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Oneone – soils

by Basil Keane

E ai ki te Māori i auahangia te wahine tuatahi i te one o Papatūānuku. Whāia, i tōna hokinga ki Hawaiki, ka kōrero a Kupe mō ngā whenua haumako ki Aotearoa. Neke atu i te 30 ngā momo oneone i āta tohungia e te Māori. Waihoki, i ako te Māori me pēhea te whakatakoto me te kerikeri i ngā māra kūmara kia whai hua ai.


Uses of soil

Ngā momo oneone

Neke atu i te 30 ngā momo o te oneone i tātaria e te Māori.

Ko te one-parakiwai he oneone i kawea e te waipuke, ko te one-pū ko te kirikiri, ko te one-nui, he whakawhenumitanga o te uku, te one-pū me ētahi whakahaumako. He momo uku te keretū, te kerematua me te kerewhenua.

He one puia te tenga kākāriki, kei ngā whenua i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. I tapaa ko te tenga kākāriki nā te rite o te one nei ki te nae o te kākāriki.

Te whakatipu kūmara

Anei he kōrero nā tētahi kaumātua o Ngāti Kahungunu mō te pai o ētahi momo one hei whakatipu kūmara:

Mēnā he one-matua te oneone i taua māra kūmara, me whakawhenumi ki te kirikiri; mā te kirikiri hei whakakaha atu. Ka anuanu te tangata ki tēnei mahi nā te uaua ki te kawe i te kirikiri. He pai mēnā he one-paraumu, he māmā hoki te mahi, ko te kirikiri ka ruia ki raro i ngā rau kia kore ai e pāngia e te paru me te mākū. Ki te kore he wāhi one-paraumu, ka pai noa atu te one-haruru hei whakatipu kūmara. Kaua e whāwhā ki te one-tuatara, he uaua rawa atu te tāmata me te waha kirikiri hei tāpiri.1

Te whakawhenumi oneone

Ko te oneone pai mō te ono kūmara ko te one māmā, mahana, one-pū hoki. Ki te kore e pēnei, ka tahuri te Māori ki te tāpiri i te kirikiri me te one-pū ki te oneone, kia aha ai, kia rere noa atu ai te wai; he wā anō ka whakamahia te ngārahu, te anga rānei. He nui te kirikiri i keria i runga i tēnei kaupapa, ā, kitea tonutia ai ngā rua kerikeri i ēnei rā.

I whakawhenumitia pēneitia ai ngā oneone ki Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Wai Pounamu; kīia ai e te Pākehā, he oneone plaggen.

Te whakatipu taro

Ka kite te mihinare rā a Te Koroneho, he rerekē te oneone mō te whakatipu kūmara tērā i te oneone mō te whakatipu taro; ‘kia haumākū te oneone … kia marewa kia hōhonu … kia onematua … ki ngā tahatika o ngā kōawa me ngā repo, ā, hei ētahi wā ki te take o ngā paripari i te taha moana.2 I Te Tai Tokerau, ka whakatipuria te taro ki ngā repo kua oti kē he hāwai te kerikeri.

He whakahaumako

Hei whakahaumako i te oneone, ka tāpaea te tarutaru me te pungarehu. I mua i te taenga o te Pākehā, kīhai he kararehe nui, whai anō kīhai he hamuti kararehe hei whakahaumako i te oneone. Nō te taenga o te Pākehā me āna kararehe rahi, kāore tonu te Māori i rata ki te hamuti kararehe hei whakahaumako, nā te wehi ki te pānga o te hamuti ki te kai. Ka hia whakatipuranga ka memeha haere i tēnei wehi.

He one tapu

Nō te tau 1929 ka tae te kaimātai tikanga tangata a Peter Buck (Te Rangi Hīroa) ki Ra‘iatea, takiwā ki Tahiti. Ka whakapae ētahi, koinei a Hawaiki. ‘I taku taenga ki reira, ka uru te whakaaro ki te kapu he one tapu mai i taku tapuwae tuatahi ki Havai‘i. Hauwarea ake. I ū kē mātou ki tētahi tauranga waka, ko ngā whare nunui kei tua. Hē katoa ki ahau.’’ 2

Te whakamahi uku

Ka tahuna te kōkōwai kia ea ake ai ko te hōrū. Ka pania te hōrū ki te tinana me te kanohi o te tangata, he tohu rangatira. I tua atu, ka pania ki te waka, ki te whare, tae rawa atu ki ngā kōiwi o te tangata i mate. Ka poipoi i te kōkōwai, kātahi ka tunu te ngārahu ki te ahi rānei, ka konatu ki te hinu mangō. Ko tākou te ingoa o tētahi atu momo hōrū.

He momo uku te taioma, ka tahuna, ka pehua, ka konatua ki te hinu kia puta te momo hinu tā, kīia ai ko taioma. Waihoki, tērā te pukepoto, he hinu kikorangi te tae. Ko te uku hei horoi. Hei ētahi wā ka pōkaia te kai ki te uku, ka waiho ki te ahi tunu ai.

Ngā ingoa wāhi

Ka tapaina ētahi wāhi ki te momo oneone o te takiwā:

  • Kenepuru (he parahua āhua kirikiri nei), kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara
  • Kereone (he one āhua kirikiri nei), tata ki Mōrena (Morrinsville)
  • Onetea (he one tea, āhua kirikiri), tata ki Tākiwira (Dargaville)
  • Te kūiti o Kōkōwai, i Taranaki
  • Taioma, i Ōtākou
  • Pukepoto, tata ki Kaitāia
  • Ōtākou.

Ko ētahi wāhi ka tapaa ki te momo uku, momo tae o te takiwā:

Footnotes
  1. Quoted in Elsdon Best, Māori agriculture: the cultivated food plants of the natives of New Zealand: with some account of native methods of agriculture, its ritual and origin myths. Wellington: Te Papa, 2005 (originally published 1925), p. 164. › Back
  2. Quoted in Māori agriculture, p. 134. › Back
  3. Peter Buck, Vikings of the sunrise. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1954, p. 83. › Back

Soil in Māori tradition

Te orokohanga o te ao

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, mai anō i te orokohanga o te ao, he hononga tō te Māori ki te oneone. Ko Papatūānuku te whaea, koia hoki te whenua. Ko te tangata tuatahi i auahangia mai i a ia, i te one i Kurawaka. Tērā hoki te kōrero, nā Tāne te wahine tuatahi a Hineahuone i auaha i te oneone, kātahi ka tihe i te mauri ora ki roto i a ia. Waihoki, ko ētahi e kī ana, he tāne kē te tangata tuatahi ki te ao, ko Tiki-āhua, nā te atua nā Tāne i pokepoke i te oneone.

Ngā korero i ngā waka heke

He kōrero ā te Māori mō ngā tāngata hōpara nō runga i ngā waka, i heke ki Aotearoa, ki te aru i te āhua me te pai o ngā oneone kei tēnā takiwā, kei tēnā rohe, kei tēnā whaitua.

Kupe

I tana hokinga ki Hawaiki, ka kōrero a Kupe mō te haumako o te one i Aotearoa, ‘Tērā he whenua kei tua atu o te rangi; he whenua kāpuapua, he whenua mākū, he one kakara. He pai te one ki Aotearoa, he one-paraumu.’1 

Te one ki Pātea

Ko Turi te rangatira i runga i a Aotea, ko tētahi kōrero mōna e mea ana ‘Te oneone i hongia e Turi’. Nā runga i ngā tohutohu a Kupe mō te one-kakara o taua rohe, ka haere a Turi ki Taranaki. He tino pai te one-kakara mō te whakatipu kūmara. Ka tae a Turi ki Pātea, ka hongi i te oneone. Nā runga i te kakara mārika o te one, ka noho a Turi me tōna iwi ki reira.

Te haumaru i te one

Ko Whātonga tētahi o ngā rangatira o te waka a Kurahaupō. I noho a ia ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia mō tētahi wā. Ka taka ki te wā, ka tono i āna tama a Tara rāua ko Tautoki, kia kimi wāhi pai atu hei whakatū kāinga mō rātou. Nāwai ā, ka tae te tokorua nei ki Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika, ka whakamātau ko hea ngā wāhi pai hei whakatipu kai. He one-matua ki Motu Kairangi (ko Miramar) me Porirua, heoi, kīhai e taea e te iwi iti te pana i te hunga ka hiahia whakaeke i ēnei wāhi. Ko te kōrero a te tokorua nei mō te oneone ki Te Wairarapa, he one-paraumu, he one-matua, he one-pākirikiri. Heoi, ko taua kōrero anō, kīhai e taea e te iwi iti te kaupare i te hunga whakaeke. Kātahi ka anga te titiro ki ngā moutere o Matiu (Somes Island) me Mākaro; he mōmona te oneone, ka taea hoki e te iwi iti te kaupare i te hunga whakaeke. Ka noho rāua ki reira.

Whangaparāoa

Tērā tētahi kōrero, ka heke a Tākitimu ki Aotearoa, ka ū ki Whangaparāoa i te taha rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Ko Tamatea te rangatira o runga i te waka. Kātahi ka pātai a ia ki a Hoturoa rāua ko Ngātoroirangi o runga i a Tainui mō te āhua o te whenua hou nei. Ka whakautu te tohunga a Ngātoroirangi:

He pai te whenua; he one-tai ētahi wāhi, he one-matua ētahi wāhi, he one-tuatara, he one-paraumu, he one-rere, he one-punga, he one-haruru, he one-puia, he one-kirikiri, he one-pōwhatu, he one-takataka.2

Ka hoki kāinga

 I te tau 1950 ka haere a Mrs Rora Fernandos ki te urupā o ngā toa i Anzio, whenua o Itari. Ka opeopea e ia he kapunga oneone mai i te rua takotoranga o Haihana Tionga Waaka o te tauārangi roera o Aotearoa (Royal New Zealand Air Force) hei whakahoki ki Aotearoa. I pūhia te waka rererangi o Waaka i Itari i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. E ai ki te kōrero, koia anake te Māori i tanumia ki taua urupā. E toru tau a Mrs Fernandos e rapu ana i te whānau o te tama toa nei a Waaka. I tana kitenga, ka tukua te kapunga one nei ki a rātou te whānau i Rotorua. 

Te one hei mauri

Whakamahia ai te one tapu me te kirikiri tapu hei mauri. Ko Ruawharo te tohunga o runga i a Takitimu i te tūnga o te waka ki Te Māhia, ki te whakanoho i tētahi pokapū kirikiri tapu mai i Hawaiki hei mauri mō ngā tohorā. Waihoki, nā te waka a Mataatua i mau he one tapu mai i te tūāhu i Rangiātea, ka whakanōhia ki te māra o Matirerau i Whakatāne.

Whāia, i mauria he one tapu ki Aotearoa mai i Rangiātea mā runga i te waka a Tainui. Nā Hoturoa te one tapu i kawe ki uta hei awhi i te hangatanga o tētahi tūāhu ki Kāwhia. Nō muri ka heria e Tūrongo tētahi kapunga o te one tapu rā ki Rangitoto i te riu o Waikato, ka hangaa tana tūāhu. I te hekenga o Ngāti Raukawa ki Ōtaki, ka tanumia he one tapu ki te taketake o te tūāhu hei mauri mō tō rātou whare karakia hou i tapaa ko Rangiātea.

Te hononga ki te oneone

Nui whakaharahara ki te Māori te hononga ki te whenua. Ko ngā kupu ‘ahu whenua’ me ‘ihu oneone’, mō te tangata pukumahi. Ka whānau mai he tamaiti ki te ao, ka tanumia tōna whenua ki te kōpū o te whenua. Mā te mate rā anō tēnei hononga e whakakapi.

Tērā te kōrero mō Māui i tono ki a Hinenui-te-pō kia whakaaetia te tangata kia mate pērā i te marama, arā, ka marewa te marama, ā, ka roroku, ka marewa anō, ā haere ake. Kāore a Hinenui-te-pō i whakaae, ko tana whakautu ki a Māui, ‘E kāo ka whakamatea e au te tangata i te ao i te pō, kia tangihia ai ō koutou mate, kia matemate-ā-one ai koutou ki a koutou anō.’

Ka hopukia he hoariri e whakahemohemo ana, e meinga ana rānei kia patua ki waho atu o tōna ake rohe, tērā ka tono a ia, ‘Tukua mai he kapunga one ki a au, hei tangi.’

Footnotes
  1. Te Mātorohanga, ‘The lore of the whare-wananga.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 22, no. 87 (1913), pp. 129–130, http://www.jps.auckland.ac.nz/document/Volume_22_1913 (last accessed 4 September 2008). › Back
  2. ‘Lore of the whare-wananga.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 24, no. 93 (1915), p. 1, http://www.jps.auckland.ac.nz/document/Volume_24_1915 (last accessed 4 September 2008). Translation by Basil Keane. › Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Oneone – soils', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/oneone/print (accessed 9 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008