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Tapa whenua – naming places

by  Rāwiri Taonui

I te heke ki Aotearoa ka tapa whenua haere ngā tūpuna o te Māori. Heria haeretia ai ngā ingoa mai i tēnā moutere, ki tēnā moutere, ki tēnā moutere. Ka whakamārama ēnei ingoa i te takoto o te whenua, ka whakanui rānei i te tangata, i tētahi mahinga nui rānei. Ka tapaa ētahi wāhi ki tētahi tipuna, ki tētahi wāhanga rānei o te tinana, hei aha, hei tautoko i te noho ki te whenua.


Exploration and naming

Te tapa me te whakaingoa

Puta noa i te ao, ko te tapa ingoa tētahi tikanga ka hāngai pū ki te hōpara me te whakaingoa whenua. He tikanga kei runga i te tapa whenua, pērā i te:

  • tapa ki ngā ingoa me ngā tohu mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa
  • taunaha hei whakaū i ngā take ki te whenua
  • tapa i runga i te āhua o te takoto
  • tapa ki tētahi tipuna
  • tapa i runga i tētahi take hītori, take wairua rānei
  • tapa mō tētahi take whai tikanga nui.

Ko te tapatapa whenua me te taunaha whenua he kokoraho ōkawa i te whenua nā te whakaingoa whenua.

Ngā ingoa mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Tapaina ai e ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa te maha rawa atu o ngā wāhi ki te āhua tonu o taua wāhi. Arā ngā ingoa kua hōrapa whānui, pērā i a motu, i a maunga, i a awa. Whāia, kei ngā moka katoa o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ngā ingoa pērā i a Maunganui, i a Maungaroa, i a Maungatapu; i a Pukenui, i a Pukeiti; i a Awanui, i a Awaroa, i a Awarua, i a Awatoru. Ina te ingoa Whangaroa, ki Hāmoa ko Fagaloa, ki Tahiti ko Fa‘aroa, ki Rapanui ko Hangaroa, ki Hawaii ko Hanaloa (ko Pearl Harbour).

Ngā tauhou

Nō te taenga ki Aotearoa ka huri haere ngā tūpuna o te iwi Māori, he tapatapa whenua te mahi. Waihoki, ka tapatapa ngā rangatira o Te Arawa i te whenua ki a rātou anō; kīia ai tēnei tikanga, he taunaha whenua. Mā te whakakuhu i tō rātou tipuna ki te ingoa o tētahi whenua, ka pakari atu ai te kokoraho o ngā uri whakaheke i taua whenua. Hei tauira, ko Te Kūreitanga-o-te-ihu-o-Tamatekapua, ko Te Takapū-o-Tapuika, ko Te Rotoruanui-a-Kahumatamomoe, ko Te Rotoiti-kite-a-Īhenga.

I tapaina ētahi wāhi hei whakamahara i ngā heke waka, ngā utanga, tae tonu atu ki ngā waka. Ko ngā tauira mō tēnei momo tapanga whenua ko: Ngā Rā-o-Kupe (he toka tū moana) i te kokoru o Palliser; Te Kupenga-o-Taramainuku (he matatāhuna) i te pūaha o Manukau; Te Kurī-a-Pāoa (he mātārae) kei Tūranganui-a-Kiwa; Ngā Kurī-a-Kupe kei Te Hokianga. E kī ana te kōrero, nā Kupe ngā motu kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara i taunaha mō āna tamariki, a Matiu rāua ko Mākaro.

Ki te hau te kōrero e mea ana, nā tō tipuna ngā awa, ngā roto, ngā maunga o tō rohe i auaha, ka nui atu ō take ki taua whenua. Hei tauira, nā te mīinga o Pāoa, ko te awa o Waipāoa. Takahia ai te roanga o Te Wai Pounamu e Rākaihautū me tana kō, he kerikeri i te whenua te mahi. I te mutunga, kua auaha ngā roto me ngā maunga.

Ngā ingoa mō te whenua nei

Ko te motu nui i te raki ka kīia ko Te Ika-a-Māui, ko Aotearoa rānei, ā, ko te motu nui i te tonga ka kīia ko Te Waka-a-Māui, ko Te Wai Pounamu, ko Te Wāhi Pounamu rānei. Tatū noa ki ēnei rā, ko Aotearoa te ingoa ka kapi ai ngā motu katoa. Heoi, i te rau tau atu i 1800 kīia ai tenei whenua ko Niu Tīreni, ko Aotearoa, ko Te Wai Pounamu rānei.

Te hunga pōkai whenua

He maha ngā kōrero a te Māori mō ngā tīpuna i tae ki Aotearoa kātahi ka torotoro haere ki te taunaha whenua mō ō rātou uri whakaheke. Tērā te tipuna a Kahupekapeka, i hīkoi atu i Kāwhia me te taunaha haere i ngā maunga, a Pirongia me Kakepuku i te uru, a Te Aroha i te raki, a Titiraupenga i te tonga – koia nei ngā paenga whenua o ngā iwi o Tainui. Waihoki, tērā a Tōhē o Te Tai Tokerau, i hīkoi mai i Kapowairua ki te rae o Maunganui kei te raki o Tākiwira. Neke atu i te 100 ngā wāhi nāna i whakaingoa.

Ka tapaina ngā ingoa o ngā tipuna, ngā pakanga, ngā mahi nui ki te whenua hei whakamaharatanga mō ngā whakatipuranga kei te piki ake.


Names from Polynesian mythology

He maha ngā wāhi o Aotearoa i tapaa mō ngā mahi a te tipua tinihanga nei a Māui. Kei ngā pūrākau o ngā iwi a Te Moananui-a-Kiwa e mau ana ngā kōrero mō Māui. Kōrerotia ai a Māui me āna mahi i ngā moutere mai i Yap kei Micronesia i te uru, tae rawa atu ki Mangareva i te taha rāwhiti o Tahiti. E ai ki te kōrero, e 4,000 tau te tawhito o ēnei korero, ā, kawea haeretia ai ki tēnā moutere ki tēnā moutere i te wā o ngā heke.

Te Ika-a-Māui

Ko te kōrero nui rawa atu e pā ana ki a Māui, ko tana hī ake i te whenua mai i te takere o te moana, arā, ko tana ika, Te Ika-a-Māui. He rite te āhua o tana ika ki te whai. I te uinga a te kaihōpara a Kāpene Kuki i ngā Māori mō te ingoa o te moutere nui i te raki o Aotearoa (North Island), ka tuhia e ia tā rātou whakautu, ko ‘Eaheinomauwe’. Ākene pea i kī atu ngā Māori, ko He Mea-hī-nō-Māui, ko Te Ahi-a-Māui rānei – he kōrero mō Māui nāna te ahi i heri mai ki te ao, nāna hoki ngā puia o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko te ingoa o te moutere nui i te tonga o Aotearoa (South Island), ko Te Waka-a-Māui, koia nei te waka i hīia ai e ia tana ika. Kīia ai a Rakiura (Stewart Island), ko Te Punga-a-Māui.

Hawaiki

Ko Hawaiki te ingoa nui rawa atu i kawea mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki Aotearoa. I roto i ngā kōrero me ngā pūrākau, ko Hawaiki te wāhi ahu mai ai ngā mea papai katoa, tae rawa atu ki te kai me ngā taonga. Ka kōrero ngā tūpuna mō Hawaiki, te wāhi i ahu mai ai te tangata, te wāhi ka hoki atu ai te wairua tangata i tōna matenga. Nā te nui whakaharahara o tēnei ariā, ka heria haeretia ai te ingoa o Hawaiki ki tēnā moutere, ki tēnā moutere.

Ko te Hawaiki tuatahi ake, ko Sawaiki, i tapaa ki ngā moutere o Lau kei te rāwhiti o Whītī. Koinei pea te wāhi i whakawhiti ai ngā iwi tuatahi ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ki Tonga me Hāmoa. Whāia, tae ana ki tētahi moutere hou, ka tapaina mō te Hawaiki tuatahi. Ko ētahi o ēnei Hawaiki ko:

  • Savai‘i kei Hāmoa
  • Havaiki kei Niue
  • Savaiki kei Tongareva
  • Havai‘i, te ingoa tūturu o Ra‘iatea kei Tahiti
  • Havaiki, te moutere o Fakarava, kei ngā moutere o Tuamotu
  • Havaiki ki ngā moutere o Marquesas
  • Hawai‘i
  • ‘Avaiki kei Mangareva
  • ‘Avaiki, te ingoa tapu mō ngā moutere o Rarotonga.

Kei Aotearoa ētahi wāhi tapaa ai ko Hawaiki, arā, kei Maketū, kei te whanga o Aotea, kei Rotongaio, kei Motutapu i Tīkapa Moana, kei te tapa tāone o Maungawhau (Mt Eden) ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, aha atu.

He whakahuatanga kē

He maha ngā ingoa wāhi a te Māori kua hōrapa i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Heoi, me pēhea e ōrite ai a Whangaroa, a Fagaloa, a Hanaloa? Hāunga te whanaungatanga i waenganui i te reo Māori me ētahi atu reo o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, he rerekē te whakahua a te Māori i ētahi oro. Inarā, ko te H a te Māori, ka S, ka R rānei te whakahua ki reo kē; ko te NG ka huri ko G; ko W ka V kē te whakahua, ko te WH ka huri hei F, hei H rānei. I tua atu i te W, ka taea ēnei oro a iwi kē te tango mai ka whakanoho ko te ngoto.

Te Rerenga Wairua

Tērā ngā maunga whakahī i te taha uru o Rarotonga: ko Maunga Piko, ko Maunga Tea, ko Maunga Ko‘ū, ko Te Rēinga-a-Pora. Kei waenganui i ēnei maunga teitei tētahi toka pango ko Te Rerenga Vairua te ingoa. Koinei te wahi wehe atu ai nga wairua ki ‘Avaiki. Waihoki ki Aotearoa, ka tū a Maunga Piko, a Whangakea, a Maunga Kohu-a-naki, a Te Rēinga hei tūtei ki ngā ara o te uru me te rāwhiti ka ahu atu ki Te Rerenga Wairua i Te Rēinga.


Traditions and place names from Polynesia

Ngā kōrero tuku iho

He wā ka heria ngā kōrero katoa mai i tēnā moutere ki tēnā moutere ki tēnā moutere. Hei tauira, i te moutere o Taha‘a ki Tahiti, tētahi taniwha ko ‘Aifa‘arua. Ko tāna, he whakamataku i ngā iwi e haere ana i waenganui i a Taha‘a me Motue‘a. Nāwai, ka patua te taniwha nei e tētahi tangata nō Ara‘ura. He mea kawe tēnei kōrero ki Aotearoa ka pēnei te takoto: He taniwha a Kaiwhakaruaki, i noho ki te kōawa o Parapara kei te takiwā o Aorere. Kainga ai e te taniwha nei ngā tāngata e haere ana i waenganui i a Tākaka me Motueka. Nā tētahi tangata nō Arahura a Kaiwhakaruaki i patu kia hemo.

Ngā ingoa wāhi

Ko ētahi ingoa wāhi i kawea haeretia hei whakaatu i ētahi āhuatanga. Tapaina ai ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa kei te kuhunga ki tētahi whanga, ko Motutapu. Ka noho ēnei moutere hei okiokinga mō ngā iwi haere moana hei mua i te taenga ki te tūwhenua. Ko ētahi o ngā wāhi kitea ai he Motutapu ko: te ngutu o te whanga o Tongatapu i Tonga, te ara moana o Te Avanui i Borabora, te ara moana o Te Arearahi, kei waenganui i a Ra‘iatea me Taha‘a. Ka hoki ki Aotearoa, he Motutapu kei te ngutu o Te Waitematā, ā, he Motutapu kei te raki mā-rāwhiti o Te Wai Pounamu. Ka tapaina ko Motutapu ngā moutere whakaruru kei ngā wai o Te Rotoruanui-a-Kahumatamomoe me Wanaka.

Ngā ingoa wāhi takirua

Hikurangi me Aorangi

Tīkina atu ai ngā ingoa o Aorangi me Hikurangi i Tahiti, kawea ai ki Rarotonga, ā, whakanōhia ai ki ngā wāhi maha ki Aotearoa. He tino maunga ki te Māori a Aorangi rāua ko Hikurangi. Hei tā Te Hokuwai o Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi, i te orokohanga o te ao, ko Hikurangi te wāhi tuatahi o whitingia e te rā:

Ka tau te rangi
Te ata tuhi
Te ata rapa
Te ata ka māhina
Ka māhina te ata i Hikurangi.

Ka mauria haeretia ēnei ingoa maunga i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa e ngā tūpuna o te iwi Maori.

Ko Aora‘i te maunga teitei tuarua o Tahiti, ko Hi‘ura‘i kei te tū tata. He maunga ikeike a ‘Ikurangi i Rarotonga, ko te tāone matua a Avarua kei tōna pūtake. Ko te maunga o Arorangi kei tētahi taha o te moutere kē. Ko ngā maunga Hikurangi puta noa, he maunga tiaki.

Ko Tamatea ki wāhi kē

Ko Taumata-whakatangihanga-kōauau-o-tamatea-turi-pūkaka-piki-maunga-horonuku-pōkai-whenua-ki-tāna-tahu te ingoa roa rawa atu ki Aotearoa. Hei tā Ngāti Kahungunu he kōrero tēnei mō tō rātou tipuna a Tamatea; heoi, hei tā Rangitāne, ehara i a Tamatea, he kōrero kē tēnei mō tō rātou tupuna a Tāne-nui-a-rangi.

Tū kotahi ai ngā maunga a Hikurangi rāua ko Aorangi i te pae maunga o Ruahine i te taha rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui. Waihoki, e ono, neke atu rānei ngā wāhi i Aotearoa tū kotahi ai ngā maunga e rua nei. I haerea katoatia ai ēnei wāhi e te tipuna a Tamatea. I kawea ngā ingoa nei ki Te Wai Pounamu mā ngā ara tauhokohoko, e Tahumatua, rātou ko Tahupōtiki, ko Tamatea-pōkai-whenua – he tipuna o Ngāti Kahungunu. Tū ai he Hikuraki ki Te Hoiere (Pelorus Sound) me te awa o Te Wairau. I ngā rā o mua ko Hikuraki te ingoa tūturu o Hakaroa (Banks Peninsula), tae atu ki tētahi roto iti i Murihiku. Ko Aoraki te maunga teitei rawa ki Te Wai Pounamu.

Ētahi atu ingoa wāhi

Tērā ētahi ingoa he mea kawe ki Aoteroa engari kīhai he whakamārama. Hei tauira, kei Rarotonga ētahi moutere ririki, ko Ātiu, ko Ahuahu (te ingoa tōmua o Mangaia). I kawea aua ingoa ki Aotearoa ka tapaa ki ētahi moutere e rua kei Tīkapa Moana.


Events, maps and European influences

He maha ngā ingoa wāhi o te Māori ka whakamārama i te āhua o te takoto o te whenua, o te moana. Hei tauira atu, a Whanganui, a Pukerua, a Maunganui, a Awaiti. Heoi, kei reira ngā ingoa me uaua te whakamārama, he rangirua nō ngā whakamārama. Hei tauira atu, te wāhi nei a Hīmatangi; nā, tērā pea ko Hīma-tangi (te tangi a Hīma i te ngaronga o tana patu), ko Hī-matangi rānei (ka hī a Matangi – mō te wā i maimoa a Matangi i te taniwha kia puta i tōna rua). Whāia, tērā a Motuihe; ko tētahi aronga, he motu nui ana te momo ika nei te ihe, heoi, ko te kōrero tika, ko te ingoa tūturu o taua motu, ko Te Motu-a-Īhenga.

Te whakanui i tētahi mahinga

He maha ngā ingoa wāhi a te Māori ka whakanui i tētahi mahi. Hei tauira, ko Tūpai tētahi o ngā tohunga i runga i a Tākitimu, nāna i waiho he kōhatu mauri ki te tihi o tētahi maunga kei waenganui i a Wairoa me Ahuriri. Nā, ka muia tēnei maunga e te nui o te manu, haruru ana te tangi o te tini manu, whai anō tapaina ai, ko Maungaharuru.

Nāwai ā, ka tū ēnei ingoa hei pou whenua. Mēnā he uri koe nō te tipuna nāna tētahi wāhi i tapa, ka āhei koe ki ngā wāhi nāna i whakaingoa.

Ngā ingoa roa

Me kī, ka whakaatu ngā ingoa roa a te Māori i tētahi mahinga. Mōhiotia whānuitia ai nga whakarāpopotonga o aua ingoa, arā:

  • Te Rangi-i-totongia-ai-te-ihu-o-Tamatekapua – ko Rangitoto
  • Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe (he mea tapa nā Īhenga mō tōna matua kēkē a Kahu) – ko Rotorua
  • te moutere o Te Mana-o-Kupe-ki-Aotearoa – ko Mana
  • ko Taupō-nui-a-Tia – ko Taupō
  • ko Te Hokianganui-a-Kupe – ko Hokianga

Ngā mahere kōrero

He maha ngā waiata, ngā tauparapara ka noho hei mahere o ngā whenua o te iwi, o te rohe hoki. Hei tauira, ka whakaatu i ‘He oriori mō Wharaurangi’, ngā takiwā o te taha whakararo o Te Ika-a-Māui nā Haunui-a-Nanaia i tapa, pērā i a Whanganui, i a Whangaehu, i a Rangitīkei, i a Ōtaki, i a Waikanae.

Ka whakatakoto i te karakia ‘Te Tau-o-Mataatua’ ngā whenua o ngā iwi o te waka o Mataatua. Pērā hoki te waiata ‘Te Whare o Ngāpuhi’, he whakatakotoranga o te ripa tauārai o te rohe o Ngāpuhi.

He nui ngā kōrero mō ngā tāngata hōpara me ngā wāhi nā rātou i whakaingoa.

Ngā ingoa i ngā wai

Whakaingoatia ai e te Māori ngā putunga wai huri noa i Aotearoa. Tērā Te Moananui-a-Kiwa (Pacific Ocean), Te Tai-o-Rēhua (Tasman Sea). Kīia ai te takutai i te uru o Te Ika-a-Māui, ko Te Tai Tamatāne, ko te takutai i te taha rāwhiti, ko Te Tai Tamatāne; ā, tērā Te Moana-a-Raukawa (Cook Strait). Ko te ingoa o te moana i te tai hauāuru o Te Wai Pounamu, ko Te Tai Poutini, ā, ko te ingoa o te moana i te taha rāwhiti, mai i te raki ki te tonga, ko Marokura, ko Mahaanui, ko Āraiteuru.

Ngā kupu nui te mahia

Kei te maha o ngā ingoa wāhi ēnei kupu:

ao

kino

manga, mā

maunga

nui

papa

puna

puke

wai

whanga, aka.

Ngā ingoa kotiti kē

He maha ngā ingoa wāhi a te Māori kua tūkinotia, he hē nō te kapo a taringa Pākehā, he hē rānei nō te whakahuatanga a arero Pākehā. Pērā i a Tologa Bay, te ingoa Pākehā o Ūawa. Nō te tau 1769, ka uia e Kāpene Kuki te iwi o Ūawa ko wai te ingoa o taua wāhi. I pōhēhē taua iwi rā e pātai ana a Kāpene Kuki ko wai te ingoa o te hau nui i te takiwā, ka whakautu rātou, ko ‘Tāraki’. Nō te tuhinga a Kuki i taua ingoa, ko ‘Tolaga’ kē te whakatakotoranga. Waihoki, tērā te ingoa a Aorere, ka huri ki a All Day Bay, ko Te Nganaire ka hurihia ko The Nunneries.

Ngā kupu whakawhiti

He maha ngā ingoa wāhi o reo kē kua kākahutia ki te korowai o te reo Māori. Ko ētahi ingoa he mea tiki i te Paipera Tapu, pērā i a Hiruhārama (Jerusalem), he ingoa wāhi rānei nō tāwāhi pērā i a Ātene (Athens), i a Kareponia (California). Tāpiri atu, ko ngā ingoa wāhi i te reo Pākehā kua whakawhitingia ki te reo Māori, pērā i a Ākarana (Auckland), i a Pōneke (Port Nicholson), i a Hamutana (Hamilton).


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Tapa whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/tapa-whenua/print (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Rāwiri Taonui, published 24 Nov 2008