Kōrero: Taupori Māori

Whārangi 2. Ngā tekau tau mōrikarika, 1840–1900

Ngā whakaahua

He iwi ngaro

Ka pāheke tonu te taupori Māori whai muri i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840. Nō te tau 1896 kei raro e putu ana te taupori i te 42,000 noa iho te rahi o te iwi. Nā te pāheketanga taupori me ngā āria kaikiri ka matapaetia te mate ā-moa o te iwi Māori. I te tau 1856 ka kī ake te kaitōrangapū a Isaac Featherston ko te mahi kei mua i te tangata Pākehā he ‘smooth down … [the] dying pillow' (whakamāene i te urunga mate) o te iwi Māori.1

Nāwai ka mate tērā whakaaro, arā, kore rawa e ora ngā tāngata whenua o te ao i te noho Pākehā me ōna tahumaero. I te tau 1881 ka whakatau te kaipūtaiao a Alfred Newman ‘the disappearance of the race is scarcely subject for much regret. They are dying out in a quick, easy way, and are being supplanted by a superior race' (kāre he take o te pā pōuri atu ki te matenga atu o te Māori. Whai atu i tērā ka mea ia kei te mate wawe rātou, ā, kei te whakakīngia ō ratou tūranga e tētahi iwi rangatira ake).2 Heoi i te tau 1891 ka matapae te minita paremata a Tā Timi Kara ka kore tērā te pāheketanga o te taupori Māori i ōna anō whanaketanga ohangā.

Te waipuketanga o te Pākehā

Whai muri i te Tiriti ka waipukehia te motu e te hunga Pākehā. Ka mutu i te tau 1840 kotahi te Pākehā ki ngā Māori whā tekau te maha. Taka mai ki te tau 1860 kua ōrite te tokomaha, ā, nō te pokapū o te tekau tau 1870 kua whakamoanatia te Māori e te Pākehā. Whai muri i te tau 1874 kotahi tekau orau noa iho o te taupori o Aotearoa he Māori, ā, 10% ka noho pēnei mō te kotahi rautau.

Rironga whenua

Ko te hohoro o te tipu o te taupori Pākehā te take matua i whakaitia ai te taupori Māori – ka mutu ko ngā whenua Māori hoki te papa. Nō te tau 1860, e 65 orau o ngā whenua kei te Māori. I ngā pakanga o te tekau tau 1860 he nui ngā whenua ka raupatutia e ngā iwi i ātete i te Karauna. Nā ngā ture anō (pērā i ērā mō ngā mahi tūmatanui) ka riro atu anō he whenua Māori i mua i te tau 1906, heoi i te haere tonu tēnei mahi tae noa ki te tekau tau 1960.

Tangata maunga

I te tau 1874 e 20 orau te maha ake o ngā tāne Māori i ngā wāhine Māori. E ai ki ngā tohunga taupori o ēnei rā e pērā ai ngā taupori e kaha ana te auau mate. I te tau 1881 ka whakapae teka te kaipūtaiao a Alfred Newman he āhuatanga tēnei i waenganui i te ‘male children predominate in mountainous countries’ and that it was only recently ‘that the Maoris have dwelt on the plains (hunga tāne e noho ana ki ngā whenua pukepuke, ā, nō muri rawa mai kātahi ka puta ngā Māori ki ngā papatahi noho ai).3

Tatauranga mate, oranga hoki

He nui ngā pānga kino o te muru whenua ki te hauora Māori, tae rawa ki te hunga tamariki. I ngā rohe katoa i riro ai he whenua, ka piki ake anō ngā tatauranga mate hunga ririki, ā, he roa te tekau tau ka whakakorehia tēnei āhuatanga. I te tekau tau 1880 he teitei ake ngā mate Māori i era o te Pākehā – ā he teitei rawa ake i te wā i mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā. Ko ngā tau oranga o tētahi kōtiro Māori i whānau mai i te tau 1880 kei te takiwā o te rua tekau tau. Ki te whakatauritehia ki te kōtiro Pākehā o taua wā, e rima tekau mā rima tau kē te nuinga o te oranga. He kino rawa mō te hunga tamariki – o ngā kōtiro Māori i whānau mai i te tekau tau 1890, e 40 orau ka mate i mua i te kotahi tau te pakeke.

Mōmonatanga ai

Ka heke anō te mōmonatanga whai hua o te Māori i te pokapū o te rautau 1800. Ka pā te mate whakatahe i ngā tahumaero hōu, te kore kai i te wā o te aitanga me te taenga mai o ngā tahumaero taihemahema. Nō te otinga o te rautau, kua tipu ngā ira ārai mate ki ngā tahumaero Pākehā.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Te Rangi Hīroa, ‘The passing of the Maori.’ Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 55 (1924), wh. 362. Back
  2. Alfred K. Newman, ‘A study of the causes leading to the extinction of the Maori.’ Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 14 (1881), wh. 477. Back
  3. ‘A study of the causes leading to the extinction of the Maori,’ wh. 474. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, 'Taupori Māori - Ngā tekau tau mōrikarika, 1840–1900', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/taupori-maori/page-2 (accessed 24 September 2019)

Story by Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 27 Sep 2018