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Taupori Māori – Māori population change

by Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai

I mua i te taengā mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, he roa ake te orangatanga o te Māori i te iwi o Ingārangi. Engari nā te maiki roa o te rautau 1800, ngā tahumaero me te raupatu, ka heke te taupori Māori. Nō muri hoki ka kōrerotia he iwi mate te iwi Māori. I te rautau 1900 ka ora mai anō te iwi Māori.


Population changes, 1769–1840

Ngā whakatau tata o te taupori Māori

He whai hīranga tērā te taupori o te iwi Māori i te rautau 1700 hei tūāpapa mō te arotake i te panonitanga o te taupori. O ngā whakaaro katoa o te Pākehā, ko tērā pea o Kāpene Kuki i te tau 1769 arā, he 100,000 te rahi o te iwi Māori te mea tata rawa. Ka taurite ēnei kitenga ki ngā auau tipu e ahei ana me te whakamahi i ngā āria noho a te Māori me te taupori taketake ake. Pēnā i nui ake te taupori, nō mua rawa ake i ngā tau o te 1250-1300 te Māori i tae mai ai, ranei he pakari ake ngā kōiwi tera kua kitea.

He tauira huringa papori

E whā ngā kaupapa whakawhiti rerekē ai tētahi taupori. Ko te tuatahi he teitei ngā tatauranga whakawhānautanga me ngā mate, ā, he taunga te noho o te taupori. Ko te tuarua, ka heke te auau mate, ā, ka mātotoru te taupori. Nō te hekenga anō o ngā whakawhānautanga ko te tīmatanga tērā o te kaupapa tuatoru. Ko te kaupapa whakamutunga ka tau anō te noho a te taupori, ā, he ōrite ngā auau mate, whakawhānautanga hoki. I te tau 2010 i roto i te iwi Māori i te kaupapa tuatoru.

Whakawhitinga taupori

I te tau 1769 i te papa tuatahi te Māori. I roto i tēnei papa he maha ngā whakawhānautanga me ngā mate tae atu ki te pānga o te taiao pērā i te korekai. I te haerenga mai o Kuki e kīia ana e 30 tau te oranga o te tangata Māori. He pakeke ake tēnei i te iwi o Ingārangi i tērā wā.

Ngā āhuatanga tipu, pāheke hoki

I mua i te tau 1800 ka tau te noho a te taupori i te nuitanga ake o ngā whakawhānautanga i ērā o ngā mate. Whai muri i te pānga mai o te Pākehā, ka kaha ake ngā mate, ā, ka tīmata te pāheketanga o te iwi i roto i te rautau 1800. I waenganui i ngā tau o te 1850 me te 1860 he tino kaha te pāheketanga. I te tau 1840 e 70,000 ki te 90,000 te rahi o te taupori Māori, ā, nō te tatauranga a Francis Fenton i te tau 1858 kua heke ki te 60,000 – e 40,000 iti iho i te taupori i te wa i haramai ai a Kuki. Ahakoa te taikaha o tēnei pāheketanga, i kino ake te pā mai ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Tahumaero

Ko te take matua i panoni ai te taupori Māori i te wāhanga tuatahi o te rautau 1800 ko te pā atu ki ngā tahumaero hou pērā i te rewharewha. He tere tonu te whakawhiu o ēnei mate ēngari nā te noho momotu o ngā kāinga Māori i ngā tahumaero me ngā takutai kāre i tino kino. He tere tonu te Māori ki te kapo ake i te poaka me te rīwai, nā reira kāre i matekai, ā, ka pāheke te mōrearea o ngā tahumaero hou.

‘Māori-pakians’

I te tau 1839 ka whakaae ngā Pākehā o Pēwhairangi ki te whakatū i tētahi pūtahi mō ngā uri toto Māori, Pākehā hoki. E ai ki te niupepa o Poihākena The Colonist, ‘[t]he Maori-pakians (as we have heard these children called) are likely to turn out a lively, active, and intelligent race; they may form a bond of friendly feeling between the European colonists and the aborigines' (ko te ahua nei he tangata kaha, pakari koi hoki tēnei iwi; ākene pea ka hua i a rātou tētahi hononga rangimārie i waenganui i ngā Pākehā me te tangata whenua).1 Kīhai rawa te pūtahi i tūria.

Pakanga mau pū

Hāunga kāre i tino nui ake ngā mate i ngā riri mau pū ā-iwi i tērā i ngā tahumaero. He koretake ngā pū o mua, ēngari ka āhua pai mēnā i whakamahia ki tā te tikanga mau o Naporiana, arā te rangatū takimaha o te tauā. E whakaarotia ana he 120,000 te rahi o ngā mate mai i te pū (4,000 i ia tau).

Footnotes
    • The Colonist, 12 Whiringa-ā-nuku 1839, wh. 2. Back

Decades of despair, 1840–1900

He iwi ngaro

Ka pāheke tonu te taupori Māori whai muri i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840. Nō te tau 1896 kei raro e putu ana te taupori i te 42,000 noa iho te rahi o te iwi. Nā te pāheketanga taupori me ngā āria kaikiri ka matapaetia te mate ā-moa o te iwi Māori. I te tau 1856 ka kī ake te kaitōrangapū a Isaac Featherston ko te mahi kei mua i te tangata Pākehā he ‘smooth down … [the] dying pillow' (whakamāene i te urunga mate) o te iwi Māori.1

Nāwai ka mate tērā whakaaro, arā, kore rawa e ora ngā tāngata whenua o te ao i te noho Pākehā me ōna tahumaero. I te tau 1881 ka whakatau te kaipūtaiao a Alfred Newman ‘the disappearance of the race is scarcely subject for much regret. They are dying out in a quick, easy way, and are being supplanted by a superior race' (kāre he take o te pā pōuri atu ki te matenga atu o te Māori. Whai atu i tērā ka mea ia kei te mate wawe rātou, ā, kei te whakakīngia ō ratou tūranga e tētahi iwi rangatira ake).2 Heoi i te tau 1891 ka matapae te minita paremata a Tā Timi Kara ka kore tērā te pāheketanga o te taupori Māori i ōna anō whanaketanga ohangā.

Te waipuketanga o te Pākehā

Whai muri i te Tiriti ka waipukehia te motu e te hunga Pākehā. Ka mutu i te tau 1840 kotahi te Pākehā ki ngā Māori whā tekau te maha. Taka mai ki te tau 1860 kua ōrite te tokomaha, ā, nō te pokapū o te tekau tau 1870 kua whakamoanatia te Māori e te Pākehā. Whai muri i te tau 1874 kotahi tekau orau noa iho o te taupori o Aotearoa he Māori, ā, 10% ka noho pēnei mō te kotahi rautau.

Rironga whenua

Ko te hohoro o te tipu o te taupori Pākehā te take matua i whakaitia ai te taupori Māori – ka mutu ko ngā whenua Māori hoki te papa. Nō te tau 1860, e 65 orau o ngā whenua kei te Māori. I ngā pakanga o te tekau tau 1860 he nui ngā whenua ka raupatutia e ngā iwi i ātete i te Karauna. Nā ngā ture anō (pērā i ērā mō ngā mahi tūmatanui) ka riro atu anō he whenua Māori i mua i te tau 1906, heoi i te haere tonu tēnei mahi tae noa ki te tekau tau 1960.

Tangata maunga

I te tau 1874 e 20 orau te maha ake o ngā tāne Māori i ngā wāhine Māori. E ai ki ngā tohunga taupori o ēnei rā e pērā ai ngā taupori e kaha ana te auau mate. I te tau 1881 ka whakapae teka te kaipūtaiao a Alfred Newman he āhuatanga tēnei i waenganui i te ‘male children predominate in mountainous countries’ and that it was only recently ‘that the Maoris have dwelt on the plains (hunga tāne e noho ana ki ngā whenua pukepuke, ā, nō muri rawa mai kātahi ka puta ngā Māori ki ngā papatahi noho ai).3

Tatauranga mate, oranga hoki

He nui ngā pānga kino o te muru whenua ki te hauora Māori, tae rawa ki te hunga tamariki. I ngā rohe katoa i riro ai he whenua, ka piki ake anō ngā tatauranga mate hunga ririki, ā, he roa te tekau tau ka whakakorehia tēnei āhuatanga. I te tekau tau 1880 he teitei ake ngā mate Māori i era o te Pākehā – ā he teitei rawa ake i te wā i mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā. Ko ngā tau oranga o tētahi kōtiro Māori i whānau mai i te tau 1880 kei te takiwā o te rua tekau tau. Ki te whakatauritehia ki te kōtiro Pākehā o taua wā, e rima tekau mā rima tau kē te nuinga o te oranga. He kino rawa mō te hunga tamariki – o ngā kōtiro Māori i whānau mai i te tekau tau 1890, e 40 orau ka mate i mua i te kotahi tau te pakeke.

Mōmonatanga ai

Ka heke anō te mōmonatanga whai hua o te Māori i te pokapū o te rautau 1800. Ka pā te mate whakatahe i ngā tahumaero hōu, te kore kai i te wā o te aitanga me te taenga mai o ngā tahumaero taihemahema. Nō te otinga o te rautau, kua tipu ngā ira ārai mate ki ngā tahumaero Pākehā.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Te Rangi Hīroa, ‘The passing of the Maori.’ Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 55 (1924), wh. 362. Back
    • Alfred K. Newman, ‘A study of the causes leading to the extinction of the Maori.’ Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 14 (1881), wh. 477. Back
    • ‘A study of the causes leading to the extinction of the Maori,’ wh. 474. Back

Population recuperation, 1900–1945

Mai i te mate ki te ora

I te māhutatanga ake o te rautau 1900 ka tīmata te whakamāui ake o te taupori. I te huringa o te rautau ka whai hua ngā kaupapa hauora Māori a ngā rata pērā i a Māui Pōmare me Te Rangihīroa, ā, ka kake ake te oranga o te Māori ki tua atu o tērā i te tutakinga tuatahi ki te Pākehā.

Te whakarahi ake i ngā whānautanga

I tokomaha ake te iwi nā te rahi ake o ngā whānautanga mai, inā ia te hekenga o ngā pānga kino o ngā tahumaero hōu, ā, tokoiti ake te hunga mate ana. I waenganui i te tau 1901 me te tau 1945 ka āta piki te toi oranga , ā, nō te tau 1945 kua kake ngā tau o te ora ki te 49 tau te pakeke. He maha ngā kaupapa i pēnei ai, pērā i te whakawhiwhi mahi hōu me ngā hōmaitanga penihana i hua ake i te Ture Haumaru Papori o te tau 1938.

Te whakakore i te taipoi

I te tau 1924 ka kī ake a Te Rangi Hīroa ‘no longer accept disease and death with fatal resignation ... in districts where typhoid has occurred, over 2,000 inoculations against the disease have been made. The Tokotoko rangi (“Spear from heaven that sweeps away food and man”) … no longer makes thrusts that go unparried' (e kore anō te Māori e whakaae kia tuohu ki ngā tahumaero me te mate...tae rawa ki ngā rohe i puta ai te mate taipoi, ā, kua rongoātia rātou ki taua tahumaero. E kore anō ngā ākī o te Tokotoko rangi (e ngāro ai te kai me te tangata)...e kore te karohia).1

Te matotoru

Nō te tau 1921 e 4.2 te rahi o ngā Māori ki ngā tangata Pākehā 100 te maha. Heoi e rua ngā rohe matotoru ana te Māori : ko te Tai Tokerau me te Tai Rāwhiti. Ki te rohe o Hokianga he rahi ake ngā Māori i te Pākehā, ā, ki Pēwhairangi e 64 ngā Māori ki ngā Pākehā 100. Nā te tūpuhi o te whenua ki ēnei wāhi, nā te kino rānei o ngā rori ka āraitia te noho Pākehā. Heoi ki Tāmaki kotahi te Māori ki ngā Pākehā 100, ā, ki Te Waipounamu ko Waitohi me Wairau anake ngā wāhi i nui kē ake i te kotahi Māori ki ngā Pākehā 100.

Te noho rawakore

I te tau 1940 ka whakanui ngā kaikauhau i te whakaoranga ake o te taupori Māori engari ka kōrero anō rātou i ngā wero mō te whakawhanaketanga o te taupori. Ko tētahi take nui ko te rawakore tonutanga i roto i te taha papori me te ohanga Māori. I te tau 1945 e 20 tau te iti iho o te oranga Māori i te Pākehā. I ngā tau o te 1930 ka rangahau a Tākuta Harold Turbott i ngā kaingā Māori o te Tai Rāwhiti, ā, ka kitea te korekai me te rawakore e hau whānui ana i reira, ā, puta noa pea i te motu. Ahakoa te āta kake haere o te āhua noho ā-Māori me te pāheketangā o tokomaha e mate ana, i te noho muna tonu te oranga Māori.

Ohanga utu mahi

I te murutanga atu o ōna rawa tuku iho ki te hao me te hauhake kai, kua tahuri atu te Māori ki ētahi atu oranga mōna, ā, ka kitea i roto i ngā ahumahi me ngā mahi ihuoneone i karangahia atu ai rātou i ō rātou kāinga. He pai te utu o te kuti hipi me te mahi mīti i ngā marama mahi, heoi i te paunga atu o ērā marama kua uaua anō mō ngā kaimahi me ō rātou whānau, mena hoki ka whakarērea ngā māra ki te kāinga .

Footnotes
    • Te Rangi Hīroa, ‘The passing of the Maori.’ Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 55 (1924), wh. 367. Back

Post-war changes, 1945–1970

Te tere whanake

I te wā whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka kuhu te Māori ki roto i te wahanga tuarua o te whakawhitinga taupori, ko te tere whanaketanga o te iwi. Nō konei ka tipu mātotoru te taupori. Ka tokomaha tonu ngā whakawhānautanga Māori i ērā o te Pākehā, hāunga tonu te wāhi i kīia rā ko te ‘whakawhānautanga pēpē’ Pākehā. I taua wā anō ka heke te tokomaha o ngā mate Māori tae rawa ki te hunga kōhungahunga me te tamariki Māori. Ka heke ngā mate Māori i te aro hou a te kāwanatanga ki ngā ture hauora ki roto i ētahi kaupapa papori katoa hei whakapai ake i te noho a te Māori tae atu ki ngā wāhanga whakatū whare, utu mahi, whai mahi me te noho mā.

I te tekau tau 1950 ka kake ake te tokomaha o te taupori Māori i te whā ōrau ia tau. He ōrite tonu tēnei whika ki te mōrahitanga o te tipu o tētahi iwi kāre e taea te whiti ki whenua kē. I waenganui i te tau 1945 me te tau 1966 kua takirua tonu te tipu o te iwi Māori tērā i ngā ngahuru tau e rua i mua atu. Ko te piki anō o te oranga tāne i ngā iwi whakawhitinga taupori – te wā he tokomaha ake ngā wāhine ka mate i te whakawhānau tamariki – ka pērā anō hoki te piki o te oranga o ngā wāhine.

Te hekenga tuarua

Ka panoni hoki te Māori mai te noho taiwhenua ki te noho tāone. E kīia ana ko tēnei ‘hekenga nui tuarua a te Māori’ tētahi o ngā hekenga whakatetāone horo rawa ahakoa ko wai te iwi hei mua i ngā tau o te 1970. Nō te Pakanga Tuarua, kua tōia ngā Māori ki roto i ngā ahumahi o te tāone, ā, he tokomaha hoki te tāne Māori ka tūao atu ki roto i ngā ope tauā ki tāwāhi. Nō muri i te pakanga ka heke nui atu te Māori i ngā wā kāinga Māori o tuawhenua, nā te iti o te whai rawa, te tō atu hoki o te ahumahi me te whiwhi utu mahi ki ngā tāone, ā, nā te raweke hoki a te kāwanatanga kia pēnei.

Tae rawa ki te tau 1971, e 71 ōrau o te Māori kei ngā tāone kē e noho ana. I te tau 1945 e 26 ōrau noa iho. Ahakoa te huringa o te Māori ki te noho tāone, kāore tonu i nōhia ngā tāone nunui rawa e te Māori pērā kē i te Pākehā. Kātahi ka hohoro tonu te horapa o ngā rerekētangā ā-iwi, ā-papori hoki, ā, ka papahoro ngā whakahaerenga o mua a ngā iwi, ā, kua tū kē ko ētahi whakahaerenga hou rerekē rawa atu i ērā i ngā papakāinga taiwhenua tūturu a te iwi.

Marae noho tāone

Nō te tau 1948 ka tūwhera te Pūtahi Hapori Māori o Tāmaki ki Waiatarau hei marae ā-iwi mō te hunga noho tāone. Hui katoa te iwi Māori noho tāone ki ōna rā kanikani, whakangahau, whakangungu kapa haka hoki. He wāhi anō tēnei mō ngā mārena, ngā hui me ngā tangihanga, tae atu ki tō Te Rangi Hīroa. Hei tauira tuatahi tēnei o ngā marae noho tāone.

Hunga mahi noho tāone

Ko te take nui tuatoru o te panonitanga papori whai muri i te pakanga ko te hurihanga o te whai mahi a te Māori. I te tau 1945 pau katoa te nuinga o ngā kaimahi Māori ki te ahumahi matua, heoi nō ngā tau o te 1970 kua mene katoa te nuinga ki ngā mahi ōhanga kē. Hāunga te hunga mahi Pākehā kua neke haere kē ki ngā mahi nui ake te utu, nui ake te taumata o te mahi. Nō ēnei hurihanga mahi ka whai oranga ake te Māori ā-papori, ā-ōhanga nei hoki.

Ahakoa te noho tāwēwē tonu o te whai mahi a te Māori i tō te Pākehā, nō te putanga atu i te ahumahi matua ka whai wāhi rātou ki ngā mahi tau ake me ngā utu pai ake. Nō waenga o te tekau tau 1980 ka rerekē tēnei nā te hurihanga ōhanga me te whakaitinga o te wāhanga ōhanga, ka mutu ko te Māori tonu te papa mō te kore whai tūranga mahi. Tokomaha hoki kāre i whai mahi hōu. Ko ētahi i hokihoki ki ngā wā kāinga; ko ētahi hoki ka whakawhiti kē ki Ahitereiria.


Beyond the demographic transition, 1970–21st century

1970: he ngahuru tau whakahirahira

He ngahuru tau whakahirahira te tekau tau 1970 mō te hītori o te tokomaha o te taupori Māori. Whai muri i ngā whakapikinga toi ora i muri i te pakanga, ka pāheke kē te tokomaha o ngā whakawhānautanga ka kuhu te Māori ki roto i te wāhanga tuatoru o te hurihanga tokomaha o te taupori Māori. I waenganui i te tau 1972 me te tau 1978 ka heke te rahinga whakawhānau o ngā wāhine Māori mai i te 5.1 tamariki ki te 2.8 tamariki. Nō te ngahuru tau 1980 kua tata tonu te ōrite ki te Pākehā. Ko te hekenga o ngā whakawhānautanga Māori nā te putanga ake o te pire ārai hapūtanga. Mai i te ngahuru tau 1970 ko ngā take nui mō te tokomaha o te iwi Māori ko te rahinga o te rangatahi, o ngā kaumātua, me te hunga mahi, ehara kē i te tokomahatanga ake, ā, ko te putanga ake hoki o ngā tini iwi rerekē o te ao ki konei.

Kua kore ngā pēpē

E ai ki ngā mahara o tētahi tākuta o Ngāruawahia a Elspeth Kjestrup, tērā tētahi wahine Māori rangatahi i tae ake ki tana wāhi mahi tākuta i ngā tau tīmatanga o te ngahuru tau 1960 me ana tamariki tokowaru. Ka pātai te wahine mō te pire ārai hapūtanga. Whai muri i te whakamārama a Kjestrup ko tētahi hē o te pire ko te pākoko o te whare tangata ka hopu te wahine ki tona ringa ka kī ake: ‘Dear Doctor, what do you think I bloody well want?!' (E hika, koirā tonu taku hiahia?!)1

Te whakawhirinakitanga

Kua roa e tino rerekē ana te āhua o te pakeke o te taupori o te Māori me tō te Pākehā – ā ka whai take tēnei ki te tokomaha o te hunga whakawhirinakitanga (te hunga e whirinaki ana ki te hunga whai mahi, tamariki mai, kaumātua mai). Mō te Māori ko te whakawhirinakitanga o te rangatahi – te tokomaha o te tamariki ki te hungā whai mahi – te mea nui; mō te Pākehā, ko te tokomaha o te hunga kaumātua e 65 tau te pakeke neke atu ranei.

E matapaetia ana hei muri i te tau 2026, ka kōtiu te rahi o te hunga kaimahi Māori ki te tokomaha o te hunga whakawhirinakitanga, ā, ka piki ake te whai rawa a te Māori (e kīia ana tēnei ko te ‘whai hua ā-taupori’). Ko ngā tāke hoki a ngā kaimahi Māori ka whakapaua ki te tautoko hoki i ngā kaumātua Pākehā kua rītaea. Ka mea ka rahi ake te hunga Māori rītaea ana, ka puta he āhuatanga hōu, e pā atu ai hoki ki te hauora me te whai whare. Ka rerekē pea tēnei āhua mēnā ka mahi tonu ngā tāngata ki tua atu i te 65 tau te pakeke.

Nga kaitiaki pūtea o Ahitereiria

Nō te kitenga a Ngāi Tahu i te tokomaha o ana uri e noho ana ki Ahitereiria ka whakatūwheratia e rātou tētahi kaute tiaki moni mō tāna kaupapa tiaki pūtea o Whai Rawa. Ko te kaupapa rā he tuku moni ōrite ki ērā kua kohia ake e te pakeke whai pānga ki tētahi taumata i whakaritea. Ko ngā pūtea rā kua kohia e āhei ana te whakapau mō te whai tohu whare wānanga, mō te te hoko kainga tuatahi me te wā rītaea anō hoki – ki Ahitereiria ki Aotearoa rānei.

Te hekenga tuatoru

I mua ka kīia he Māori mēnā i whānau mai i whakatupuria ake hoki ki Aotearoa. Heoi mai i te tau 1990 kua whānau kē mai te iwi Māori ki tāwāhi hoki. Ko te mātotoru kei Ahitereiria na runga i te whai rawa ake o te noho ki reira. E ai ki te tatauranga taupori o Ahitereiria i te tau 2006 tata ki te 93,000 te tokomaha o te Māori kei Ahitereiria e noho ana; arā kotahi hauono o te iwi Māori o Aotearoa me Ahitereiria hui katoa. Ko te nuinga o ngā tamariki Māori o te tatauranga o Ahitereiria i whānau kē mai ki Ahitereiria.

Ngā tūtohutanga

E ai ki ngā rangahau kāwanatanga o te tau 2009 ka kitea he pai ake ngā tūtohutanga Māori mō ētahi tohu taupori tohu ōhanga hoki. Kei ētahi rā, he nui ake ēnei whakapainga ake i ērā o te taupori whānui katoa, tae atu ki te toi oranga tangata, te whai whai tohu whare wānanga, te whai mahi me te whai utu i te haora. Ahakoa tēnei, kei raro tonu te Māori e putu ana. Hei tauira i ngā tau o te 2005-7 e 79.0 tau te pakeke o te oranga Pākehā, ā, e 70.4 noa te pakeke oranga o te Māori. Mō te hunga wahine, e 83.0 tau te pakeke mō te wahine Pākehā, ā, e 75.1 tau te pakeke mō te wahine Māori.

Te whakawhitinga tokomaha

I te tau 2010 kāre anō te taupori Māori kia kuhu ki te wāhanga tuawhā o te whakawhitinga tokomaha, e kati ai te heke o ngā whakawhānautanga, ka ōrite te tokomaha o te hunga ka mate ki ērā ka whānau mai, ka tau ai hoki te whanaketanga Māori nei o te iwi.

Ngā wero hou

Ko te tokomaha o te iwi Māori he mea hono pū ki te takahanga o te Māori e te Pākehā, tae atu ki te hauora, ki te tōrangapū, ki te whai rauemi anō hoki. Nā ngā ture hangahanga a te Pākehā (whakapākehā rānei whakaiwiruatanga rānei) ā me te moe Pākehā kua rerekē noa atu te āhua o te Māori me te pōhara a te Māori. Mā te mārama ki ngā take o te noho pōhara a ētahi Māori kaua ko ētahi atu ka noho hei tohu nui mō te tokomahatanga o te iwi Māori ki tua o te tau rua mano.

Footnotes

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, 'Taupori Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/taupori-maori/print (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Ian Pool rāua ko Tahu Kukutai, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 27 Sep 2018