Kōrero: Take whenua

Whārangi 1. Customary rights

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Mana whenua

He whīwhiwhi te pūnaha mana whenua a te Māori. Ko te mana whenua ia, ko te mana o te iwi ki tētahi whenua. Me te aha, he whīwhiwhi, he whakataetae ngā tika maha ki roto i tētahi rohe. Tū ai ngā kāinga o ngā hapū kia tata ai ki ngā rawa pērā i te kai, ko te pā kei te tū tata. Heoi, kei runga i tēnā kaupeka o te tau, i tēnā kaupeka o te tau ngā nekehanga o ngā hapori.

Ngā tika a te rōpū

Ka puritia ai te whenua i raro i te mana o te iwi, te hapū rānei, kāpā i te tangata kotahi. E kore e taea te wehe i ngā tika a te tangata kotahi – tae rawa atu ki te rangatira – mai i ngā tika o te hapū, o te iwi rānei.

Ngā tika nanao

Ka puritia e te iwi te mana ki te whenua. Hāunga, ka āhei te tangata kotahi, te whānau rānei te taunaha i tētahi pito whenua hei whakatō kai, hei hanga whare, hei tāhiti kiore, hei hopu manu, hei whakamau hīnaki, hei tua tōtara rānei mō te auaha waka. Ka taea e te tangata te whiwhi tika nanao hei mea tuku iho, hei takoha rānei, ā, ka taea hoki aua tika te tuku ki ōna uri – heoi, ka iri tonu te mana o te hapū ki runga i ēnei tika.

Ngā whenua tautohe

Hei ētahi wā, nā runga i ngā nekeneke me ngā taumau, ka hūnuku tētahi hapū, iwi rānei ki ngā whenua o tangata kē; i reira ka tipu te riri. Kīia ai ēnei whenua, he whenua tautohe. Ehara i te mea ruarua noa ēnei tautohe, nā te whanaungatanga rā i waenganui i ngā iwi me te noho tata tētahi ki tētahi.

Pou take-rua

Tērā te kōrero rongonui mō te kauhoe a Hinemoa ki tāna tahu a Tūtānekai e noho mai rā i Mokoia. I tana kauhoe atu, ka whakatā a Hinemoa ki tētahi o ngā tumu e tū ana i te roto o Rotorua. Ko Hinewhata te ingoa o te tumu nei, i titia ki te takere o te roto hei tonu ki te mana o Umukaria, te matua o Hinemoa.

Te whenua me te wai

Hōrapa ai te mana o te Māori ki runga i te whenua me te wai. Kapi katoa ai ngā takere o ngā roto, ngā awa, tae atu ki te moana, i te kupu whenua papatipu. I te haerenga atu o te minita mō ngā take Māori a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) me tōna tira ki Rotorua i te tau 1873, ka kī a Tāmihana Korokai, ‘Haere mai e koro ma! Haere mai ki Rotorua, te whenua o Ngatiwhakaue, moana kau.’ 1 Ka titia he pou ki te wai hei tohu nō wai te mana kei runga. Kīia ai ēnei pou, he tumu, ā, tapaina ai ki te ingoa tipuna.

Hei ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, ka wero ngā iwi o Te Arawa i te kerēme a te Karauna ki ngā takere o ngā roto i Rotorua. Ka tono āwhina te rōia matua i a Te Pēhi; ka tiki tērā i ngā kōrero a Te Rangikāheke e mea ana, ‘Ka hōrapa te mana o te ariki ki runga i te whenua me te roto, nā reira taea ai te kī, ko ētahi o ōna whenua kei te whenua, ko ētahi o ōna whenua kei roto kē i te wai.’ 2

Kupu tāpiri
  1. ‘Te haerenga o Te Makarini ki Te Tai Rawhiti me te takiwa ki Rotorua: trip of the Hon. The Native Minister to the East Coast and Rotorua districts.’ Te Waka Maori o Niu Tirani 10, no. 4 (24 Pepuere 1874): 45. › Back
  2. Mai i Alex Frame, Salmond: southern jurist. Te Whanganui-a-Tara : Victoria University Press, 1995, wh. 122–123. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith, 'Take whenua - Customary rights', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/take-whenua/page-1 (accessed 20 January 2020)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008