Kōrero: Taupori Māori

Whārangi 4. Ngā rerekētanga i muri i te pakanga, 1945–1970

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te tere whanake

I te wā whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka kuhu te Māori ki roto i te wahanga tuarua o te whakawhitinga taupori, ko te tere whanaketanga o te iwi. Nō konei ka tipu mātotoru te taupori. Ka tokomaha tonu ngā whakawhānautanga Māori i ērā o te Pākehā, hāunga tonu te wāhi i kīia rā ko te ‘whakawhānautanga pēpē’ Pākehā. I taua wā anō ka heke te tokomaha o ngā mate Māori tae rawa ki te hunga kōhungahunga me te tamariki Māori. Ka heke ngā mate Māori i te aro hou a te kāwanatanga ki ngā ture hauora ki roto i ētahi kaupapa papori katoa hei whakapai ake i te noho a te Māori tae atu ki ngā wāhanga whakatū whare, utu mahi, whai mahi me te noho mā.

I te tekau tau 1950 ka kake ake te tokomaha o te taupori Māori i te whā ōrau ia tau. He ōrite tonu tēnei whika ki te mōrahitanga o te tipu o tētahi iwi kāre e taea te whiti ki whenua kē. I waenganui i te tau 1945 me te tau 1966 kua takirua tonu te tipu o te iwi Māori tērā i ngā ngahuru tau e rua i mua atu. Ko te piki anō o te oranga tāne i ngā iwi whakawhitinga taupori – te wā he tokomaha ake ngā wāhine ka mate i te whakawhānau tamariki – ka pērā anō hoki te piki o te oranga o ngā wāhine.

Te hekenga tuarua

Ka panoni hoki te Māori mai te noho taiwhenua ki te noho tāone. E kīia ana ko tēnei ‘hekenga nui tuarua a te Māori’ tētahi o ngā hekenga whakatetāone horo rawa ahakoa ko wai te iwi hei mua i ngā tau o te 1970. Nō te Pakanga Tuarua, kua tōia ngā Māori ki roto i ngā ahumahi o te tāone, ā, he tokomaha hoki te tāne Māori ka tūao atu ki roto i ngā ope tauā ki tāwāhi. Nō muri i te pakanga ka heke nui atu te Māori i ngā wā kāinga Māori o tuawhenua, nā te iti o te whai rawa, te tō atu hoki o te ahumahi me te whiwhi utu mahi ki ngā tāone, ā, nā te raweke hoki a te kāwanatanga kia pēnei.

Tae rawa ki te tau 1971, e 71 ōrau o te Māori kei ngā tāone kē e noho ana. I te tau 1945 e 26 ōrau noa iho. Ahakoa te huringa o te Māori ki te noho tāone, kāore tonu i nōhia ngā tāone nunui rawa e te Māori pērā kē i te Pākehā. Kātahi ka hohoro tonu te horapa o ngā rerekētangā ā-iwi, ā-papori hoki, ā, ka papahoro ngā whakahaerenga o mua a ngā iwi, ā, kua tū kē ko ētahi whakahaerenga hou rerekē rawa atu i ērā i ngā papakāinga taiwhenua tūturu a te iwi.

Marae noho tāone

Nō te tau 1948 ka tūwhera te Pūtahi Hapori Māori o Tāmaki ki Waiatarau hei marae ā-iwi mō te hunga noho tāone. Hui katoa te iwi Māori noho tāone ki ōna rā kanikani, whakangahau, whakangungu kapa haka hoki. He wāhi anō tēnei mō ngā mārena, ngā hui me ngā tangihanga, tae atu ki tō Te Rangi Hīroa. Hei tauira tuatahi tēnei o ngā marae noho tāone.

Hunga mahi noho tāone

Ko te take nui tuatoru o te panonitanga papori whai muri i te pakanga ko te hurihanga o te whai mahi a te Māori. I te tau 1945 pau katoa te nuinga o ngā kaimahi Māori ki te ahumahi matua, heoi nō ngā tau o te 1970 kua mene katoa te nuinga ki ngā mahi ōhanga kē. Hāunga te hunga mahi Pākehā kua neke haere kē ki ngā mahi nui ake te utu, nui ake te taumata o te mahi. Nō ēnei hurihanga mahi ka whai oranga ake te Māori ā-papori, ā-ōhanga nei hoki.

Ahakoa te noho tāwēwē tonu o te whai mahi a te Māori i tō te Pākehā, nō te putanga atu i te ahumahi matua ka whai wāhi rātou ki ngā mahi tau ake me ngā utu pai ake. Nō waenga o te tekau tau 1980 ka rerekē tēnei nā te hurihanga ōhanga me te whakaitinga o te wāhanga ōhanga, ka mutu ko te Māori tonu te papa mō te kore whai tūranga mahi. Tokomaha hoki kāre i whai mahi hōu. Ko ētahi i hokihoki ki ngā wā kāinga; ko ētahi hoki ka whakawhiti kē ki Ahitereiria.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, 'Taupori Māori - Ngā rerekētanga i muri i te pakanga, 1945–1970', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/taupori-maori/page-4 (accessed 10 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 27 Sep 2018