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Take whenua – Māori land tenure

by  Paul Meredith

I ngā rā o mua, ko te pūtake o ngā tika a te Māori ki te whenua ko te tūhura, te raupatu, te tuku, te tipuna rānei. Me mātua kā ngā ahi a te tangata hei tohu kei te nōhia te whenua.


Customary rights

Mana whenua

He whīwhiwhi te pūnaha mana whenua a te Māori. Ko te mana whenua ia, ko te mana o te iwi ki tētahi whenua. Me te aha, he whīwhiwhi, he whakataetae ngā tika maha ki roto i tētahi rohe. Tū ai ngā kāinga o ngā hapū kia tata ai ki ngā rawa pērā i te kai, ko te pā kei te tū tata. Heoi, kei runga i tēnā kaupeka o te tau, i tēnā kaupeka o te tau ngā nekehanga o ngā hapori.

Ngā tika a te rōpū

Ka puritia ai te whenua i raro i te mana o te iwi, te hapū rānei, kāpā i te tangata kotahi. E kore e taea te wehe i ngā tika a te tangata kotahi – tae rawa atu ki te rangatira – mai i ngā tika o te hapū, o te iwi rānei.

Ngā tika nanao

Ka puritia e te iwi te mana ki te whenua. Hāunga, ka āhei te tangata kotahi, te whānau rānei te taunaha i tētahi pito whenua hei whakatō kai, hei hanga whare, hei tāhiti kiore, hei hopu manu, hei whakamau hīnaki, hei tua tōtara rānei mō te auaha waka. Ka taea e te tangata te whiwhi tika nanao hei mea tuku iho, hei takoha rānei, ā, ka taea hoki aua tika te tuku ki ōna uri – heoi, ka iri tonu te mana o te hapū ki runga i ēnei tika.

Ngā whenua tautohe

Hei ētahi wā, nā runga i ngā nekeneke me ngā taumau, ka hūnuku tētahi hapū, iwi rānei ki ngā whenua o tangata kē; i reira ka tipu te riri. Kīia ai ēnei whenua, he whenua tautohe. Ehara i te mea ruarua noa ēnei tautohe, nā te whanaungatanga rā i waenganui i ngā iwi me te noho tata tētahi ki tētahi.

Pou take-rua

Tērā te kōrero rongonui mō te kauhoe a Hinemoa ki tāna tahu a Tūtānekai e noho mai rā i Mokoia. I tana kauhoe atu, ka whakatā a Hinemoa ki tētahi o ngā tumu e tū ana i te roto o Rotorua. Ko Hinewhata te ingoa o te tumu nei, i titia ki te takere o te roto hei tonu ki te mana o Umukaria, te matua o Hinemoa.

Te whenua me te wai

Hōrapa ai te mana o te Māori ki runga i te whenua me te wai. Kapi katoa ai ngā takere o ngā roto, ngā awa, tae atu ki te moana, i te kupu whenua papatipu. I te haerenga atu o te minita mō ngā take Māori a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) me tōna tira ki Rotorua i te tau 1873, ka kī a Tāmihana Korokai, ‘Haere mai e koro ma! Haere mai ki Rotorua, te whenua o Ngatiwhakaue, moana kau.’ 1 Ka titia he pou ki te wai hei tohu nō wai te mana kei runga. Kīia ai ēnei pou, he tumu, ā, tapaina ai ki te ingoa tipuna.

Hei ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, ka wero ngā iwi o Te Arawa i te kerēme a te Karauna ki ngā takere o ngā roto i Rotorua. Ka tono āwhina te rōia matua i a Te Pēhi; ka tiki tērā i ngā kōrero a Te Rangikāheke e mea ana, ‘Ka hōrapa te mana o te ariki ki runga i te whenua me te roto, nā reira taea ai te kī, ko ētahi o ōna whenua kei te whenua, ko ētahi o ōna whenua kei roto kē i te wai.’ 2

Footnotes
  1. ‘Te haerenga o Te Makarini ki Te Tai Rawhiti me te takiwa ki Rotorua: trip of the Hon. The Native Minister to the East Coast and Rotorua districts.’ Te Waka Maori o Niu Tirani 10, no. 4 (24 Pepuere 1874): 45. › Back
  2. Mai i Alex Frame, Salmond: southern jurist. Te Whanganui-a-Tara : Victoria University Press, 1995, wh. 122–123. › Back

Take whenua – principles of land-use rights

He nui ngā take ki te whenua. Tērā ngā kōrero o te nūpepa Te Wānanga i te tau 1878:

... otiia he tini noa atu nga take e pa ai te Maori ki ana whenua, he parekura ka riro te whenua. He whenua hoatu hei whenua ma te kotiro moea e te tama i paingia e nga matua. He whenua tuku ma te tohunga mahi i te turoro, He whenua ma te ohu kai mo te hakari. He whenua riro mo te tupapaku i takoto ki te whenua iwi ke. He whenua riro mo te kohuru, me te mano noa atu o nga tikanga Maori e riro ai te whenua i te tangata ke. A he whenua ano, i kiia iho i te ra i poroaki iho ai te tupuna ranei te matua ranei, e muri nei, ma mea taku maara kumara ranei, maara taro ranei, taku Pakeha roi ranei. A he whenua ano nga whenua e tukua ana ma nga uri taane o nga kotiro i moe i te taane iwi ke. 1

Ngā tikanga take whenua

He rangatira a Rāpata Wahawaha nō Ngāti Porou. I te tekau tau atu i 1890 ka tuhi reta a ia ki a Te Pēhi (Elsdon Best), e whakamārama ana i ngā take whenua e 28 ki te whenua. Ka whakarōpū ēnei take ki ngā huinga e whā, arā, te:

  • whenua kite hou, te whenua tūhura
  • take tipuna me te ōhākī
  • take raupatu
  • take tuku.

Te ahi kā

Hei pupuri i ngā take ki te whenua, kei te kā ngā ahi o te iwi. E ai ki a Te Rangi Hīroa, ‘Kā ana ngā ahi tunu kai o te iwi, ka tohu i te mana whenua.’ 2

Take whenua me te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ehara i te mea ka tūturu te ū ki ngā tikanga me ngā take whenua – kei runga tonu i te āhua o te noho o tēnā iwi, o tēnā iwi, ka panoni ngā take me ngā tika ki te whenua.

Ka whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1865 ki te whakatau i ngā tika a te Māori ki te whenua i raro i ngā tikanga Māori. Me haere rā anō te Māori ki mua i te aroaro o te kōti me ā rātou kerēme, ka noho ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā ki te whakamāori i ngā tikanga a te Māori. Rāwekeweke ai ngā kaiwhakawā i ngā tikanga, kia hinga kē ki te taha o ngā kerēme raupatu, whai muri ko ngā kerēme ahi kā. I whakaae hoki te kōti ki ngā kerēme a te hunga taitamariki, hāunga te mea kei wāhi kē e noho ana hei aha, hei whakataha i te tikanga o te ahi kā.

Footnotes
  1. Te Wānanga 5, no. 1 (5 Hanuere 1878): 1–2. › Back
  2. Peter Buck, The coming of the Māori. 2nd ed. Otautahi: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1974, wh. 380. › Back

Discovery, ancestral right and conquest

Whenua kite

Me kī, ko te tangata kite tuatahi i te whenua, ki a ia ngā tika whānui. Tapaina ai e ngā tūpuna ngā auahatanga whenua. Whakatapungia ai te whenua mā te whakarite ki te tinana o te rangatira. Kīia ai tēnei tikanga, ko te taunaha whenua, te tapatapa whenua rānei.

Hei tā Te Rangi Hīroa, i te ūnga o Te Arawa ki Maketū, ka tapaina e Tamatekapua tētahi mātārae ki tōna ihu, ā, tokorua atu ngā rangatira i tapa he whenua ki ō rāua puku.

Ka tohu a Tamatekapua ki te mātārae ki Maketū, me te kī, ‘Ka tapa e au ko Te Kūraetanga-o-te-ihu-o-Tamatekapua.’ Ka matika a Tia, ka tohu ki te takiwā o Rangiuru, ka tapa ki te takapū o tana tama a Tapuika. Whāia, ka tapa i a Hei te takiwā o Otawa ki te puku o tana tama, a Waitahanui-a-Hei. Mā tēnei tikanga ka whakatapua aua whenua, inarā, ko wai te tangata ka whakatō kūmara ki te ihu o Tamatekapua, ko wai hoki te tangata ka hanga whare ki runga i te puku o te rangatira? 1

I te tau 1847, ka puta te kōrero a te Kaiwahakawā Matua a Wiremu Mātene (William Martin) e kī ana, ‘Te āhua nei, kua oti e te Māori te taunaha i ngā moka katoa o ēnei moutere; tēnei karahiwi, tēnā whārua, tērā ngahere, kapi katoa i te taunahatanga.’ 2

Take tupuna

Nāwai ā, ka hanumi te take whenua kite ki te take tupuna. Mā te take tupuna kaha ake ai te kerēme a ngā uri whakaheke ki te whenua i nōhia tuatahitia e ō rātou tūpuna.

Mā te whakapapa e whakaatu ai i te take tupuna. Ka takina ngā ingoa o ngā tūpuna hei whakapūmau i ngā kerēme ki te whenua. Tērā hoki te tikanga o te ōhākī, arā, te tukutuku a te rangatira i ōna whenua i mua tata i te matenga.

Take raupatu

Tērā anō te take raupatu, arā, te patu, te takahi, te pana rānei i ngā tāngata tōmua ki te whenua. Heoi, ehara te take raupatu i te take tino pakari, pērā i te take tupuna. Hei ētahi wā ka whakamoe te iwi kaha ki te iwi poke, kia whai wāhi ai ngā tamariki ki te whenua mā te take raupatu me te take tupuna. Hei ētahi atu wā, ka hoki mai te iwi poke ki te whawhai i aua whenua.

Ringa kaha

Mā te ringa kaha hei pupuri i te whenua raupatu.

Whai muri i te toanga, ka whakaatu te iwi toa i tana nohonga tūturu ki te whenua. I te tau 1843, ka rangahau a Hōri Karaka (George Clarke) te kaitiaki matua mō ngā Māori, i ngā tika tuku iho a te Māori, me tana kī, kāore he take o te raupatu mēnā kāore te whenua i nōhia ā muri mai.

Footnotes
  1. Te Rangi Hīroa (Sir Peter Buck), The coming of the Māori. 2nd ed. Ōtautahi: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1974, wh. 55–56. › Back
  2. Mai i `Opinions of various authorities on native tenure.' Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1890, G-1, wh. 3. › Back

Gift and occupation

Take tuku

He tikanga tuku te tuku whenua. Hei tā te kaimātai tikanga tangata a Raymond Firth, ‘ko te tuku whenua ki tētahi atu tētahi o ngā koha kāmehameha a te Māori, ka kitea ki ngā hui nui whakaharahara rawa atu.’ 1

I takoto i a Īhāia Hūtana o Ngāti Kahungunu ētahi take e whā mō te tuku whenua: 1. He ngaki mate, 2. He pā kūhā, 3. He kai-haukai, 4. He whanaunga i tono mō tētahi kāinga, tētahi mahinga kai rānei. 2

Tāpae toto

Ehara i te mea mō ake tonu atu te tuku whenua. Ka utaina he tikanga ki runga i ēnei tuku, pērā i te mahi kai mā te rangatira, te tautoko i ngā wā o te riri. He kawa ka takina mō ēnei tuku.

Nā Paora Te Putu o Pare Hauraki ngā whenua i Harataunga (Kennedy Bay) i tuku ki a Ngāti Porou. I tōna matenga, ka tukua ai e Ngāti Porou te mere a Whaita me tētahi korowai – he tohu mō te rangatira. Nā tēnei mahi me ngā moemoe, ka pūmau te noho o te iwi ki taua whenua. Hei tā Paki Harrison o Ngāti Porou, nā te tuku o ngā taonga, ka pūmau te noho ki te whenua.

Ka whai take rā mātou ngā uri ki te tohe mō tō mātou noho tūturu, hāunga i runga i te tāpae toto anake, engari mā roto i te whakapapa ka hono i a mātou ki a Ngāti Maru me ngā iwi noho tai. 3

Mā te tuku whenua hei whakaū i ngā tika me te whanaungatanga, ka tohu hoki i te mana o te iwi nā rātou te whenua i tuku.

Te noho whenua

Ka wera hoki i te ahi, e mana ana anō.

He waiwai ki te tika whenua te ahi kā.

Ahakoa he aha te tika ki te whenua – whenua kite, take tupuna, take raupatu, take tuku – mā te noho i te whenua, mā te haere atu rānei ki te mahi kai, rawa, aha atu, e tohu ai ki te mana whenua.

Heoi, ehara ko te noho anake hei whakapūmau i ngā tika ki te whenua; kīia ai tēnei ko te noho poka noa, te noho tikanga kore rānei.

Ka tohu te ahi kā roa ki te mana whenua. Kōrero ai a Te Hōreta Te Taniwha o Hauraki mō tētahi pito whenua:

Noho ana tōku iwi ki taua whenua i taua wā. Ehara ia ko tō mātou kāinga tūturu, engari ka haere mātou ki te noho ki tēnā whenua o mātou, ki tēnā whenua o mātou kia noho kā ō mātou ahi, kei riro ki iwi kē. 4

Te ngaronga o te ahi kā

Ki te whakarerea te whenua ka mātao te ahi, ka ngaro ngā tika ki te whenua. Hei te tīmatanga ka iti te ahi, kīia ai he ahi tere. Ka tae ana ki te wā ka weto te ahi, ko te ahi mātaotao tērā. He mea nui te ahi kā ki te whānau, te hapū, te iwi.

Footnotes
  1. Raymond Firth, The economics of the New Zealand Maori. 2nd ed. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Govt. Print, 1972, wh. 390. › Back
  2. ‘Mo te tuku.’ Te Puke ki Hikurangi 5, no. 1 (30 Akuhata 1902): 3. Whakamāoritia e Paul Meredith. › Back
  3. Mai i te pepa a Alex Frame rāua ko Paul Meredith, Performance and Māori customary legal process. I whakataka te pepa nei mō te Symposium on Concepts and Institutions of Polynesian Customary Law, Te whare wānanga o Tāmaki-makau-rau, 2004, wh. 15. › Back
  4. Mai i John White, The ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions, vol 5. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1887, wh.121–124. › Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Paul Meredith, 'Take whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/take-whenua/print (accessed 24 September 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith, published 24 Nov 2008