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Natural environment

by  Carl Walrond

Kāore he wāhi i Aotearoa neke atu i te e 130 kiromita i te moana. E 18,000 kiromita te roa o te takutai o Aotearoa. Kei tēnei whenua ōna maunga, roto, awa, ngahere, pāmu, kaupapa ahuwhenua, arā atu. Nā te tū motuhake o tēnei whenua i roto i ngā miriona tau, ka tipu, ka whanake ētahi kararehe, manu, tipu kāore e kitea i tētahi atu whenua i te ao, pērā i ngā manu kore parirau pērā i te kiwi. Kei te ngako o te tuakiri o tēnei whenua ko tōna ātaahua, ko tōna paruhi. Koinā te take ka muia a Aotearoa e te tini wae tāpoi.


Geography and geology

He whenua momotu kei te tonga o te ao

E 1,600 kiromita te tawhiti o Aotearoa i Ahitereiria me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko ōna motu nui e toru ko Te Ika-a-Māui, ko Te Wai Pounamu, ko Rakiura. Ka mea ngā tāngata o Te Wai Pounamu (e 150,437 sq km), ko tērā motu kē te ‘whenua nui’. He rahi atu tērā motu i Te Ika-a-Māui (e 113,729 sq km). E 1,680 sq kiromita te rahi o Rakiura.

He takoto roa ngā moutere nunui o Aotearoa. Ko ngā ingoa tonu ka tohu ki te roa o te whenua, inā - Te Ika-a-Māui, Te Waka-o-Māui. E 1,500 kiromita te roa o ēnei motu e toru kei ngā ahopae 34° me 47° ki te tonga.

Neke atu i te e 700 ngā moutere o Aotearoa. Ko te nuinga, he ririki, kāore noa iho e neke atu i te e 50 kiromita mai i tētahi o ngā moutere nui. Ko ngā motu nei ngā tihi o tētahi mānia papa moana. Koinei te take he nui ngā tauranga hī ika o Aotearoa.

E 800 kiromita ki te rāwhiti o Te Wai Pounamu, ko Rēkohu / Wharekauri. Kei reira anō ētahi moutere kāore he tangata: e 1000 kiromita i te raki-mā-rāwhiti o Tāmaki-makau-rau, ko ngā moutere Kermadec; kei te tonga o Te Wai Pounamu ngā moutere o Bounty, o Snares, o Antipodes, o Auckland, o Campbell.

Takoto o te whenua

He pukepuke te rahi o Te Ika-a-Māui, ko te nuinga o ēnei whenua kua pāmutia. Ko ngā ika whenua e toru - a Tararua, a Ruahine, a Kaimanawa - ka toro mai i te tonga ki te raki-mā-rāwhiti, ka kake ki te 1,700 mita. Kei ngā takiwā pēnei ngā toenga o te wao nui. Kei te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui ngā puia maunga, ko te moana o Taupō-nui-a-Tia ki te taha. Ko Taupō te roto nui rawa o Aotearoa; he rua puia tawhito tēnei kua kī i te wai.

Ko Ngā Puke-māeroero (Southern Alps) te tuarā o Te Wai Pounamu; e 3,000 mita te teitei o ēnei maunga. Kei te uru o ngā maunga ko ngā ngahere karawhiua ana e te ua. Ki te rāwhiti o ngā maunga ko Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-o-Waitaha, nā ngā awa ka rere mai i ngā maunga i auaha. Ki te tonga ko ngā roto nui nā ngā awa kōpaka i tīkaro.

He moutere pukepuke a Rakiura. Kāore tēnei motu e pērā i ngā moutere nui, arā, ūhia tonutia ana ia e te ngahere.

Tātai aro whenua

He maramara noa iho a Aotearoa nō te whenua rarahi kīia ai, ko Gondwana. Ko ngā moutere o Aotearoa ngā tihi o tētahi whenua rarahi i whati mai i Ahitereiria i te rāwhiti o Gondwanaland i ngā waru tekau miriona tau ki mua.

Mai anō i te wā Cambrian (neke atu i te e 500 miriona tau ki mua), he maha ngā pikinga, ngā hekenga o te moana. Pakaru iho he pae maunga, ara mai he pae maunga. Haua ana a Papatūānuku e ngā hū nui o ngā puia, ngā rū whenua nui, me ngā horo whenua. He maha ngā awa kōpaka kua tīraha i runga i te whenua me te koero i te mahana haere me te makariri haere anō o te āhuarangi i ngā tau kua pahure.

He roto i hangaia i tētahi horo

Nō te mahana haere o te ao i ngā tau e 13,000 ki mua, ka tīmata ngā awa kōpaka te rewa. Ki te whārua o Monowai i Murihiku, ka koero tētahi awa kōpaka i te whakatū i te tahataha o tētahi whārua. Nō konā ka hinga tētahi pae maunga iwa kiromita te roa, haruru ana te horonuku nui whakaharahara. Nā tēnei i auaha ētahi roto, tae atu ki te Green Lake kei Te Rua-o-te-moko (Fiordland). Ki te rū anō ki Ngā Puke-māeroero, ka horo te whenua, ka kati ngā huarahi. E ai ki ngā tohunga pūtaiao, e kore e pērā te nui o ngā rū ā ngā rā kei te tū tērā ki te rū nui whakaharahara nāna i auaha te Green Lake.

Ngā rū whenua me ngā puia

Mō ngā hia miriona tau, ka mānu te whenua nei o Aotearoa i te moana, kātahi anō ka tau ki te ripa tauārai i waenganui i ngā papanga whenua (tectonic plates) o Indo-Australian me Pacific. Kīia ai tēnei pito o te ao, ko te Porowhita Mura (Ring of Fire), koinei te take tū mai he pae maunga, hinga atu he pae maunga. I auahatia Ngā Puke-māeroero i te tukinga me te whakahipa o ētahi papanga whenua nui whakaharahara.

Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori ngā kōrero mō te rū me te parawhenua mea. E ai ki ngā tohunga pūtaiao, i te pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1400, i toremi te takutai o Aotearoa i te tukinga o tētahi ngaru nui e 10 mita te teitei; ngaro katoa ngā kāinga Māori ki tai. Ia toru rau tau ka rongo a Aotearoa i tētahi rū nui rawa atu. Nā te roa o te wā kua hipa, e mea ana ētahi kei te haere mai tētahi rū e 8 neke atu rānei i te tauine Richter.

Footnotes
  1. Quoted in Philip Temple, ed., Lake, mountain, tree: an anthology of writing on New Zealand nature & landscape. Auckland: Godwit, 1998, pp.150–1. › Back

Coasts

Kīhai he wāhi i Aotearoa tawhiti atu i te e 130 kiromita i te moana. Inā te roa o te takutai, kei waenganui i te e 15,000 ki te e 18,000 kiromita. Nā te kōpikopiko o te takutai, te rahi me te nui o ngā kokoru, ngā kūrae, ngā koutu, ngā whanga, aha atu, he uaua te ine he aha ake te roa o te takutai. Ahakoa pakupaku iho a Te Ika-a-Māui i a Te Wai Pounamu, he roa atu tōna takutai.

Tata ki te e 66% o te takutai o Aotearoa he toka, he kōhatu; ko te toenga he oneone, he kirikiri. E 80 ōrau o te takutai ka pākia tikatia e te moana, ko te toenga he whanga, he wahapū. Pākia kinotia ai a Aotearoa e ngā tai o te uru me te tonga.

Ko wai te kai?

Ruarua noa ngā tāngata i Aotearoa ka kainga e te mango. Waihoki, ko te mango kē me wehi i te tangata; inarā, he mango te ika nui ka tunua me te kotakota rīwai ki Aotearoa. He tino kai te mango ki te Māori, ā, tae rawa ki ana hua ina maroke. I tētahi mahinga i te tekau tau atu i 1850, e 7000 ngā mango i mau e te iwi o Te Rarawa ki te whanga o Rangaunu i Te Tai Tokerau.

Ngā tai

He mahana, he mātaitai ngā wai o te raki me te uru; he matao, kāore hoki e tino mātaitai ngā wai mai i te tonga. E 21°C te pā mahana o ngā wai ki te raki, e 14°C anake te pā mahana ki te tonga. Nā te mahana, haerea ai ngā tātahi o te raki e te tini tangata; engari anō ngā tātahi ki te tonga, nā te makariri, ruarua noa iho ngā tāngata.

Wāhi pai mō te kororā

Kitea nuitia ai ngā momo hoiho (penguin) ki ngā wai o Aotearoa. Kitea whānuitia ai te kororā (little blue penguin) ki ngā wai o Aotearoa, atu i te hiku o te ika ki Rakiura. He kahurangi ōna huruhuru, he mā te tae o tōna puku. Ko te kororā te hoiho pakupaku rawa o te ao, e 25 henimita te roa, e 1 koma-mano noa iho te taumaha. Noho ai rātou ki te whāngai i ā rātou pīpī ki ngā kōruarua me ngā whāwhārua. Kei ētahi tāone pērā i a Ōamaru i te raki o Ōtākou, i a Oban i Rakiura, i a Te Whanganui-a-Tara te tāone matua, haere rā anō ētahi kororā ki raro o ngā kāinga whakatakoto kōhanga ai.

Takutai

Ka hia rau ngā momo ika kei ngā wai tai o Aotearoa. Kitea anōtia ai he kekeno, he kakerangi, he aihe, he tohorā.

He rahi ngā pūkawa ka ūhia ki te rimurapa. Koinei ngā wāhi muia ai e te ika. I ngā raumati he rerekē te pā mahana i Aotearoa, atu i te e 9°C i te moutere o Campbell, ki e 24°C i te moutere o Kermadec. Koinei te take he maha ngā tūmomo ika, kararehe i te moana. Ko te tāmure (snapper) me te hake (kingfish) ki te raki, ko te tāngahangaha (banded wrasse), te koihi (telescope fish), te puaihakarua (sea perch) ki te tonga.

Inā te mātaitai ki ngā wahapū me tātahi. He tino kai ki te Māori te kūtai, te pāua, te pipi, aha atu. Mahia ai te anga o te pāua me te tipa hei whakapaipai i ngā kāinga me ngā māra o ēnei rā.

Te moana uriuri

Kāore e tino nui ngā kōrero mō ngā wai hōhonu kei waho ake o te pūkawa raurarahi (continental shelf). Inā te nui o te papa moana kōparuparu kore he ika, pēnei tonu i te koraha te āhua. Ahakoa tērā, kei reira anō ngā wāhi haumako, kei ngā pae maunga me ngā mānia i raro i te wai; kikī ana ēnei wāhi i te ika, te tipu, te aha noa.


Climate

Kei waenganui a Aotearoa i Te Tiri o Te Moana (Antarctica) me te weheruatanga o te ao (Equator), i ngā ahopae e 34° me e 47° ki te tonga. Ko ngā hau pūkeri nui me ngā ngaru whakapuke ka papaki i a Aotearoa, ka ahu mai i tēnei rohe o te moana. Noho tata ai ngā moutere o te raki ki te ahopae, ko ngā moutere o te tonga noho tata ai ki Te Tiri o Te Moana. Kei waenganui i ēnei pito, ko Aotearoa – he whenua āhua makariri, he whenua āhua mahana, koirā te take ka tino rerekē te āhuarangi i roto i te rā kotahi.

Te āhua o te huarere

Ki Aotearoa tūtaki ai ngā hau mahana, haumākū o te raki ki ngā hau mātao, hau maroke o te tonga. Kāore e rata ēnei hau tētahi ki tētahi; koinā te take e kōripo marama ai ngā rangi. Ahu mai ai ēnei hau pūkeri nui i te uru o Aotearoa.

Kīia ai te hau mahana e heke ana i te rangi, he ‘ikeike’ (high pressure system). Koinei ngā hau e puta ai ngā rangi pai. Ia ono rā, whitu rā rānei, ka pupuhi whakaterāwhiti ngā ‘ikeike’ nei i te motu. Kei waenganui i ngā ‘ikeike’ nei, ko ngā hau kake whakarunga, arā, ko ngā ‘pāpaku’ (low pressure system).

Kei waenganui i ngā kohinga hau (air mass), ko ngā ‘aro mātao’ (cold front) – koinei ngā paenga i waenganui i ngā kohinga hau mahana (warm air mass) me ngā kohinga hau mātao (cold air mass). He pēnei te ia huarere; ka tata haere mai te aro mātao, ka kaha ake ngā hauāuru, ka nui haere te kāpuapua. Kātahi ka heke te marangai mō ētahi hāora, kia hipa rā anō te aro mātao, ka huri haere te hau makariri me te marangai mai i te tonga-mā-uru.

Koinei te āhua o te rangi ki ēnei motu mō ake tonu atu, ko te aro mahana, ko te aro mātao, ko te aro mahana, ko te aro mātao.

Ngā wāhanga o te tau

Ngā wāhanga o te tau ki Aotearoa:

  • Ka tīmata te kōanga hei ngā marama o Hepetema, o Oketopa; koinei te wā ka roa atu te haere a Tamanui-te-rā, ka mahana haere te whenua, ka rauroha te kōwhai. Pupuhi ai te hau nā te rerekē o te āhuarangi i tēnei wāhanga o te tau. E 12.1°C te pā mahana toharite.
  • Hei te raumati, he āhua makariri ki te tonga, he āhua mahana ki te raki. Ahakoa kei te wāhanga raumati te rā o Kirihimete, kāore tonu e taea te tohu ka pēhea te huarere. I te poto haere o te wā ki a Tamanui-te-rā i ngā marama o Hānuere o Pēpuere, ka paki o Hewa. E 16.6°C te pā mahana toharite.
  • Ko te ngahuru te wāhanga rawe o te tau. He maha ngā tau ka roa rawa atu te ngahuru ki te tai tokerau: E 13.3°C te pā mahana toharite.
  • He makariri ngā takurua, ka mutu, he tino makariri ki Te Wai Pounamu me te tuawhenua. Ūhia ai ngā pae maunga e te hukarere kawea mai ai e te hau tonga. E 8.3°C te pā mahana toharite.

Hei ētahi rā ka puta ngā wāhanga katoa o te tau.

Ngā hau a Tawhirimatea

Mō te nuinga o te wā ka pupuhi ngā hau ki Aotearoa mai i te uru. Ko te pito tonga o Amerika rāua ko Aotearoa anake ngā whenua kei ngā ahopae o te tonga. Waihoki, kāore he whenua hei pōrearea i ngā hau ka pupuhi mō te e 10,000 km.

He hau mate

Tērā tetahi hauātiu (nor’wester) kīia ai, ko te parera, ka whakataka marangai ki Te Tai Poutini (West Coast), kātahi ka kake i Ngā Puke-māeroero (Southern Alps), kia pupuhi hei hau maroke ki Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-o-Waitaha (Canterbury Plains). Ka pupuhi ana tēnei hau ki Waitaha, ka piki te rahi o ngā mate whakamomori, ka ānini ngā māhunga o ngā tāngata, ka kiriweti ngā tāngata mō te kore noa iho. Ka tino kaha tana pupuhi, ka turakina ngā hēte pāmu me ngā whare. He rite te parera ki te hau mistral o Wīwī, te hau Santa Ana o Karapōnia, te Chinook o Kānata, arā, he hau maroke ka pupuhi i te raumati. Heoi, hei te takurua ka tau te parera (nor’wester) o Waitaha.

Tumeke katoa ngā kaihōpara Pākehā tōmua i a rātou ka toro ki ngā takiwā ikeike; tata tonu rātou ka hinga ki raro i te hau nei. Hāunga te Māori, he matatau ia ki ngā hau; inarā neke atu i te tekau mā rua ō rātou ingoa mō tēnā hau, mō tēnā hau.

He hau rongonui te parera o Waitaha, pērā anō hoki te hau tonga ka kawe i ngā naku mai i Te Tiri o Te Moana.

Te marangai

Kei te takoto o ngā pae maunga te awe nui ki runga i te kaha o te marangai ki Aotearoa. Me kī, he maroke ki te rāwhiti, he mākū ki te uru. Ko te toharite marangai ā-tau, mai i te e 300 tuke haumano i te puku o Ōtākou, ki te e 6,000 tuke haumano ki Piopiotahi (Milford Sound) i te tonga mā-uru o Te Wai Pounamu. Ko te marangai kaha rawa atu i rekōtitia, ko te e 18,000 tuke haumano ki te awa o Cropp, he hawai nā te awa o Hokitika i Te Tai Poutini. Heoi, ka whiwhi te nuinga o ngā rohe i te e 600 – 1,500 tuke haumano. Hei tua atu, he nui ngā wāhi o te whenua ka whiwhi i te e 2,500 tuke haumano marangai ia tau.

Ngā hihi o Tamanui-te-Rā

Kei te uru paku iho a Aotearoa i te rārangi tāima (International Date Line); ko Wharekauri te whenua tuatahi o te ao kia whitikia e te rā. Ko Ōpawa (Blenheim), ko Whakatū (Nelson) ko Whakatāne ka whitikia i te rā mō te neke atu i te e 2,350 hāora ia tau. He mahana anō hoki ngā rohe o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi (Bay of Plenty) me Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawkes Bay). Ina kaumātua haere, he tokomaha ngā tāngata ka hūnuku ki ngā rohe ki te raki noho ai. Hāunga tērā, ka pā anō he mate i ngā hihi o te rā i Aotearoa. Ko Tāmaki-makau-rau te wāhi kino rawa o te ao mō te mate tonapuku (melanoma).

He nui ngā rohe o Aotearoa ka whitikia e te rā mō te e 2,000 hāora ia tau, tae rawa ake ki Te Tai Pounamu, te rohe mākū rawa, ka whitikia e te rā mō ngā hāora e 1800 ia tau. Ka whitikia a Murihiku me te takutai o Ōtākou e te rā mō te e 1,700 hāora ia tau.

He pia makariri

He waia te hau kāinga o te puku o Ōtākou ki te mātao; heoi i te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1991 ka pēhia rātou e te naku, e te mātaotao. Nō te kawenga mai o tētahi ikeike (high pressure system) me te hukapapa, ka heke te pā makariri ki te -15°C. Koirā te wā tuatahi ka totoka te awa o Shotover mō te neke atu i te kotahi rau tau. Ka whati ngā pou hiko nā te taumaha, ka totoka ngā wūru hipi ki te papa, ka pahū ngā kōrere wai, ka kene te penehīni (diesel). Heoi ko te raruraru nui rawa atu ka pā mai, ko te hukapapatanga o ngā pia i ngā pāpara kāuta!

Pā mahana

Ka tika tērā kōrero mō Te Tai Tokerau, arā, ko te whenua mahana. Hāunga anō ērā takiwā o te tonga, arā, he ōrite te makariri ki Ūropi. Ko te toharite pā mahana i Te Tai Tokerau ka heke iho i te e 15°C, ki te e 10°C ki Murihiku. Ko Hānuere me Pēpuere ngā marama mahana rawa, ko Hūrae te marama makariri rawa.

Ko te rā wera rawa atu - e 42.4°C - i puta ki Rangiora (7 Pēpuere 1973) me Jordan (3 Hūrae 1995) i Te Wai Pounamu. I Ophir i te puku o Ōtākou i te 3 o ngā rā o Hūrae 1995, ka heke te pā makariri ki te -21.6°C.


The bush and its plants

Ngā ngahere tuauri

He whenua kākāriki a Aotearoa – he māotaota te tata ki te katoa o ngā rākau māori. He āhua rite te wao ki ngā te takiwā pārū (tropics). Ko te kauri me ētahi atu rākau nui hei whakamarumaru mō ngā tipu o te wao. Kīia ai ēnei momo rākau he podocarp. He whanaunga ngā rākau podocarp ki ngā rākau tuauri whāioio o Gondwana (te whenua rarahi i ngā tau e 190 miriona tau ki mua).

E 45 miriona tau ki mua, i te wā e pāpaku iho ana ngā wai o te moana; he wāhanga a Aotearoa o tētahi whenua nui i toro ki Kanaki (New Caledonia). Heoi, ka piki haere ngā wai, ka motuhake te tū o Aotearoa; i roto i ngā miriona tau, ka whanake ētahi tipu kāore e kitea ki ētahi atu whenua o te ao. Kei konei anō ētahi atu tipu nō tāwāhi, engari nō muri rawa ērā tae ai. Mai anō i tōna tū motuhake, ka pūhia e te hau, ka kawea e te tai me te manu ētahi tipu mai Ahitereiria me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki Aotearoa.

E 700 tau ki mua ka tae ngā tāngata tuatahi ki Aotearoa; mai i taua wā, neke atu i te e 75% o te wao kua topea, kua tahuna. Nā te ahi, nā te toki nā te parau te wao i whakawātea mō ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua. Ka ngaro te wao nui, ka tū mai ko te tini o ngā pāmu. Heoi anō, kei ngā wāhi pukepuke, hiwihiwi kitea ai ngā toenga o te wao nui.

Ngā ngahere koroī (conifer-broadleaf))

He koroī (conifer-broadleaf) ngā rākau ki Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka pai ki ēnei momo rākau ngā raorao, ngā whenua haumako. Ko ētahi o ēnei momo rākau ko te rimu, te mataī, te miro, te kāmahi, te tawa. E rima ngā papanga o ngā ngahere ki Te Ika-a-Māui. Kei runga rawa ake, ko ngā rākau nunui ka whakamarumaru i ngā rākau paku iho. Kei raro iho i ngā rākau paku iho, ko ngā māhuri kei te pihi ake. Kei raro iho i ēnei papanga e toru ko ngā mauwha (shrub), ā, tatū rawa iho ki ngā tipu i te whenua. Kākahutia ai te papa o te ngahere e ngā momo rarauhe, kei runga ake ngā rākau aruhe; ko te kaponga tētahi o ēnei momo. Ka tangohia ngā tētē o te kaponga hei tohu mō tēnei whenua. Kitea anōtia ai ngā koroī ki ngā raorao o Te Wai Pounamu me Rakiura.

Tawai (Beech)

Ko ngā ngahere i ngā ika whenua anake ngā ngahere o Te Wai Pounamu i mahue i ngā ahi-kai-rākau a te tangata. He pāpaku ngā oneone i ēnei wāhi. He mārakerake ngā ngahere o Te Wai Pounamu; ko ngā momo o te tawai ngā tino rākau, arā, te tawai whero (red beech), te hutu (hard beech), te tawai-rauriki (black beech), te tirowhārangi (silver beech). Tērā ētahi wāhi kitea ai he uru koroī (conifers-broadleaf) ki ēnei ngahere, te nuinga o ēnei uru kei ngā whārua. Kei te tū ētahi ngahere koroī ki tai. Ka kainga e te ahi te haurua o ngā ngahere o Te Wai Pounamu – me kī ngā wāhi raorao ki te rāwhiti - i roto i te 200-300 tau i te taenga o te Māori. Whāia, ka tipu te mania (tussock). Kainga kinotia te ngahere e ngā kararehe a te Pākehā – te paihamu, te tia, te nanekoti, aha atu. Ka tipu anō nga ngahere tawai ki ngā pae maunga o Te Ika-a-Māui.

Tērā te ripa tauārai kei ngā pae maunga, e kore te rākau e tipu kei runga ake. He pāpaku ngā rākau ki konei. E 1450 mita te ripa tauārai ki te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui, e 500 mita anake ki te tonga o Rakiura.

Te tangata, te ngahere

Ehara te ngahere i te ngahere noa iho; kua whai pakiaka kē ki te ngākau o te iwi. Haere ai te tangata ki roto ngahere ki te hīkoikoi, te hī ika, te whakangau. Tūturu, ko tā te wao he tāwharau i te tangata i ngā tutetute o te ao hurihuri.

He pērā te rahi me te kāpeti

Kitea ai te tī kouka ki ngā wāhi katoa o Aotearoa. Ka nanao te Māori ki ngā rau, te kāuru me ngā pakiaka hei kai, hei kākahu, hei rongoā hoki. Nā ngā Pākehā tōmua i tapa te ingoa cabbage tree mō te tī. I kainga matatia, i kōhuatia rāneitia e rātou ngā rau, ka kainga pērā i te kāpeti. E ai ki ngā tatauranga, e 4 miriona ngā rākau tī kōuka, me kī kotahi mō ia tangata.

Whakamahia ai e te Māori ngā rākau o te wao pērā i te tōtara, te mataī, te kauri, hei hanga waka, hei hanga whare. I tō rātou taenga ki Aotearoa e 700 tau ki mua, ka kite ngā Māori, he pai ake te muka o Aotearoa i ngā momo o te muka ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nā te kore maitai, me te kore whakangote (mammal) hei mahi kākahu, i tino kaingākau te Māori ki te muka o te harakeke. Ka whanake ō rātou pūkenga raranga, atu i te raranga whāriki me te raranga kete, ki te whiri taura hei aho, hei kupenga, te mahi rā (sail), tāwharau, kākahu hoki.

Ngā wāhi ikeike (alpine fields)

Neke atu i te e 600 ngā tipu kei ngā wāhi ikeike (alpine). E 93% o ēnei tipu kāore e kitea i ētahi atu wāhi. Ko te kōanga te wā pai mō te haere ki ngā wāhi ikeike i te mea, ahakoa ngā toenga huka i ngā pakohu, pua ana ngā tipu ki ngā mānia. Ka ahu ki te tonga, ka nui atu te huka. Ka pua ngā tipu i te raki i te tautahi, kātahi ka pua ko ērā i te tonga. Ki te pito tonga o Rakiura, tipu ai ēnei momo putiputi ki te ritenga moana, nā reira hei te paunga o te marama o Hānuere rā anō ka pua.

Ka hōrapa te tikumu (mountain daisy) ki ngā wāhi ikeike. He tea ōna raupua, he kōwhai ki waenganui. Āhua e 50 ngā momo tipu kei ngā wāhi ikeike.

Kia tūpato te noho

I te hōparatanga haere o ngā kaimātai huaota (botanist) tōmua, ka hura rātou i ētahi momo hōu. I tana toronga ki te ika whenua o Ruahine, ka hurahia e Te Koroneho (William Colenso) te kurikuri (speargrass/Spaniard). Ki te noho koe ki runga i te kurikuri, auē, ka mamae koe. ‘He rahi te hanga o te kurikuri. Kia tūpato! Kaua e nōhia, ka mamae katoa tō tou!1

Ngā repo, ngā whenua haumākū

Ki tā te Pākehā titiro, he koretake ngā repo me ngā whenua haumākū. Ka kerikeri hawai rātou hei whakatahe i te wai kia pai ai mō ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua. I roto i te e 150 tau ka pahure, i whakatahea te e 85% o ngā repo me ngā whenua haumākū, mai i te e 700,000 heketea ki te e 100,000 heketea. Ahakoa ngā mano repo o ēnei rā, he ririki te nuinga. He wāhi nui ngā repo ki tai - he kāinga, he kōhanga, he mahinga kai mā ngā mātaitai, ngā koura, ngā ika waimāori, ngā tuna, ngā manu hoki. He kāinga ngā repo mō te e 20% o ngā manu tūturu o Aotearoa.

Ngā tipu mai tāwāhi

Kei te ahuwhenuatia te nuinga o ngā whenua o Aotearoa. E ai ki te kōrero, e 25,000 ngā momo tipu mai tāwāhi kei Aotearoa – ko te nuinga mō ngā māra me ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua. Kei ngā pāmu puta i Aotearoa ngā otaota ryegrass me te korowa (clover).

Ko te whiro (willow) ka tipu i ngā tahatika o ngā manga me ngā awa; whakatipuria ai te pāpara (poplar) Lombardy, te macrocarpa, te eucalyptus hei pāhauhau. Ka hōrapa te broom, te gorse te parakipere (blackberry) me ētahi atu māheuheu mai tāwāhi. Ko ētahi atu pērā i te pāina kua tau kē ki te mata o te whenua.

Ka whakatipuria ngā ngahere paina Monterey (Pinus radiata) nui rawa atu. I te tau 2001, kua kake ki te e 1.6 miriona heketea te rahi o ngā ngahere paina Monterey. Ki te huia katoatia ngā momo rākau pērā i te paina, ngā otaota, ngā tipu mai tāwāhi, ka kapi te haurua o ngā whenua o Aotearoa. Kei ētahi takiwā, nā te mahi a te hau, ka tipu noa te paina; ka tirohia ēnei rākau anō he tarutaru. Kei te panoni te āhua o ētahi o ngā ika whenua o Te Wai Pounamu i te hōrapa o ngā rākau nei.

Footnotes
  1. Quoted in Philip Temple, ed., Lake, mountain, tree: an anthology of writing on New Zealand nature & landscape. Auckland: Godwit, 1998, p. 31. › Back

Fauna

Nā ngā mahi kino a te tangata me ngā kararehe i heria mai e ia, ka pōuri te hītori o ngā kararehe, manu, ngārara tūturu hoki o Aotearoa.

Kāhui manu a Tāne

I mua i te taenga o te tangata, he whenua a Aotearoa nō te manu. I te ao i te pō, ka rongohia te ngaehe, te tangi, te huhū, te korowhio, te koukou o ngā manu a Tāne. I ngā rā ki mua, e 120 ngā momo kuihi (geese), pārera, moho (rail), moa, kākā, ruru, mātuhituhi, aha atu ki Aotearoa. O ēnei manu e 120, e 70 kāore e kitea ki tētahi atu whenua. Hauwhā o ngā manu nei he manu huna (nocturnal), inā kē te nui o ētahi. He manu nui whakaharahara te moa, he manu kāore e rere, ka kai timotimo i te rau rākau. Ko tōna ritenga ki ngā kararehe whakangote, ka hītekiteki te moho i te papa whenua pērā i te kiore.

Tē hoki mai

Ko te moa te manu nui o Aotearoa i ngā rā ki mua. Ka rite ia ki te manu dodo, kua mate atu, tē hokinga mai. Anei he ruri a te Pākehā mō tōna matenga:

‘No moa, no moa
In old Ao-tea-roa
Can’t get ’em
They’ve et ’em
They’re gone and there ain’t no moa’. 1

Nā te noho motuhake o Aotearoa, ka whanake ngā manu pērā i te weka, te kea, te kākāpō. I tua atu i te hōkioi (Haast eagle), kāore he manu kai manu i Aotearoa. Taea rā anō e te hokioi te kai i ngā moa nui rawa atu. Tērā pea i te ora tonu te hōkioi i te taenga mai o te Māori. Tapaina ai te hōkioi mō tōna tangi.

Ngā konihi (predator) mai tāwāhi

I te haerenga mai o te Māori ki Aotearoa, ka whai mai te kiore me te kurī. Ka ngaro ētahi manu mō ake tonu atu. He māmā ki te Māori te hopu i ngā manu noho whenua, tae rawa ki te moa (ka hīkoi noa atu ki te moa ka paoa tōna ūpoko). Kāore e kore, nā te tangata ka ngaro ngā manu rarahi, engari kei te whakapaetia nā te kiore ka ngaro ētahi o ngā manu pakupaku me ngā hātaretare (kore tuarā).

Kia taka ki te rau tau atu i 1900, ka kawea mai e te Pākehā ētahi momo kiore, te tori hura (ferret), te tori uaroa (weasel), te toriura (stoat), te ngeru, te poaka, te kurī. Nā tēnei, ka ngaro ētahi atu manu, kararehe hoki.

He tūponotanga mīharo

Kua kitea e ētahi kaimātai pūtaiao, a Trevor Worthy me Richard Holdaway, te take kua ngaro te maha o ngā manu o Aotearoa i roto i te e 700 tau kua pahure. Ahakoa ngā ariā mō te ngaronga o ngā manu – te rerekē haere o te āhuarangi me te taiao i roto i ngā rau tau, te tahumaero, te tūpuhi o ngā ira o ngā manu ka ngaro, kāore he whakamārama mō tēnei tūponotanga mīharo ka whai. I te taenga mai o te tangata ka tīmata te whakangaro o ngā manu, kararehe, aha atu. Ko te whakamārama mō tēnei āhuatanga; nā ngā kararehe tauhōu me te tangata, ka ngaro ngā manu.’ 2

Ngā manu kei te ngaro haere

Ka ora ētahi manu ki ngā moutere ririki. Ka mārama te hunga tiaki taiao ki tēnei, ka whakanōhia ngā manu e wharengaro ana ki ngā moutere nei. He wāhi nui tō ngā moutere nei i te kaupapa whakaora manu; patua rawatia ngā konihi kia ora ai ngā manu.

Heoi, e 30 pea ngā momo manu kei te tata ngaro. Ko te kiwi tētahi o ēnei manu. Tino rerekē tēnei manu; kāore ia e rere; ka rite ōna huruhuru o raro ki te makawe, he roa ōna pāhau; he manu huna (nocturnal). Kāore te nuinga o te taupori kia kite i tētahi kiwi. E ai ki te Māori, ko te kiwi te manu huna a Tāne-mahuta, te atua o te ngahere. Ka rongohia tonuhia te tangi a te kiwi ki ētahi rohe i te pō.

Te wētā, te ngākeoke (peripatus), ētahi atu kararehe

Arā atu ētahi momo tūturu, ko ētahi kei te ora tonu i ēnei rā. I te taenga o te tangata ki Aotearoa, e toru ngā whakangote noho ki te papa whenua; kotahi anake kei te ora i ēnei rā.

Ko te wētā tētahi momo ahurei o Aotearoa. Ahakoa te weriweri o tōna āhua pērā i te māwhitiwhiti (grasshopper), he hūmārie te wētā. Ko te tuatara te ngārara rongonui ki Aotearoa; e 24 henimeta te roa, he pōturi tana korikori, e 60 tau e ora ana ia.

Ko te manu me te kurī anake

I ana tuhinga o te tau 1770, ka tuhi a Joseph Banks mō te kore kīrehe (ngā kararehe waewae whā) o Aotearoa:

‘Te āhua nei, kāore he kīrehe ki tēnei whenua. Ka mau ngā tāngata Māori i ngā kākahu i mahia mai i ngā huruhuru o te kurī me ngā manu; ko ā rātou whakakai i ahua mai i ngā kōiwi me ngā niho o ngā manu me ngā kurī. Nā reira ka whakapae ahau, mehemea he kararehe i tua atu i te kurī me te manu ki tēnei whenua, kua whakamahia kētia e te Māori ōna kōiwi hei whakakai.’ 3

He ahurei te mokomoko (gecko), ka whakawhānau ia i ana punua pērā i te tangata, hei aha te paopao hua (egg). He rerekē ngā ngārara nei tētahi i tētahi – ko ētahi ka noho ki runga rākau, ko ētahi ka noho kē ki ngā hiwi maunga kōhatu.

He kararehe tuauri whāioio te ngākeoke (peripatus) –e hia rau miriona tau ki mua ka maranga ōna whanaunga. He kararehe rerekē te ngākeoke, ko tōna ritenga he noke whai waewae; ina kite ia i tērā e hiakai ana ia, ka tuhaina e ia. Ko te papa o te ngahere te kāinga o ētahi momo ngata kai kiko, a Powelliphanta me Paryphanta.

Ika wai māori

Kāore i tūkinotia rawatia ngā ika wai māori pērā i ngā manu tūturu. Ahakoa te iti haere o ngā ika wai māori, kotahi anake te ika kua ngaro, ko te upokororo (grayling). Ahu mai ai te tokomaha o ngā ika wai māori i te momo o te galaxiid. He tino kai ki te Māori te īnanga, arā, te hua o ngā ika wai māori. Ka ora rawa atu te taraute ki Aotearoa. Ka whakapaetia, nā te taraute ka ngaro te upokororo me ētahi atu ika wai māori.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Janet Hunt, A bird in the hand: keeping New Zealand wildlife safe. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Random House, 2003, wh. 9. › Back
    • Trevor H. Worthy rāua ko Richard N. Holdaway, The lost world of the moa: prehistoric life of New Zealand. Ōtautahi: Canterbury University Press, 2002, wh. 565. › Back
    • I takoto ki Philip Temple, ētita, Lake, mountain tree: an anthology of writing on New Zealand nature & landscape. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Godwit, 1998, wh.17. › Back

How to cite this page: Carl Walrond, 'Te ao tūroa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ao-turoa/print (accessed 20 September 2019)

Story by Carl Walrond, published 8 Feb 2005