Kōrero: Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara

Whārangi 5. Te tau 1840 neke atu

Ngā whakaahua

Te Pākehā me ana tutetute

Ko 1839 te tau i hoko whenua ai te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (nō muri ka tautohea ngā hokonga nei). Nō te tau i muri mai, ka tīmata te taetae mai o ngā tāngata whai Pākehā, ka kaha rawa atu te hiahiatia o ngā whenua papai, o ngā whenua e tū ana ngā pā, ngā kāinga o te Māori. I hokona e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ētahi rohenga whenua i reira tonu ētahi Māori e noho ana, ki ngā tāngata whai. Ka tonoa e te Karauna a Rūtene Kānara William Anson McCleverty ki te whakarata i ngā iwi nō rātou te whenua. I kaha tana mahi kia riro mai ngā whakaritenga ā-pepa a ngā iwi mō ō rātou whenua, e pai ai te neke i a rātou ki wāhi kē noho mai ai, whakatipu mai ai i ā rātou kai.

Ko ngā whenua whakamutunga i rohea ki te Māori ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko ngā rohenga McCleverty, i tukuna ki te Māori i te tau 1847. Ko ētahi hua kino o te whakawhitiwhiti whenua, ka tukua ko ngā whenua kei tawhiti kē, ko ngā whenua kāore i te tino mōmona, hei wāhi mahinga kai hōu mō te iwi; nā tēnei, ka kore he whenua hei whāngai i ngā pā tūturu pēnei i a Te Aro, i a Pipitea, i a Kaiwharawhara. Taka rawa ki te tatauranga o te tau 1881, e 28 anake ngā Māori e noho ana ki Te Aro, tokoiwa ki Pipitea.

Ngā haerenga a te Māori

Nā te rongo e aurara ana te Pākehā ki ngā whenua papatipu o te iwi, ka hoki ētahi o te iwi ki Taranaki. I te tau 1848, e 600 ngā uri o Te Āti Awa i hoki ki Taranaki. Ka hoki anō ētahi i te tīmatanga o ngā pakanga whenua i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ko Te Matehou, he hapū nō Te Āti Awa e noho ana ki te pā o Pipitea; ka hūnuku rātou ki te taha o ō rātou uri i Waiwhetū. Ko Ngāti Tama e noho ana ki Ōhariu, ka heke ki Whakapuaka, e pātata ana ki Whakatū (Nelson). Ko te hunga ka noho ki te tahutahu i ngā ahi ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara nō ngā hapū o Te Āti Awa, arā, a Ngāti Te Whiti, a Te Matehou, a Ngāti Tawhirikura, a Ngāti Puketapu. Kei te pērā tonu te noho i ēnei rā.

Te korenga o ngā wāhi pā

Nā ngā whakawhiu o te ao Pākehā, ka ngaro haere te maha o ngā pā tawhito. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1890, ka puehu ngā pā o Te Aro rāua ko Pipitea; nō muri tata iho ka mahue te pā o Pito-one, heoi, e whakamahia tonutia ana te urupā ki te tiriti o Te Puni. I paheke anō te pā ki Ngāūranga; kia tae ki te rau tau 1900 kua kore kē.

Ko te pā o Waiwhetū te kāinga Māori whakamutunga ki Te Awakairangi i te tekau tau atu i 1920. Heoi anō, ka hipa te wā, ka tangohia te whenua hei whakahāngai i te awa, hei whakawhanake hoki i te tāone. Ko te urupā o Ōwhiti e tata ana ki te pūwaha o te awa o Waiwhetū; koinei te wāhi tū ai te pā o Waiwhetū. Ko ngā puni anake o Orongorongo me Parangarēhu i whakamahia tonuhia.

Nō mua tata nei

I pūmau tonu ngā here a Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki ngā uri ki Taranaki. I ngā tau i waenganui i ngā pakanga e rua o te ao, ka tīmata anō te heke o ngā uri o Taranaki ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ki te rapu mahi. Nā te rahi o ngā uri o Te Āti Awa e noho ana ki Te Awakairangi, i te tau 1933 ka whakatuwheratia te wharenui, a Te Tatau o Te Pō. Nō te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, nō muri iho hoki, ka heke te rahi o te iwi Māori ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te kimi mahi.

Te Whakatekau o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Tenths)

I te tau 1839, i hokona e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni he whenua Māori ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ko te tikanga, kia wehea te whakatekau o ngā whenua mō ngā rangatira nā rātou te whakaritenga i haina, tae atu ki ō rātou whānau. Nō konei i hua ai te kupu ‘whakatekau’, he tohu ki ngā whenua i rāhuitia mō te Māori ki te takiwā o Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

I te tau 1960 ka whakatuwheratia te marae o Waiwhetū ki Te Awakairangi. Whāia, i te tau 1977, ka whakatūria he rōpū tiaki i ngā pānga whenua ‘whakatekau’ o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, hei kanohi mō ngā uri whakaheke o te hunga nō rātou ngā whenua rāhui o te rohe. Ko ēnei tūpuna nō Te Āti Awa, nō ētahi atu iwi o Taranaki i noho ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara i te wā o ngā hokonga whenua a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1839. Mai i taua wā, kua whai kerēme te rōpū kaitiaki ki Te Rōpu Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ngā taumahatanga i pā ki a rātou atu i te tau 1839.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Morris Love, 'Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara - Te tau 1840 neke atu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ati-awa-ki-te-whanganui-a-tara/page-5 (accessed 19 July 2019)

Story by Morris Love, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 3 Mar 2017