‘he taputapu nō uki’.

He toi taonga

I te tekau tau 1960 ka whai te ao toi o te wā i ngā taiwhanga o Amerika, ā, ka whakamahia te taonga Māori hei ‘toi ukiuki’. Ko tā ngā whare taonga whakahau i te tekau tau 1980 he toi Māori kē te taonga. Ahakoa kua panoni haere ngā whare taonga i ngā whakamahuki mō te taonga Māori, ka ū tonu ki tā rātou whakaatu i ngā taonga Māori. I ia wā huri ai te ingoa o ngā taonga ka kitea te āhua ake o te iwi manene, ā, tē aro ki te āhua ake o te iwi nā rātou tonu aua taonga i waihanga. Ko tētahi o ngā mātāpono Māori tē arohia i ngā whare taonga, ko te tikanga o te takoha taonga tētahi ki tētahi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paora Tapsell, 'Ngā whare taonga - Ngā taonga Māori me ngā whare taonga Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-whare-taonga/page-1 (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Paora Tapsell, published 22 Oct 2014