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Te Arawa

by  Paul Tapsell

I te taenga mai o Te Arawa ki Aotearoa, ka tahuri ētahi o ngā tāngata ki te torotoro ki tuawhenua. Ā tōna wā ka puta ētahi iwi ka noho ki te rohe waiariki o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ahakoa ngā tautohetohe tētahi ki tētahi, i te nuinga o te wā nā ngā taumau te riri ā-iwi i whakatau. Ko te taumau rongonui rawa atu ko tērā i waenganui i a Hinemoa rāua ko Tūtānekai. Hei ngā pō ka tangi te pūtōrino a Tūtānekai ki tana ipo i te motu o Mokoia.


Origins

Whakapapa ai ngā iwi o Te Arawa ki a Pūhaorangi, i heke i ngā rangi kia moe i a Te Kuraimonoa. Nā rāua, ko te tipuna nui a Oho-mai-rangi. Koia te kaitiaki i te marae o Taputapu-ātea – he whare wānanga i Rangiātea (Ra’iatea rānei) i Hawaiki. Tae katoa mai ai ngā tohunga o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa ki te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō te orokohanga mai o te ao me ngā ara moana.

Kia whānau mai a Atuamatua te tuarua a Ohomairangi, kua taka te iwi ki raro i te ingoa o Ngāti Ohomairangi; ko tō rātou kāinga ki Maketū i Hawaiki. Ka moea a Atuamatua i ngā mokopuna tokowhā a Ruatapu. Kia taka ki ā rātou tamariki, ka matika ngā tamatāne tokoono hei rangatira mō Ngāti Ohomairangi - a Tia, a Hei, a Rakauri, a Houmaitawhiti, a Oro, a Maaka. Whāia, ka huri ngā iwi o Rangiātea ki te pakanga tētahi ki tētahi; nō konei ka heke ētahi ki Te Ika a Māui. E 20 whakatipuranga ki mua ēnei tū āhuatanga.

Te Heke

Ka whānau mai a Tamatekapua (Tama) te tama a Houmaitawhiti. Ka kawea e Tama te mānuka takoto a tōna matua ārā, kia rapu whenua mārire mō rātou i Aotearoa. E ai ki te kōrero, kua kitea kētia aua whenua e Ngāhue, te rangatira o te waka a Tāwhirirangi. He toki pounamu tō Ngahue, ko Kaoreore; nāna i auaha tētahi waka hourua e 40 mita te roa. I tō rātou wehenga i Rangiātea, ka tū a Houmaitawhiti ki uta taki karakia atu ai ki a rātou.

Ko tētahi take i heke ai rātou ki Aotearoa, ko te whai tikanga mō te matenga o Whakatūria, te taina a Tama; i mate ia i tētahi pakanga ki a Uenuku. Ko tēnei te pakanga whakamutunga i waenganui i a rātou. Ko te pakanga tuatahi nā te kaingatanga o Pōtaka Tawhiti, te kurī mōkai a Houmaitawhiti.

E 30 ngā uri o Ngāti Ohomairangi i whai i a Tama. Ko ētahi ko ōna mātua kēkē, a Tia rāua ko Hei, ngā māhanga a Atuamatua. Ko te ingoa o te waka i tōna tārainga ko Ngā rākau-rua-a Atuamatua, he tohu maumaharatanga mō tō rāua matua.

I tō rātou hekenga ka tata toremi rātou ki te korokoro o Te Parata. Heoi nā tētahi arawa (mango) rātou i whakaora; nā tēnei, ka hurihia te ingoa o te waka ki Te Arawa.

I tēnei wā ka wehe mai a Tainui i Rangiātea, ko Hoturoa tōna rangatira.

Te Ūnga o Te Arawa

I te taenga mai o Te Arawa ki Te Ika-a-Māui, ka huri te waka mā Whangaparāoa ki Te Waitematā. Ka heke a Ngātoroirangi ki ētahi wāhi ki te whakahaere karakia, ki te whakatō i ētahi kaitiaki mai i Taputapuātea, te marae i Hawaiki. I mua i te wehenga atu i tētahi wāhi, ka haere rātou ki te kimi kai, i runga i te mōhio kei te wātea te whenua mō te whakatū kāinga.

Kia tae rātou ki tētahi moutere i Te Moana o Tīkapa, ka whawhai a Tama rāua ko Hoturoa te rangatira o Tainui, mō tētahi mahi pūremu, ko te mutunga ka toto te kanohi o Tama. Koinā te take tapaina ai te moutere o Rangitoto, ko Te Rangi-i-totongia-te-ihu-a-Tamatekapua.

Ka tau tā rātou kōrero, ko te taha uru o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi te wāhi tika hei kāinga mō rātou. I te pūaotanga o te ao, ka kitea tētahi mātārae kei waenganui i a Matarehua (kei Mōtītī) me Wairākei (tētahi kōawa i rere ki Pāpāmoa). I tana kite i te mātārae, ka tïwaha a Tama, ‘Te kūrae ra (Ōkūrei) te kūreitanga o tōku ihu!’. Ka whai tana matua kēkē a Tia me tana kī, ‘Te toropuke i runga rā, ahu mai ki te maunga nei (Pāpāmoa), ko te takapū o Tapuika!’ I konei ka rongohia te reo o Hei, tērā o ngā matua kēkē o Tama, ‘Nō tua nei o te maunga rā (Pāpāmoa) ahu atu ki tērā pae maunga e rehurehu mai rā i raro, ko te takapu o taku tama o Waitaha’.

Kia tata haere te waka ki tōna urunga whakamutunga (te pūaha ki tētahi wahapū), ka haka te iwi i tā rātou haka, e hakaina tonuhia i ēnei rā hei whakanui i a Houmaitawhiti te matua o Tama, rāua ko Whakatūria te teina a Tama, tae rawa ki te waka o Te Arawa, nāna i tau mai ai te iwi ki te motu nui a Ngāhue (Te Ika-a-Māui).

A ha Te Arawa e!
A ha Te Arawa e!
Ko te whakaariki
Ko te whakaariki!
Tukua mai ki a piri, tukua mai ki a tata
Kia eke mai ki runga ki te paepae poto a Houmaitawhiti!

Settlement and migration

I te tomokanga atu ki te wahapū o te awa o Kaituna e pātata ana ki Ōkūrei, kia kore ai te waka e kawea e te ia o te awa, ka herea a Te Arawa ki tētahi toka nui, ko Toka-parore me tētahi toka punga (anchor rock), ko Tū-te-rangi-haruru. Ko te tohunga ko Ngā-toro-i-rangi te tuatahi kia makere, ka takina e ia ana karakia ki raro i tētahi rākau pōhutukawa e pua ana. Ko te ingoa o taua wāhi ko Ongatoro, ā, nō te tau 1940 ka hangaia he kōhatu whakamaumaharatanga kei reira.

Ka hangaia he pā ki Ōkūrei, ka ingoatia ko Maketū, he ingoa mai i to rātou kāinga o Rangiatea i Hawaiki. Ko tētahi o ngā tāngata i runga i a Te Arawa, ko Whakaotirangi, te wahine a Ruaeo, nā Tamatekapua i heri mai. Ka whakatōngia wawetia e ia ngā kūmara o tana kete kia ora ai rātou i te takurua. Ko te nuinga o ana kete kūmara i rukea ki te moana i te tūtakitanga ki te taniwha, a Te Parata. Ko Te Kete Rokiroki o Whakaotirangi te ingoa o te riu kei muri i te pā o Maketu. Ko Parawai te ingoa o ngā māra kai ki reira, hei maumaharatanga mō ngā māra i mahue ki Rangiātea.

Ka horapa te iwi

Ka tau te noho o ngā iwi o Te Arawa, ka tīmata tā rātou hōpara ki te whenua. Ko ētahi i haere mā te takutai hōpara ai, ko ētahi i haere whakauta ki te rapu whenua hōu mō rātou. Ko Tama ka haere atu i Katikati ki Moehau (Coromandel Peninsula), ko tōna matua kēkē a Tia i hōpara i te rohe atu i Aratiatia ki Taupō; ko Hei tētahi atu o ōna matua kēkē, i haere ki Moehau. I hōpara a Ngā-toro-i-rangi atu i Kawerau ki Tongariro. Ko ētahi atu kaihōpara, ko:

  • Ika (Mamaku ki Pātetere)
  • Oro (Kawerau)
  • Makaa (Kāingaroa)
  • Hatupatu (Tokoroa, Horohoro, Waiariki)
  • Tū-horo-mata-kakā, te tama a Tamatekapua (Moehau ki Hauraki)
  • Ngā mokopuna a Tama – a Taramainuku (Kaipara), a Warenga (Te Tai Tokerau), a Huarere (Hauraki me Tāmaki).

Ka hōpara a Īhenga, te mokopuna a Tama, i ngā rohe o Waiariki me Kaipara.

I te matenga o Tama, ka tanumia ia ki Te Moengahau-o-Tamatekapua. Nō konei ka hoki a Īhenga ki Maketū kia noho i te taha o tōna matua kēkē a Kahumatamomoe (Kahu). Nāwai ā, ka hoki anō rāua ki te raki noho ai – ko Īhenga i noho ki Kaipara, ko Kahu i noho ki Te Whanga-o-Kahumatamomoe (Ōkahu Bay) i Te Waitematā, ki reira mate ai.

Nā Tia, ko Tapuika, nā Hei ko Waitaha. Ka noho a Tapuika rāua ko Waitaha ki te rohe o Maketū. I nōhia e rāua ngā whenua mai i Katikati ki Te Kaokaoroa (ngā whenua i taunahatia ki a rāua e ō rāua mātua). Ka haere a Ngā-toro-i-rangi kia hōpara i ngā rohe waiariki ki te tonga o Taupō, i mua i tā rāua hokinga ko Kearoa ki te motu o Mōtītī.

Īhenga

Ka moe a Īhenga, mokopuna a Tamatekapua i a Hinetekakara, ka haere ia kia titiro i te whenua. Ka tūhuratia e ia ngā roto o Te Waiariki i mua i tana hokinga ki te raki. He nui ngā taunahatanga a Ihenga ki te rohe o Te Waiariki, tae rawa ki Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe (hei whakanui i tōna matua kēkē), Ōhau (i toremi tana kurī ki reira), Ōhinemutu (te wāhi i kōhurutia tana tamāhine e ngā uri o Ika).

Hatupatu

Ko Hatupatu tētahi atu kaihōpara, nāna a Kurangaituku i patu i Whakarewarewa. I tana hokinga ki Maketū, ka arahina e ia a Te Arawa i ngā pakanga ki te iwi o Uenuku, nā rātou nei i tahu i a Te Arawa hei utu mō te hingatanga o te iwi o Uenuku i Rangiātea. E whakanuia ana tēnei i ngā whakairo o te pare kei te wharenui o Ngāti Whakaue i te marae o Tapiti i Maketū.

Rangitihi

Ka moe ngā uri o Īhenga rāua ko Hatupatu ki ngā whānau rangatira o Te Arawa. I ōna wā ka maranga a Rangitihi, tētahi o ngā uri o Tamatekapua, ki te ārahi i te iwi. Ka hangaa e ia tona pā a Pakatore ki waenganui i a Waiariki me Maketū, kia pai ai tana mātaki atu i te awa o Kaituna. Ka moe ia i ana wāhine rangatira kia puta ana tama e whitu me tana tamāhine kotahi. Mōhiotia ai rātou ko Ngā Pūmanawa-e-Waru.

Ka tipu, ka horapa te iwi ki ngā whenua waiariki o te puku o Te Ika a Māui, mai i tai ki ngā maunga ki uta.

Mai i Maketū ki Tongariro ...
Ko Te Arawa te waka
Ko Te Arawa māngai-nui ūpoko tū-takitaki.

Ngā heke

Nā ngā tama a Rangitihi i hūnuku te iwi ki ngā roto waiariki kei te tuawhenua. Ko Te Motutapu a Tinirau (te motu ki Rotorua) tētahi wāhi i tūmanakotia e te maha o ngā iwi nā te mea, he wāhi nui, ka makuru te tipu o te kai nā ngā puia. Kotahi whakatipuranga te wā e pakanga ana a Rangiteaorere rāua ko Uenukukōpako, ngā tuarua o Rangitihi ki ngā uri o Ika kātahi anō ka riro i a Te Arawa te motu.

Ka noho mārire te iwi ki ōna whenua. Ā, tōna wā ka maranga ētahi huinga iwi e toru:

  • Ngāti Pikiao (i te taha rāwhiti o te Rotoiti me Rotoehu rāua ko Rotoma)
  • Tūhourangi (Kaituna ki roto, Rotoiti ki te uru, te taha tonga-mā-rāwhiti o Rotorua tae rawa ki Ōhinemutu)
  • Te Uri o Uenukukōpako, ka mōhiotia ā tōna wā, ko Ngāti Whakaue (Mokoia me te pito raki-mā-uru o Rotorua.

Warfare and marriages

Kāore i tino roa te wā ka pakaru mai te riri. Ka pakanga a Ngāti Pikiao a Tūhourangi, a Ngāti Whakaue mō ngā rawa me ngā whenua. Ka hia whakatipuranga te roa o ēnā whawhai. Kia whakaekea rawatia te rohe e ngā rāwaho pēnei i a Te Rangihouhiri (nō Te Tai Rāwhiti), i a Hongi Hika (nō Ngāpuhi), i a Te Waharoa (nō Waikato), kātahi anō ngā iwi ka whakakotahi.

Nā te wahine, nā te whenua, nā te utu i whawhai ai ngā iwi o Te Arawa tētahi ki tētahi. Heoi, nā ngā taumau ka tau te rangimārie. Hei tauira, nā te moenga o Hinemoa (o Tūhourangi) ki a Tūtānekai (o Ngāti Whakaue) ka tau te rangimārie ki te takiwā o Rotorua. Kei te whakanuia tonutia taua hononga i runga i ngā marae, i roto hoki i ngā waiata, te kōrero mō te kauhoetanga o Hinemoa i te waenganui pō ki tana ipo e noho mai rā i Mokoia; nā te tangi o tana pūtōrino a Hinemoa i ārahi.

Kia heke i ngā whakatipuranga e rua, ka whakanuia te panatanga atu o Tūhourangi i Rotoiti me te pito rāwhiti o Rotorua, i te moenga o Taiwere (Ngāti Whakaue) rāua ko Tamiuru (Ngāti Pikiao). Ka patua a Wāhiao, te tungāne a Hinemoa, ka rere a Tūhourangi ki Tarawera, ki Ōhinemutu, ki ngā takiwā kei te tonga o Rotorua. Nā te hononga o Ngāti Whakaue rāua ko Ngāti Pikiao, ka puta ko Pūkākī. Nā tā rāua moenga ko Ngāpuia, te mokopuna a Wāhiao, ka tau te puehu.

Ko Ōhinemutu te kāinga o Tūhourangi. Ko tēnei te wāhi pai rawa puta noa i te rohe o Te Arawa, nā ōna oneone mahana, ngā wāhi tunu kai, ngā wāhi kaukau, te taunga waka. Nāwai ā, ka pakaru mai anō te riri, ko Ōhinemutu te take. Kia panaia rawatia e Ngāti Whakaue a Tūhourangi kia rere ki te takiwā o Tarawera-Rotokākahi, kātahi anō ka mutu ngā pakanga.

Maketū

Ka whakaekengia a Maketū e Te Rangihouhiri, ka rere whakauta a Te Arawa. I roto i ngā whakatipuranga, ka whawhai a Tapuika rātou ko Waitaha, ko Ngāti Whakaue kia riro mai anō a Maketū. He tini ngā tāngata i mate i mua i te hohounga i te rongo.

Kai taka ki te tau 1829, ka tae mai te pū me te kaihokohoko a Philip Tapsell. Nā ngā whakataetae a ngā iwi ki te mahi muka hei hoko pū, ka pā anō te raruraru i waenganui i a Te Arawa me Ngāi Te Rangi (ngā uri o Te Rangihouhiri) rāua ko Ngāti Awa. I Maketū katoa ngā iwi nei e mahi muka ana hei hoko pū, ka pakaru mai te riri. Ka māharahara a Haerehuka, tētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Whakaue mō tēnei. Hei utu, ka kōhurutia e ia a Te Hunga irāmutu a Te Waharoa, he rangatira o Waikato. Ka pakaru mai te pakanga i waenganui i a Te Arawa rāua ko Waikato. Hei utu, ka pāhuatia e Te Waharoa te teihana hokohoko i Maketū.

Ka tū he pakanga nui ki Te Tūmū (20 Āperira 1836). He tokomaha ngā tāngata o Te Arawa ka hinga. Ahakoa tērā, ka hinga i a rātou a Ngāi Te Rangi, ka riro mai anō a Maketū. Ka horapa te rohe o Te Arawa atu i Wairaki kei Pāpāmoa, ki Te Kaokaoroa i Matatā. Ka hipa he marama, ka whakaekea a Te Arawa e Te Waharoa ki to rātou pā, Te Mātaipuku i Ōhinemutu. Ko Pūkākī te ingoa o te pūaha o te pā; i te whakaekenga o te hoariri i taea te kati i a ia pēnei i te kūaha.


European impact

Te mate urutā

Nā ngā kaihoko Pākehā, ngā kaipatu tohorā me ētahi atu ngā mate urutā i kawe mai i tawhiti, he nui ngā Māori i mate. Tere te horapa o ngā mate nei ki ngā kāinga. Tērā tētahi mate urutā, ko Te Rewharewha, ka hia rau ngā tāngata i mate. Ka mahue ētahi kāinga, ko te hunga mate e putu noa ana, he mataku nō ngā tāngata kei pā mai te mate ki a rātou. Ka noho tapu ēnei wāhi, ā, ko ētahi i hurihia hei urupā, ko Weriweri tētahi o ngā urupā nei, kei te whakamahia tonuhia i ēnei rā.

Te pū

He rahi ngā hoariri mau pū o Te Arawa, pēnei i a Ngāpuhi. Ka rere a Te Arawa ki Mokoia me ngā waka katoa o tōna rohe, i runga i te pōhēhē ka haumaru rātou i ngā pū a Hongi Hika, te ngārahu o Ngāpuhi. Heoi, nā ngā hoariri o Te Arawa, nā Ngāi Te Rangi a Ngāpuhi i ārahi me ō rātou waka mā te pūaha o Pongakawa ki Rotoehu. Ka hinga rā a Te Arawa. Tērā parekura nui i te tau 1823. Ka paheke te wairua o Te Arawa i tana kore ārai i te hoariri me ana pū. I toko te whakaaro i ētahi kia heke ki te tonga me Ngāti Raukawa, kia noho ki raro i te maru o Te Rauparaha me ana pū i te motu o Kapiti.

Rakahinonga (Entrepreneurship)

Nā ngā mate urutā me ngā pakanga i whakakotahi ngā wehenga o Te Arawa. Nō te tau 1829 tau mai ai te Pākehā tuatahi ki te rohe, a Te Tāpihana (Kāpene Philip Tapsell). Nā te hoko pū a Tapsell ka māuru ngā māharahara a Te Arawa. Nā ngā mihinare Karaitiana i kawe mai te rongoā Pākehā, ngā hangarau, te mātauranga Pākehā, tae noa ki ngā tikanga ahuwhenua hōu. Ā tōna wā, ka matika ētahi rangatira mō te iwi e taunga ana ki te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā; nā rātou ka whai hua te iwi. Whai muri i te pakanga i Te Tūmū i te tau 1836, ka kotahi ngā wehenga o Te Arawa ki raro i Ngā Pūmanawa-e-Waru, ka oati rātou, ā muri ake nei, kaua rawa rātou e riri ki a rātou anō.

Kia tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1860, i te tauhokohoko a Te Arawa ki Tāmaki-makau-rau me Poihākena. He maha ōna mira wīti (wheat mills), kotahi te mira harakeke, ētahi uru huarākau (orchards), he pāmu, he waka hī, waka kaipuke hoki. Ka whai hua te iwi.

Nā ngā riri o ngā tekau tau 1860 me 1870 i tū ai ēnei umanga. Ka nanao a Te Arawa ki ana pū ki te tiaki i ōna whenua, wai, rawa. I pakanga a Te Arawa i Te Kaokaoroa mō te Karauna; ko āna kaingārahu, ko Tohi te Ururangi rāua ko Te Pokiha. Ka whakaweto e Te Arawa ngā ahi o Ngāi Te Rangi rāua ko Ngāti Awa ki Maketū.

Te noho a te Pākehā

Kāore a Te Arawa i haina i Te Tiriti o Waitangi, i runga i te whakaaro, kua toka kē te mana o te iwi ki runga i ōna whenua, tāngata, taunga ika, rawa hoki. Heoi, kia taka ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, kua raruraru tā rātou noho. I te tau 1860, ka haere a Te Arawa ki te hui nui i tū ki Kohimarama. I reira ka puta tā rātou tautoko mō te Karauna, me tō rātou hiahia kia noho i raro i te mana o te tiriti. Ka huri a Te Arawa ki te pakanga ki ngā iwi o Waikato me Te Tai Rāwhiti e whawhai ana ki te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1872 ka whawhai a Te Arawa ki a Te Kooti Arikirangi.

Ko te whakaaro o Te Arawa, nā runga i tā rātou tautoko i te kāwanatanga i roto i ana pakanga ki ngā iwi whakakeke, ka tiakina rātou me ō rātou whenua. Engari, nō te kuhuna mai o ngā mahi rūri me Te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka pā rāua ki ngā iwi katoa, iwi whakakeke mai, kūpapa mai. Kia tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1880, kua tohe kē ngā whānau ki a rātou anō. Ka riri te tuakana ki te teina, te teina ki te tuakana, i roto i ngā tautohetohe mō ngā whenua. Ki te waimarie tētahi i te whiwhinga o ētahi hea whenua ki a ia ake, kāore e roa ka memeha ēnei hei utu i ngā rūri, ngā noho a te kōti, te nama i te toa, ka hokona rānei e ngā uri.


The Tarawera eruption

I te tau 1886, i te wā e mahi ana ia hei kaiārahi mō ngā tūāpapa (terraces) o Ō-tū-kapua-rangi me Te Tarata (Pink and White Terraces), ka kite a Te Paea (Sophie Hinerangi) i te waka wairua e tere ana i ngā wai o Tarawera. E ai ki te tohunga a Tūhoto Ariki o Tūhourangi, he whakatūpato tēnei. Ko tāna i māharahara ai, kei te kaha rawa te whai a te iwi i ngā mahi tāpoi, ka mahue ngā tikanga a te Māori. I te awatea o te rā 10 o Hune 1886 ka pahū ngā maunga o Wāhanga, o Ruawāhia, o Tarawera. Ka pakohu te tihi o te maunga, heke iho ki ngā tūāpapa, kia tae ki Rotomahana me Waimangu, 10 kiromita te tawhiti. Rongohia te rū puta noa i te motu. I pōhēhē ngā tāngata o Tamaki-makau-rau he pū repo kē a pakū ana mai tawhiti.

Aoake, kua pō kerekere te rangi mai i Rotorua ki Maketū – ko te ngārahu tērā i rukea ki runga. I taupokina katoatia a Rotomahana me ngā tūāpapa. Neke atu i te e 150 ngā uri o Tūhourangi rāua ko Ngāti Rangitihi i mate. Nā te mea kei tētahi riu te kāinga o Te Wairoa, kāore i pā kaha te whiu o te hū ki a ia, nā reira tokoiti anake i mate. Tokomaha ngā mōrehu i tāwharau ki te whare o Te Paea, kua hinga kē hoki ētahi atu. I ora anō a Tūhoto Ariki, e iwa rā e taupokina ana e te ngarehu me te pungarehu ki tōna kāinga, kātahi anō ka karia ki waho.

I manaakitia ngā mōrehu e ō rātou uri o Te Arawa, ka hoatuna he wāhi noho, kākahu, kai, whenua mō rātou. Ko te nuinga o rātou i haere ki Whakarewarewa (Ngāti Wāhiao), Ngāpuna (Ngāti Hurunga), Waitangi (Tapuika), Matatā (Ngāti Rangitihi), Moehau (Ngāti Hei). Kei aua wāhi tonu ngā uri e noho ana. Nō muri i te hū o Tarawera ka riro i te kāwanatanga ngā whenua o Tarawera, tē taea e Tūhourangi te hoki. I tēnei wā, e rapu ana a Tūhourangi i te tika mā roto i Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi.


Economic and social change

I te tau 1987 ka takoto ngā kerēme a Te Arawa ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ngā mahi hē a te Karauna i te rau tau atu i 1800. Nā ngā pakanga o ngā tekau tau 1860 me 1870, tāpae atu ki te rironga o ngā whenua ki te Karauna, ka heke te kaha me te oranga o Te Arawa; nō te hū o Tarawera kātahi ka tino hē rawa atu. Nā ēnei mate ka tāmia ngā mahi kaipakihi, ka haere mai te Karauna ka hokona ngā whenua o Te Arawa hei hoko atu ki ngā tāngata arumoni. I te mutunga o Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, i te hokinga mai o ngā hōia ki Aotearoa, ka mau mai te mate kohi (tuberculosis). Tini te tangata i mate nā te whurū o te tau 1918.

Koinei te wā pōuri rawa mō Te Arawa. Kia tae ki te mutunga o Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, kua hōhā rawa atu te hunga rangatahi. Nā te kore o te rawa, te tūpuhi me te pohara i te tuawhenua, te kore āwhina a te kāwanatanga, ka haere te tini o te rangatahi ki te ao, ki ngā tāone noho ai. Kua tae mai ki ēnei rā, kua whai mokopuna taua hunga, mokopuna kei te kūare ki ō rātou marae. Kei te pōuri ngā kaumātua o Te Arawa, he pōturi nō te Karauna ki te whakatutuki i āna oati, ahakoa te pūmau o Te Arawa ki a ia mai anō i te tau 1860.

Ngā mahi tāpoi me ngā whanaketanga

Ko ētahi pūkenga kua roa i a Te Arawa, ko te whakairo, ko te raranga, ko te whakangahau i te tangata. Waihoki, ka tāpiri ēnei pūkenga ki ngā waiariki o te rohe, ka muia te takiwā o Rotorua e te hunga tāpoi. Haere mai ai te hunga tāpoi kia kite i ngā tūāpapa o Ō-tū-kapua-rangi me Te Tarata, ngā pupuha, ngā ngāwhā whakaora tinana. Whāia, ka pakari haere ngā kaupapa arumoni.

Nāwai, ka tahuri te Karauna ki te whakatairanga i a Rotorua hei tāone wai kaukau, whakaora tinana. I te tau 1877 ka whakaae a Ngāti Whakaue kia hangā he tāone wai kaukau ki te wāhi kei reira te tāone o Rotorua i ēnei rā. Hei utu, ka puta te kī taurangi a te Karauna, ka manaakitia ngā whenua o Te Arawa. Hei whakapūmau i tēnei whakaaetanga, ka tukua e Te Arawa tana taonga kura, a Pūkākī (te tomokanga ki te pā o Mātaipuku-Ōhinemutu). Hāunga tērā, nō te tau 1997 kātahi anō ka aronuitia e te Karauna te koha nui nei, e 120 tau i muri i te rironga atu ki Te Whare Pupuri Taonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau.

I te tau 1881 ka hainahia e ngā kaumātua o Ngāti Whakaue te Whakaaetanga a Fenton (Fenton Agreement), kia tū ai te tāone o Rotorua. Kāore i rata te hunga arumoni, i te mea i raro tonu ngā whenua o te tāone i te mana o Ngāti Whakaue; ki tā rātou e titiro ai, he tāmi tēnei i ngā mahi arumoni. I te tukunga o te mana whakahaere o ngā waiariki ki te iwi, kātahi ka tino hē rawa atu te hunga arumoni. Nō konei ka timu te tai mō Te Arawa. Nā te Ture mō Ngā Rohe Waiariki (Thermal-Springs District Act) o 1881 me ētahi atu whakapōreareatanga, ka whakakorengia te wāhi ki a Te Arawa i runga i te poari whakahaere i te tāone o Rotorua, ka riro te mana mō ngā waiariki me ngā mahi tāpoi ki tāngata kē. Nō te tau 2006 ka whakataungia ngā kerēme e pā ana ki ngā roto, heoi kei te tāria tonutia te whakataunga o ērā atu o ngā kerēme a Te Arawa kei mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Kei te pōhirihiri tonu a Te Arawa i te hunga tāpoi. Kei te mahi tonu te iwi i ngā waiata me ngā haka, kei te whāngai tonu i te manuhiri ki te hāngī, ā, kei te whakaatu tonu i ngā taonga a ō rātou tīpuna. Kua taunga te rangatahi o Te Arawa ki te whakangahau manuhiri. Mā ēnei mahi ka eke ai rātou ki ngā tūranga i ngā marae, i te ao whānui hoki.

Nō te tau 2006 ka whakataungia ngā kerēme a Te Arawa ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ngā roto. Tāpiri atu ko te whakapāha a te Karauna mō āna mahi hē, me tana whakaae ki te mana o Te Arawa kei runga i ngā roto o te takiwā.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Te Arawa (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

  • tatauranga o 1991: 33,135
  • tatauranga o 2001: 44,964
  • tatauranga o 2006: 51,048
  • tatauranga o 2013: 51,951

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Moana a Toi: 21,846
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 9,975

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Paul Tapsell, 'Te Arawa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-arawa/print (accessed 19 May 2021)

He kōrero nā Paul Tapsell, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017