Kōrero: Te ao tūroa

Whārangi 1. Te aro me te tātai i te whenua

Ngā whakaahua

He whenua momotu kei te tonga o te ao

E 1,600 kiromita te tawhiti o Aotearoa i Ahitereiria me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko ōna motu nui e toru ko Te Ika-a-Māui, ko Te Wai Pounamu, ko Rakiura. Ka mea ngā tāngata o Te Wai Pounamu (e 150,437 sq km), ko tērā motu kē te ‘whenua nui’. He rahi atu tērā motu i Te Ika-a-Māui (e 113,729 sq km). E 1,680 sq kiromita te rahi o Rakiura.

He takoto roa ngā moutere nunui o Aotearoa. Ko ngā ingoa tonu ka tohu ki te roa o te whenua, inā - Te Ika-a-Māui, Te Waka-o-Māui. E 1,500 kiromita te roa o ēnei motu e toru kei ngā ahopae 34° me 47° ki te tonga.

Neke atu i te e 700 ngā moutere o Aotearoa. Ko te nuinga, he ririki, kāore noa iho e neke atu i te e 50 kiromita mai i tētahi o ngā moutere nui. Ko ngā motu nei ngā tihi o tētahi mānia papa moana. Koinei te take he nui ngā tauranga hī ika o Aotearoa.

E 800 kiromita ki te rāwhiti o Te Wai Pounamu, ko Rēkohu / Wharekauri. Kei reira anō ētahi moutere kāore he tangata: e 1000 kiromita i te raki-mā-rāwhiti o Tāmaki-makau-rau, ko ngā moutere Kermadec; kei te tonga o Te Wai Pounamu ngā moutere o Bounty, o Snares, o Antipodes, o Auckland, o Campbell.

Takoto o te whenua

He pukepuke te rahi o Te Ika-a-Māui, ko te nuinga o ēnei whenua kua pāmutia. Ko ngā ika whenua e toru - a Tararua, a Ruahine, a Kaimanawa - ka toro mai i te tonga ki te raki-mā-rāwhiti, ka kake ki te 1,700 mita. Kei ngā takiwā pēnei ngā toenga o te wao nui. Kei te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui ngā puia maunga, ko te moana o Taupō-nui-a-Tia ki te taha. Ko Taupō te roto nui rawa o Aotearoa; he rua puia tawhito tēnei kua kī i te wai.

Ko Ngā Puke-māeroero (Southern Alps) te tuarā o Te Wai Pounamu; e 3,000 mita te teitei o ēnei maunga. Kei te uru o ngā maunga ko ngā ngahere karawhiua ana e te ua. Ki te rāwhiti o ngā maunga ko Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-o-Waitaha, nā ngā awa ka rere mai i ngā maunga i auaha. Ki te tonga ko ngā roto nui nā ngā awa kōpaka i tīkaro.

He moutere pukepuke a Rakiura. Kāore tēnei motu e pērā i ngā moutere nui, arā, ūhia tonutia ana ia e te ngahere.

Tātai aro whenua

He maramara noa iho a Aotearoa nō te whenua rarahi kīia ai, ko Gondwana. Ko ngā moutere o Aotearoa ngā tihi o tētahi whenua rarahi i whati mai i Ahitereiria i te rāwhiti o Gondwanaland i ngā waru tekau miriona tau ki mua.

Mai anō i te wā Cambrian (neke atu i te e 500 miriona tau ki mua), he maha ngā pikinga, ngā hekenga o te moana. Pakaru iho he pae maunga, ara mai he pae maunga. Haua ana a Papatūānuku e ngā hū nui o ngā puia, ngā rū whenua nui, me ngā horo whenua. He maha ngā awa kōpaka kua tīraha i runga i te whenua me te koero i te mahana haere me te makariri haere anō o te āhuarangi i ngā tau kua pahure.

He roto i hangaia i tētahi horo

Nō te mahana haere o te ao i ngā tau e 13,000 ki mua, ka tīmata ngā awa kōpaka te rewa. Ki te whārua o Monowai i Murihiku, ka koero tētahi awa kōpaka i te whakatū i te tahataha o tētahi whārua. Nō konā ka hinga tētahi pae maunga iwa kiromita te roa, haruru ana te horonuku nui whakaharahara. Nā tēnei i auaha ētahi roto, tae atu ki te Green Lake kei Te Rua-o-te-moko (Fiordland). Ki te rū anō ki Ngā Puke-māeroero, ka horo te whenua, ka kati ngā huarahi. E ai ki ngā tohunga pūtaiao, e kore e pērā te nui o ngā rū ā ngā rā kei te tū tērā ki te rū nui whakaharahara nāna i auaha te Green Lake.

Ngā rū whenua me ngā puia

Mō ngā hia miriona tau, ka mānu te whenua nei o Aotearoa i te moana, kātahi anō ka tau ki te ripa tauārai i waenganui i ngā papanga whenua (tectonic plates) o Indo-Australian me Pacific. Kīia ai tēnei pito o te ao, ko te Porowhita Mura (Ring of Fire), koinei te take tū mai he pae maunga, hinga atu he pae maunga. I auahatia Ngā Puke-māeroero i te tukinga me te whakahipa o ētahi papanga whenua nui whakaharahara.

Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori ngā kōrero mō te rū me te parawhenua mea. E ai ki ngā tohunga pūtaiao, i te pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1400, i toremi te takutai o Aotearoa i te tukinga o tētahi ngaru nui e 10 mita te teitei; ngaro katoa ngā kāinga Māori ki tai. Ia toru rau tau ka rongo a Aotearoa i tētahi rū nui rawa atu. Nā te roa o te wā kua hipa, e mea ana ētahi kei te haere mai tētahi rū e 8 neke atu rānei i te tauine Richter.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Quoted in Philip Temple, ed., Lake, mountain, tree: an anthology of writing on New Zealand nature & landscape. Auckland: Godwit, 1998, pp.150–1. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Carl Walrond, 'Te ao tūroa - Te aro me te tātai i te whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ao-turoa/page-1 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Carl Walrond, published 8 Feb 2005