During the 18th century, and probably earlier, there was considerable warfare between Māori tribes. This involved large investment in defensive fortifications such as this pā at Maungakiekie in Auckland. The destructive effects of fighting and the resources that were directed into building such pā absorbed much of the economic surplus and clearly affected the growth of capital such as preparation of new garden plots.
Te whakamahi i tēnei tūemi
Natural Sciences Image Library of New Zealand
Photograph by G. R. Roberts
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