Kōrero: Ngāi Māori hākinakina

Whārangi 1. Te Māori me te hākinakina i te rautau 1800

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I te taunga mai o te Pākehā ka tau anō ōna hākinakina. I roto i te ao Pākehā, ka haere ngātahi te hākinakina i tō rātou taha huri noa. Ka ngana rātou ki te whakawai i te Māori ki ngā hākinakina o Uropi. Ka whai tonu te Māori, engari ka whakauru anō tōna ahurea anō ki ngā hākinakina. I hāngai te aro ki te kēmu whutupōro nei, ā, kāore i tino ngākaunui ki ētahi atu o ōna hākinakina pērā i te kirikiti. 

Ka rere katoa te Māori ki te whakatū tīma ā-iwi, ki te whakahaere i ngā whakataetae ā-iwi, me te whakatakoto papa tēnehi ki runga tonu i te marae. I whakaurua ngā whakataetae hākinakina ki ngā hui ā-tau.

Ngā hākinakina me te whakawaimehatanga

E ai ki te niupepa Times o Rānana i te tau 1888: ‘he tohu tēnei nā ngā pūkenga whakataiwhenua i āhei ai te iwi manene ki te whakatō i te aroha mō ngā tākaro nei ki waenganui tonu i te tangata whenua … Ki hea haere ai te Ingarihi, hari anō ai ia i āna patu pōro me ngā poupiro whutupōro.‘1

Kirikiti

E kitea ana i ngā kōrero i te takiwā tōmua o 1800 ka tākaro tonu te Māori i te kirikiti. I te tau 1832 ka tuhia e Henry Williams ngā āhuatanga o tētahi kēmu kirikiti i tū ki Paihia, arā, he Māori, he Pākehā hoki ngā tāhae i tākaro tahi. I te tau 1835 ka kite a Charles Darwin i ētahi Māori e purei kirikiti ana ki Waimate, waihoki ki te Tai Tokerau hoki. E ai ki ngā kōrero a Reiri Ann Martin i te tau 1848 mō te waihangatanga o te kura Māori o Hato Hoani: ‘He whīra anō mō te tākaro kirikiti (e ōrite ana te tohunga o ngā tāhae Māori me ngā tāhae Pākehā ki te tākaro.’2

Ka tākaro anō te Māori ki te Pākehā. Ko te tauira ko te kēmu a te karapu kirikiti teina Māori i tau 1882, ki ngā tāhae o te karapu wheketere wūru o Kaiāpoi. I te mutunga, e 94 piro ki te kapa Māori, e 35 ki te kapa Pākehā. Kotahi te kaitākaro, arā ko J. Uru (ko John Hopere Wharewiti Uru) ka whiwhi i te 39 piro, he tokomaha ake i te tōpūtanga o ngā kaute o te hoariri.

Ka pakanga anō ngā tīma Māori ki a rātou anō. I te tau 1898 ka tākaro a Raetihi ki a Pipiriki. Ko Pipiriki i nanao tuatahi ki te patu, ā, e 46 te hua. I muri mai ka 85 ngā piro ki a Raetihi. I te wāhanga tuarua ka kake a Pipiriki ki te 55 piro mō ngā wīkiti e toru. Muri tata tonu iho ka whakakorea te kēmu i te āwhā me te whatitiri. Ka whakatauria mā Pipiriki te wikitōria, nā te ruarua noa iho o ngā wiki rātou e whakangungu ana.

Ka eke tonu ētahi Māori ki ngā kapa kirikiti porowini, pērā i a John Grey Taiaroa te kaihahau mō te kapa o Te Matau-a-Māui i ngā tau o 1890; me John Hopere Wharewiti Uru (nō Ngāi Tahu) te kaiepa rere o Waitaha i ngā tau o 1890 hoki.

Heoi, ehara te kirikiti i te kēmu e muia ana e te Māori. Ahakoa ka ngana a Te Aute ki te poipoi i te kēmu, ko te raruraru kē he hararei ngā taitama i te wāhanga tākaro kirikiti o te tau.

Mekemeke

Kua aua atu te wā te Maori e whai wāhi ana ki te mekemeke. I te tau 1883 ka tūmātakitahi a Herbert Slade o Ngāpuhi ki te toa o Amerika a John L. Sullivan ki te Māra Tapawhā o Madison ki te Āporo Nui. I mua tonu i te marea 130,000 te rahi, ka pūkai ia i te rauna tuatoru.

Whutupōro

E ai ki ngā tuhinga ko te kaitākaro whutupōro Māori tuatahi o te ao ko Wirihana. Ākuanei ko Wirihana Puna tonu tēnei tangata, arā, he rūtene nā te kaingārahu, nā Meiha Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui. I uru ia ki tētahi kēmu ki Aramoho, i Whanganui i te tau 1872.

Te tīma Māori o ngā tau 1888-89

Nā Joe Warbrick i whakatū te tīma Māori o te tau 1888. He Māori anake ngā kaitākaro, engari nā te mimiti haere o te puna tangata tokorima ngā Pākehā i whakaaetia ki te tīma. Tokorima ngā tungāne o te whānau Warbrick (nō Ngāti Rangitihi) i te tīma, tae atu ki te kaitākaro rongonui ki a Tāmati Rangiwāhia Ellison. Nā Ellison i maka te rarauhe hiriwa ki runga i te kahu pango. Nāwai ā, ka noho tēnei hei tohu whakahirahira mō te motu. Koia hoki te kāpene o te tīma tuatahi o Aotearoa. I te tau 1902 ka tuhi ia i tāna pukapuka, The art of rugby football.

15 marama te tīma Māori e tākaro ana ki Aotearoa, Ahitereiria me Peretānia. Tōpū katoa 108 ngā kēmu i tākaro ai rātou. Kātahi anō he tīma o Aotearoa ka haere tawhiti ake i Ahitereiria. Ko tēnei te haerenga whutupōro roa rawa, ā, mohoa noa nei.

Te Peihipōro

I te tau 1889 ka whakatūria te Karapu Peihipōro Māori ki roto o Waiwhetū. Kei ngā rārangi o ngā mema me ngā kaiwhakahaere ka kitea ngā ingoa whānau rongonui o Te Āti Awa: ko te perehitini o te karapu ko Ēnoka Te Taitea, ko tōna tuarua ko Pero Te One. Ko T. M. Tāniora Love te kāpene, ko Utiku Love te kaitiaki pūtea.

Ngā Kaipara

I te tekau tau 1890 tokorua ngā kaipeke pou i eke ki te karamatamata o te ao kaipara. Ā, he ōrite tō rāua toa ki ērā o te tuakoi raki o te ao. Ka mutu i te tau 1897 ka whiwhi a Hōri Eruera i te taitara Australasian, ā, i te tau 1899 ka whiwhi a Jimmy Te Paa i te taitara.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Quoted in Greg Ryan, Forerunners of the All Blacks: the 188889 New Zealand Native football team in Britain, Australia and New Zealand. Ōtautahi: Canterbury University Press, 1993, p. 50. Back
  2. Lady Martin, Our Maoris. Rānana: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1884, p. 63, http://www.enzb.auckland.ac.nz/document?wid=661&page=1 (last accessed 13 August 2013). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Ngāi Māori hākinakina - Te Māori me te hākinakina i te rautau 1800', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngai-maori-hakinakina/page-1 (accessed 23 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 5 Sep 2013