Kōrero: Taupori Māori

Whārangi 5. I tua atu i te whitinga taupori, 1970–2000

Ngā whakaahua

1970: he ngahuru tau whakahirahira

He ngahuru tau whakahirahira te tekau tau 1970 mō te hītori o te tokomaha o te taupori Māori. Whai muri i ngā whakapikinga toi ora i muri i te pakanga, ka pāheke kē te tokomaha o ngā whakawhānautanga ka kuhu te Māori ki roto i te wāhanga tuatoru o te hurihanga tokomaha o te taupori Māori. I waenganui i te tau 1972 me te tau 1978 ka heke te rahinga whakawhānau o ngā wāhine Māori mai i te 5.1 tamariki ki te 2.8 tamariki. Nō te ngahuru tau 1980 kua tata tonu te ōrite ki te Pākehā. Ko te hekenga o ngā whakawhānautanga Māori nā te putanga ake o te pire ārai hapūtanga. Mai i te ngahuru tau 1970 ko ngā take nui mō te tokomaha o te iwi Māori ko te rahinga o te rangatahi, o ngā kaumātua, me te hunga mahi, ehara kē i te tokomahatanga ake, ā, ko te putanga ake hoki o ngā tini iwi rerekē o te ao ki konei.

Kua kore ngā pēpē

E ai ki ngā mahara o tētahi tākuta o Ngāruawahia a Elspeth Kjestrup, tērā tētahi wahine Māori rangatahi i tae ake ki tana wāhi mahi tākuta i ngā tau tīmatanga o te ngahuru tau 1960 me ana tamariki tokowaru. Ka pātai te wahine mō te pire ārai hapūtanga. Whai muri i te whakamārama a Kjestrup ko tētahi hē o te pire ko te pākoko o te whare tangata ka hopu te wahine ki tona ringa ka kī ake: ‘Dear Doctor, what do you think I bloody well want?!' (E hika, koirā tonu taku hiahia?!)1

Te whakawhirinakitanga

Kua roa e tino rerekē ana te āhua o te pakeke o te taupori o te Māori me tō te Pākehā – ā ka whai take tēnei ki te tokomaha o te hunga whakawhirinakitanga (te hunga e whirinaki ana ki te hunga whai mahi, tamariki mai, kaumātua mai). Mō te Māori ko te whakawhirinakitanga o te rangatahi – te tokomaha o te tamariki ki te hungā whai mahi – te mea nui; mō te Pākehā, ko te tokomaha o te hunga kaumātua e 65 tau te pakeke neke atu ranei.

E matapaetia ana hei muri i te tau 2026, ka kōtiu te rahi o te hunga kaimahi Māori ki te tokomaha o te hunga whakawhirinakitanga, ā, ka piki ake te whai rawa a te Māori (e kīia ana tēnei ko te ‘whai hua ā-taupori’). Ko ngā tāke hoki a ngā kaimahi Māori ka whakapaua ki te tautoko hoki i ngā kaumātua Pākehā kua rītaea. Ka mea ka rahi ake te hunga Māori rītaea ana, ka puta he āhuatanga hōu, e pā atu ai hoki ki te hauora me te whai whare. Ka rerekē pea tēnei āhua mēnā ka mahi tonu ngā tāngata ki tua atu i te 65 tau te pakeke.

Nga kaitiaki pūtea o Ahitereiria

Nō te kitenga a Ngāi Tahu i te tokomaha o ana uri e noho ana ki Ahitereiria ka whakatūwheratia e rātou tētahi kaute tiaki moni mō tāna kaupapa tiaki pūtea o Whai Rawa. Ko te kaupapa rā he tuku moni ōrite ki ērā kua kohia ake e te pakeke whai pānga ki tētahi taumata i whakaritea. Ko ngā pūtea rā kua kohia e āhei ana te whakapau mō te whai tohu whare wānanga, mō te te hoko kainga tuatahi me te wā rītaea anō hoki – ki Ahitereiria ki Aotearoa rānei.

Te hekenga tuatoru

I mua ka kīia he Māori mēnā i whānau mai i whakatupuria ake hoki ki Aotearoa. Heoi mai i te tau 1990 kua whānau kē mai te iwi Māori ki tāwāhi hoki. Ko te mātotoru kei Ahitereiria na runga i te whai rawa ake o te noho ki reira. E ai ki te tatauranga taupori o Ahitereiria i te tau 2006 tata ki te 93,000 te tokomaha o te Māori kei Ahitereiria e noho ana; arā kotahi hauono o te iwi Māori o Aotearoa me Ahitereiria hui katoa. Ko te nuinga o ngā tamariki Māori o te tatauranga o Ahitereiria i whānau kē mai ki Ahitereiria.

Ngā tūtohutanga

E ai ki ngā rangahau kāwanatanga o te tau 2009 ka kitea he pai ake ngā tūtohutanga Māori mō ētahi tohu taupori tohu ōhanga hoki. Kei ētahi rā, he nui ake ēnei whakapainga ake i ērā o te taupori whānui katoa, tae atu ki te toi oranga tangata, te whai whai tohu whare wānanga, te whai mahi me te whai utu i te haora. Ahakoa tēnei, kei raro tonu te Māori e putu ana. Hei tauira i ngā tau o te 2005-7 e 79.0 tau te pakeke o te oranga Pākehā, ā, e 70.4 noa te pakeke oranga o te Māori. Mō te hunga wahine, e 83.0 tau te pakeke mō te wahine Pākehā, ā, e 75.1 tau te pakeke mō te wahine Māori.

Te whakawhitinga tokomaha

I te tau 2010 kāre anō te taupori Māori kia kuhu ki te wāhanga tuawhā o te whakawhitinga tokomaha, e kati ai te heke o ngā whakawhānautanga, ka ōrite te tokomaha o te hunga ka mate ki ērā ka whānau mai, ka tau ai hoki te whanaketanga Māori nei o te iwi.

Ngā wero hou

Ko te tokomaha o te iwi Māori he mea hono pū ki te takahanga o te Māori e te Pākehā, tae atu ki te hauora, ki te tōrangapū, ki te whai rauemi anō hoki. Nā ngā ture hangahanga a te Pākehā (whakapākehā rānei whakaiwiruatanga rānei) ā me te moe Pākehā kua rerekē noa atu te āhua o te Māori me te pōhara a te Māori. Mā te mārama ki ngā take o te noho pōhara a ētahi Māori kaua ko ētahi atu ka noho hei tohu nui mō te tokomahatanga o te iwi Māori ki tua o te tau rua mano.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. ‘No bitter pill to swallow.’ Waikato Times, 20 Paenga-whāwhā 2010, http://www.stuff.co.nz/waikato-times/features/waikato-focus/3596330 (i tirohia i te 8 Hui-tanguru 2011). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, 'Taupori Māori - I tua atu i te whitinga taupori, 1970–2000', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/taupori-maori/page-5 (accessed 19 October 2019)

Story by Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 27 Sep 2018