This diagram of Dicranoloma robustum, common in forest and tussock grasslands, shows the main parts of a typical moss. The leafy stem supports a wiry stalk bearing a spore capsule. A young spore capsule has a protective hood (calyptra) and lid (operculum), which are shed when the capsule matures. Rhizoids anchor the moss to its substrate.
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Source: Jessica Beever and others, The mosses of New Zealand. Dunedin: Otago University Press, 1992, p. 46