Kōrero: Take whenua

Whārangi 4. Te tuku me te noho

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Take tuku

He tikanga tuku te tuku whenua. Hei tā te kaimātai tikanga tangata a Raymond Firth, ‘ko te tuku whenua ki tētahi atu tētahi o ngā koha kāmehameha a te Māori, ka kitea ki ngā hui nui whakaharahara rawa atu.’ 1

I takoto i a Īhāia Hūtana o Ngāti Kahungunu ētahi take e whā mō te tuku whenua: 1. He ngaki mate, 2. He pā kūhā, 3. He kai-haukai, 4. He whanaunga i tono mō tētahi kāinga, tētahi mahinga kai rānei. 2

Tāpae toto

Ehara i te mea mō ake tonu atu te tuku whenua. Ka utaina he tikanga ki runga i ēnei tuku, pērā i te mahi kai mā te rangatira, te tautoko i ngā wā o te riri. He kawa ka takina mō ēnei tuku.

Nā Paora Te Putu o Pare Hauraki ngā whenua i Harataunga (Kennedy Bay) i tuku ki a Ngāti Porou. I tōna matenga, ka tukua ai e Ngāti Porou te mere a Whaita me tētahi korowai – he tohu mō te rangatira. Nā tēnei mahi me ngā moemoe, ka pūmau te noho o te iwi ki taua whenua. Hei tā Paki Harrison o Ngāti Porou, nā te tuku o ngā taonga, ka pūmau te noho ki te whenua.

Ka whai take rā mātou ngā uri ki te tohe mō tō mātou noho tūturu, hāunga i runga i te tāpae toto anake, engari mā roto i te whakapapa ka hono i a mātou ki a Ngāti Maru me ngā iwi noho tai. 3

Mā te tuku whenua hei whakaū i ngā tika me te whanaungatanga, ka tohu hoki i te mana o te iwi nā rātou te whenua i tuku.

Te noho whenua

Ka wera hoki i te ahi, e mana ana anō.

He waiwai ki te tika whenua te ahi kā.

Ahakoa he aha te tika ki te whenua – whenua kite, take tupuna, take raupatu, take tuku – mā te noho i te whenua, mā te haere atu rānei ki te mahi kai, rawa, aha atu, e tohu ai ki te mana whenua.

Heoi, ehara ko te noho anake hei whakapūmau i ngā tika ki te whenua; kīia ai tēnei ko te noho poka noa, te noho tikanga kore rānei.

Ka tohu te ahi kā roa ki te mana whenua. Kōrero ai a Te Hōreta Te Taniwha o Hauraki mō tētahi pito whenua:

Noho ana tōku iwi ki taua whenua i taua wā. Ehara ia ko tō mātou kāinga tūturu, engari ka haere mātou ki te noho ki tēnā whenua o mātou, ki tēnā whenua o mātou kia noho kā ō mātou ahi, kei riro ki iwi kē. 4

Te ngaronga o te ahi kā

Ki te whakarerea te whenua ka mātao te ahi, ka ngaro ngā tika ki te whenua. Hei te tīmatanga ka iti te ahi, kīia ai he ahi tere. Ka tae ana ki te wā ka weto te ahi, ko te ahi mātaotao tērā. He mea nui te ahi kā ki te whānau, te hapū, te iwi.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Raymond Firth, The economics of the New Zealand Maori. 2nd ed. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Govt. Print, 1972, wh. 390. › Back
  2. ‘Mo te tuku.’ Te Puke ki Hikurangi 5, no. 1 (30 Akuhata 1902): 3. Whakamāoritia e Paul Meredith. › Back
  3. Mai i te pepa a Alex Frame rāua ko Paul Meredith, Performance and Māori customary legal process. I whakataka te pepa nei mō te Symposium on Concepts and Institutions of Polynesian Customary Law, Te whare wānanga o Tāmaki-makau-rau, 2004, wh. 15. › Back
  4. Mai i John White, The ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions, vol 5. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1887, wh.121–124. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith, 'Take whenua - Te tuku me te noho', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/take-whenua/page-4 (accessed 6 December 2020)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008