Electricity was often used in addition to thermal treatments, as it was thought to increase blood flow to limbs and ease joint stiffness. The purpose of the alarming treatment shown here is unclear, but it appears to involve an electric current. Spas were as much pseudo-medical clinics as they were tourist facilities.
Te whakamahi i tēnei tūemi
Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, must be obtained before any re-use of this image.