Kōrero: Taupori Māori

Whārangi 1. Ngā huringa taupori, 1769–1840

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā whakatau tata o te taupori Māori

He whai hīranga tērā te taupori o te iwi Māori i te rautau 1700 hei tūāpapa mō te arotake i te panonitanga o te taupori. O ngā whakaaro katoa o te Pākehā, ko tērā pea o Kāpene Kuki i te tau 1769 arā, he 100,000 te rahi o te iwi Māori te mea tata rawa. Ka taurite ēnei kitenga ki ngā auau tipu e ahei ana me te whakamahi i ngā āria noho a te Māori me te taupori taketake ake. Pēnā i nui ake te taupori, nō mua rawa ake i ngā tau o te 1250-1300 te Māori i tae mai ai, ranei he pakari ake ngā kōiwi tera kua kitea.

He tauira huringa papori

E whā ngā kaupapa whakawhiti rerekē ai tētahi taupori. Ko te tuatahi he teitei ngā tatauranga whakawhānautanga me ngā mate, ā, he taunga te noho o te taupori. Ko te tuarua, ka heke te auau mate, ā, ka mātotoru te taupori. Nō te hekenga anō o ngā whakawhānautanga ko te tīmatanga tērā o te kaupapa tuatoru. Ko te kaupapa whakamutunga ka tau anō te noho a te taupori, ā, he ōrite ngā auau mate, whakawhānautanga hoki. I te tau 2010 i roto i te iwi Māori i te kaupapa tuatoru.

Whakawhitinga taupori

I te tau 1769 i te papa tuatahi te Māori. I roto i tēnei papa he maha ngā whakawhānautanga me ngā mate tae atu ki te pānga o te taiao pērā i te korekai. I te haerenga mai o Kuki e kīia ana e 30 tau te oranga o te tangata Māori. He pakeke ake tēnei i te iwi o Ingārangi i tērā wā.

Ngā āhuatanga tipu, pāheke hoki

I mua i te tau 1800 ka tau te noho a te taupori i te nuitanga ake o ngā whakawhānautanga i ērā o ngā mate. Whai muri i te pānga mai o te Pākehā, ka kaha ake ngā mate, ā, ka tīmata te pāheketanga o te iwi i roto i te rautau 1800. I waenganui i ngā tau o te 1850 me te 1860 he tino kaha te pāheketanga. I te tau 1840 e 70,000 ki te 90,000 te rahi o te taupori Māori, ā, nō te tatauranga a Francis Fenton i te tau 1858 kua heke ki te 60,000 – e 40,000 iti iho i te taupori i te wa i haramai ai a Kuki. Ahakoa te taikaha o tēnei pāheketanga, i kino ake te pā mai ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Tahumaero

Ko te take matua i panoni ai te taupori Māori i te wāhanga tuatahi o te rautau 1800 ko te pā atu ki ngā tahumaero hou pērā i te rewharewha. He tere tonu te whakawhiu o ēnei mate ēngari nā te noho momotu o ngā kāinga Māori i ngā tahumaero me ngā takutai kāre i tino kino. He tere tonu te Māori ki te kapo ake i te poaka me te rīwai, nā reira kāre i matekai, ā, ka pāheke te mōrearea o ngā tahumaero hou.

‘Māori-pakians’

I te tau 1839 ka whakaae ngā Pākehā o Pēwhairangi ki te whakatū i tētahi pūtahi mō ngā uri toto Māori, Pākehā hoki. E ai ki te niupepa o Poihākena The Colonist, ‘[t]he Maori-pakians (as we have heard these children called) are likely to turn out a lively, active, and intelligent race; they may form a bond of friendly feeling between the European colonists and the aborigines' (ko te ahua nei he tangata kaha, pakari koi hoki tēnei iwi; ākene pea ka hua i a rātou tētahi hononga rangimārie i waenganui i ngā Pākehā me te tangata whenua).1 Kīhai rawa te pūtahi i tūria.

Pakanga mau pū

Hāunga kāre i tino nui ake ngā mate i ngā riri mau pū ā-iwi i tērā i ngā tahumaero. He koretake ngā pū o mua, ēngari ka āhua pai mēnā i whakamahia ki tā te tikanga mau o Naporiana, arā te rangatū takimaha o te tauā. E whakaarotia ana he 120,000 te rahi o ngā mate mai i te pū (4,000 i ia tau).

Kupu tāpiri
  1. The Colonist, 12 Whiringa-ā-nuku 1839, wh. 2. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, 'Taupori Māori - Ngā huringa taupori, 1769–1840', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/taupori-maori/page-1 (accessed 21 October 2019)

Story by Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 27 Sep 2018