Kōrero: Te ao tūroa

Whārangi 5. Ngā kararehe, ngā manu

Ngā whakaahua

Nā ngā mahi kino a te tangata me ngā kararehe i heria mai e ia, ka pōuri te hītori o ngā kararehe, manu, ngārara tūturu hoki o Aotearoa.

Kāhui manu a Tāne

I mua i te taenga o te tangata, he whenua a Aotearoa nō te manu. I te ao i te pō, ka rongohia te ngaehe, te tangi, te huhū, te korowhio, te koukou o ngā manu a Tāne. I ngā rā ki mua, e 120 ngā momo kuihi (geese), pārera, moho (rail), moa, kākā, ruru, mātuhituhi, aha atu ki Aotearoa. O ēnei manu e 120, e 70 kāore e kitea ki tētahi atu whenua. Hauwhā o ngā manu nei he manu huna (nocturnal), inā kē te nui o ētahi. He manu nui whakaharahara te moa, he manu kāore e rere, ka kai timotimo i te rau rākau. Ko tōna ritenga ki ngā kararehe whakangote, ka hītekiteki te moho i te papa whenua pērā i te kiore.

Tē hoki mai

Ko te moa te manu nui o Aotearoa i ngā rā ki mua. Ka rite ia ki te manu dodo, kua mate atu, tē hokinga mai. Anei he ruri a te Pākehā mō tōna matenga:

‘No moa, no moa
In old Ao-tea-roa
Can’t get ’em
They’ve et ’em
They’re gone and there ain’t no moa’. 1

Nā te noho motuhake o Aotearoa, ka whanake ngā manu pērā i te weka, te kea, te kākāpō. I tua atu i te hōkioi (Haast eagle), kāore he manu kai manu i Aotearoa. Taea rā anō e te hokioi te kai i ngā moa nui rawa atu. Tērā pea i te ora tonu te hōkioi i te taenga mai o te Māori. Tapaina ai te hōkioi mō tōna tangi.

Ngā konihi (predator) mai tāwāhi

I te haerenga mai o te Māori ki Aotearoa, ka whai mai te kiore me te kurī. Ka ngaro ētahi manu mō ake tonu atu. He māmā ki te Māori te hopu i ngā manu noho whenua, tae rawa ki te moa (ka hīkoi noa atu ki te moa ka paoa tōna ūpoko). Kāore e kore, nā te tangata ka ngaro ngā manu rarahi, engari kei te whakapaetia nā te kiore ka ngaro ētahi o ngā manu pakupaku me ngā hātaretare (kore tuarā).

Kia taka ki te rau tau atu i 1900, ka kawea mai e te Pākehā ētahi momo kiore, te tori hura (ferret), te tori uaroa (weasel), te toriura (stoat), te ngeru, te poaka, te kurī. Nā tēnei, ka ngaro ētahi atu manu, kararehe hoki.

He tūponotanga mīharo

Kua kitea e ētahi kaimātai pūtaiao, a Trevor Worthy me Richard Holdaway, te take kua ngaro te maha o ngā manu o Aotearoa i roto i te e 700 tau kua pahure. Ahakoa ngā ariā mō te ngaronga o ngā manu – te rerekē haere o te āhuarangi me te taiao i roto i ngā rau tau, te tahumaero, te tūpuhi o ngā ira o ngā manu ka ngaro, kāore he whakamārama mō tēnei tūponotanga mīharo ka whai. I te taenga mai o te tangata ka tīmata te whakangaro o ngā manu, kararehe, aha atu. Ko te whakamārama mō tēnei āhuatanga; nā ngā kararehe tauhōu me te tangata, ka ngaro ngā manu.’ 2

Ngā manu kei te ngaro haere

Ka ora ētahi manu ki ngā moutere ririki. Ka mārama te hunga tiaki taiao ki tēnei, ka whakanōhia ngā manu e wharengaro ana ki ngā moutere nei. He wāhi nui tō ngā moutere nei i te kaupapa whakaora manu; patua rawatia ngā konihi kia ora ai ngā manu.

Heoi, e 30 pea ngā momo manu kei te tata ngaro. Ko te kiwi tētahi o ēnei manu. Tino rerekē tēnei manu; kāore ia e rere; ka rite ōna huruhuru o raro ki te makawe, he roa ōna pāhau; he manu huna (nocturnal). Kāore te nuinga o te taupori kia kite i tētahi kiwi. E ai ki te Māori, ko te kiwi te manu huna a Tāne-mahuta, te atua o te ngahere. Ka rongohia tonuhia te tangi a te kiwi ki ētahi rohe i te pō.

Te wētā, te ngākeoke (peripatus), ētahi atu kararehe

Arā atu ētahi momo tūturu, ko ētahi kei te ora tonu i ēnei rā. I te taenga o te tangata ki Aotearoa, e toru ngā whakangote noho ki te papa whenua; kotahi anake kei te ora i ēnei rā.

Ko te wētā tētahi momo ahurei o Aotearoa. Ahakoa te weriweri o tōna āhua pērā i te māwhitiwhiti (grasshopper), he hūmārie te wētā. Ko te tuatara te ngārara rongonui ki Aotearoa; e 24 henimeta te roa, he pōturi tana korikori, e 60 tau e ora ana ia.

Ko te manu me te kurī anake

I ana tuhinga o te tau 1770, ka tuhi a Joseph Banks mō te kore kīrehe (ngā kararehe waewae whā) o Aotearoa:

‘Te āhua nei, kāore he kīrehe ki tēnei whenua. Ka mau ngā tāngata Māori i ngā kākahu i mahia mai i ngā huruhuru o te kurī me ngā manu; ko ā rātou whakakai i ahua mai i ngā kōiwi me ngā niho o ngā manu me ngā kurī. Nā reira ka whakapae ahau, mehemea he kararehe i tua atu i te kurī me te manu ki tēnei whenua, kua whakamahia kētia e te Māori ōna kōiwi hei whakakai.’ 3

He ahurei te mokomoko (gecko), ka whakawhānau ia i ana punua pērā i te tangata, hei aha te paopao hua (egg). He rerekē ngā ngārara nei tētahi i tētahi – ko ētahi ka noho ki runga rākau, ko ētahi ka noho kē ki ngā hiwi maunga kōhatu.

He kararehe tuauri whāioio te ngākeoke (peripatus) –e hia rau miriona tau ki mua ka maranga ōna whanaunga. He kararehe rerekē te ngākeoke, ko tōna ritenga he noke whai waewae; ina kite ia i tērā e hiakai ana ia, ka tuhaina e ia. Ko te papa o te ngahere te kāinga o ētahi momo ngata kai kiko, a Powelliphanta me Paryphanta.

Ika wai māori

Kāore i tūkinotia rawatia ngā ika wai māori pērā i ngā manu tūturu. Ahakoa te iti haere o ngā ika wai māori, kotahi anake te ika kua ngaro, ko te upokororo (grayling). Ahu mai ai te tokomaha o ngā ika wai māori i te momo o te galaxiid. He tino kai ki te Māori te īnanga, arā, te hua o ngā ika wai māori. Ka ora rawa atu te taraute ki Aotearoa. Ka whakapaetia, nā te taraute ka ngaro te upokororo me ētahi atu ika wai māori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Janet Hunt, A bird in the hand: keeping New Zealand wildlife safe. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Random House, 2003, wh. 9. › Back
  2. Trevor H. Worthy rāua ko Richard N. Holdaway, The lost world of the moa: prehistoric life of New Zealand. Ōtautahi: Canterbury University Press, 2002, wh. 565. › Back
  3. I takoto ki Philip Temple, ētita, Lake, mountain tree: an anthology of writing on New Zealand nature & landscape. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Godwit, 1998, wh.17. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Carl Walrond, 'Te ao tūroa - Ngā kararehe, ngā manu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ao-turoa/page-5 (accessed 25 June 2019)

Story by Carl Walrond, published 8 Feb 2005