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Te Āti Awa of Wellington

by  Morris Love

I ngā tekau tau o 1820, o 1830, ka whakarērea e Te Āti Awa ō rātou whenua papatipu ki Taranaki. Ka hūnuku te iwi ki te tai tonga. E whā ngā hekenga nui, ka tau te iwi ki ngā rohe o Kapiti, o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I taua wā tonu, ka tīmata te taetae mai o ngā Pākehā, me te aha, kua ngaro te nuinga o ngā nohoanga tawhito i te kaha hiahiatia o te whenua.


Identity

Ngā tūpuna

Kei ngā whakapapa o Toitehuatahi o Toikairākau rānei, e takoto ana ngā pānga o Te Āti Awa ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ka moe a Ruarangi, te tama a Toi, i a Rongoueroa, kia puta ko Rauru rāua ko Whātonga. Nā Whātonga ko Tara, te tipuna i tapaina ai Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ka moe anō a Rongoueroa ki te tipua a Tamarau, nā rāua ka whānau mai ko Awanuiarangi. Ka puea te pānga o Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, i te hononga o ngā tātai a Awanuiarangi rāua ko Whātonga.

Ngā iwi pānga tata

He pūmau ngā here o Te Āti Awa o Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki Te Āti Awa ki Taranaki, ki Ngāti Awa o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, o te hiku o te ika hoki. Heke tahi mai ai ngā iwi nei i te tipuna i a Awanuiarangi; heoi, nā runga i ngā moenga, ka marara ngā uri ki runga i te mata o te whenua.

Ngā heke

Nā ngā pakanga me ngā heke, ka tau ētahi iwi mai i Kāwhia, me Taranaki ki te rohe o Kapiti, tatū rawa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1820 ka tīmata ngā heke, ā, kia tae ki te tau 1835 kua oti haere.

Heke iho i ngā whakatipuranga, ka toro ētahi o Te Āti Awa ki ngā whenua hōu, ko ētahi i hoki ki ngā whenua tūturu i Taranaki. Ko ērā o te iwi i noho tonu ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te pupuri i te mana o ērā i te rohe i mua i te taunga o te Pākehā ki te rohe nei.


Migrations of the 1820s

I te wā o ngā heke ki te takiwā o Te Moana-a-Raukawa, ka haere a Te Āti Awa rātou ko ētahi atu iwi - a Ngāti Toa o Kāwhia, a Ngāti Mutunga, a Ngāti Tama o te taha raki o Taranaki.

Ngā take mō ngā heke

I roto i ngā tau, ka rongo ngā iwi o Kāwhia - a Ngāti Toa, a Ngāti Koata, a Ngāti Rārua - i ngā whakapātari o ngā iwi o Taranaki, o ō rātou uri o Waikato. Heoi, nō te whiwhinga ki te pū, ka tahuri ngā rangatira o ngā iwi ki te whai utu mō ngā riri o mua.

I te tau 1819 ka rewa te waitaua o Ngāpuhi kia huri āmio i Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko Patuone rāua ko Tāmati Wāka Nene ngā rangatira o te taua. Ka piri atu a Te Āti Awa ki Taranaki rātou ko Ngāti Toa, ko Ngāti Mutunga. He nui ngā pū a tēnei taua, he patu tangata tā rātou tino kaupapa, kāpā ko te raupatu whenua. Ki ētahi tāngata, he haerenga tēnei a Te Āti Awa rāua ko Ngāti Toa ki te kimi whenua hōu mō rātou, kia tawhiti atu ai rātou i ngā iwi whakatuki o Waikato.

I te tekau tau atu i 1820, nā te kaha ake o te hiahia o ngā iwi o Kāwhia ki te heke, ka nuku whakatetonga rātou ki roto o Taranaki. I te tau 1822 ka hinga a Waikato i a Te Āti Awa ki te riri ki Motunui. I runga i te mohio ka whāia e Waikato tana utu mō te hinganga ki Motunui, ka pou te whakaaro i a Te Āti Awa ki te heke.

Te heke tātaramoa

Ko Ngāti Toa tētahi o ngā iwi i heke tuatahi mai i te rohe o Taranaki. I te pito raki o te rohe o Taranaki rātou e noho ana, e whakatā ana, e whakaemi rawa ana. Nā runga i te whakaaro kua eke te wā ki a rātou, ka hiki a Ngāti Toa, ka whai atu ko Ngāti Tama, ko Ngāti Mutunga, ko Te Āti Awa, nā runga i te titiro ki te noho rātou, ka whakaekea rātou e Waikato. Karangatia ai te heke nei, ko te heke tātaramoa.

Te heke nihoputa

Te tapa i ngā heke

Karangahia ai te heke tuatahi ko Te Heke Tātaramoa. I pērā te tapa i taua ingoa nā te maha o ngā tutukinga waewae i tūponohia atu i te huarahi, ā, whakaritea ai te heke nei ki te toro ki roto tātaramoa. Ko te ingoa o te tuarua o ngā heke ko Te Heke Nihoputa, ā he pērā anō te uaua o tēnei heke ki tō te tuatahi. I te wā i noho a Te Āti Awa ki Waitōtara i te taha o Ngā Rauru, ka rangona e Hone Potete o Ngāti Mutunga tētahi o ngā tāngata whenua e mea ana, ‘Ū, ku [a] mate taku niho puta mō taku manuwhiri’. He tohu tēnei kia patua te manuhiri. Nō konei ahu mai ai te ingoa o te heke.

I te tau 1824, ka rewa te heke tuarua. Kīia ai tēnei, ko te heke nihoputa. He nui ngā tāngata o Ngāti Mutunga rāua ko Ngāti Tama i roto i te tira haere. Ko Te Poki rātou ko Te Arahu ko Pōmare mā (nō muri ka mōhiotia ia ko Wī Piti Pōmare) ngā rangatira o te waitaua. Ka uru atu ko Ngāti te Whiti, tētahi hapū o Te Āti Awa. Ko Ngātata-i-te-rangi tō rātou rangatira.

I te taenga atu ki te whenua hōu, ko Ngāti Mutunga i noho ki Waikanae, ko Ngāti Tama i noho ki Ōhariu. I muri mai, nā runga i te whakatenatena a Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toa, ka neke a Ngāti Tama ki Tiakiwai. Kei kō tata atu te wāhi nei i te pito raki o te rori o Tinakori ki te pokapū o te tāone o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ko Ngāti Mutunga ka whai atu, ka noho ki te takutai mai i Te Aro ki Kaiwharawhara. Ko te taenga tuatahitanga tēnei o ngā iwi o Taranaki ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara.


The migration of 1832

Te riri a Waikato rāua ko Ngāti Maniapoto

I te tau 1831, ekea anōtia ai a Taranaki e ngā taua o Waikato rāua ko Maniapoto, i te whai utu mō te hinganga ki Motunui i te tau 1822. Nō te marama o Tīhema ka hinga a Pukerangiora, te pā nui o Te Ati Awa. Ka whakamatea kinohia ētahi o Te Ati Awa, ka tau te pōuri nui ki te iwi.

Nō te tau i muri mai, arā 1832, ka whakaekea te pa o Ōtaka ki Ngāmotu. Ko ngā tāngata o roto i te pa, nō ngā hapu o Te Ati Awa, arā, ko Ngāti Te Whiti, ko Ngāti Tawhirikura, ko Te Matehou.

Kīhai te taua o Waikato i momoho. Nā ngā āwhina a ngā kaihoko Pākehā, a John Love rāua ko Dicky Barrett, ka āraitia atu te hoariri. Nō muri i te riri nei, ka whai te iwi o Te Āti Awa ki Ngāmotu i ngā tapuwae o ō rātou huānga kua heke kē ki te tonga, ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

Te heke tamateuaua

I te tau 1832 ka nuku whakatetonga te tini o Te Āti Awa i Ngāmotu, i te heke i mōhiotia ai, ko te heke tamateuaua. Ko Tautara rātou ko Ruaukitua, ko Ngātata-i-te-rangi, ko Te Wharepōuri, ko Hēnare Te Keha nga rangatira o Te Āti Awa i te heke. Ko Ngāti Mutunga anō tērā i roto i te tira heke, i raro i ngā rangatira i a Rangiwāhia, i a Hautohoro, i a Onemihi, i a Te Ito – ko ēnei rangatira no Waitara katoa – i a Te Pūponga (William Keenan) nō Ngāmotu. Ko Ngāti Tama anō hoki i hono ki te heke, i raro i ngā rangatira i a Te Tū-o-te-rangi, a Te Rangikatau, a Te Kāeaea (Taringakurī), a Te Rangitamarau.

Kīhai te katoa i mawehe atu: ko ētahi i noho tonu ki te whenua papatipu, ahakoa tērā ka whakaekea anōtia rātou e ngā iwi o Waikato.


1830s: settling the land

Ngā hononga kei waenganui i a Ngāmotu rāua ko Ngāti Mutunga

I te taenga o Te Āti Awa o Ngāmotu ki te tonga, ka noho tuatahi rātou ki Waikanae. Ko Te Mana, he hapū nō Ngāti Mutunga, e noho ana ki Pito-one, ki te taha whakatetonga i Te Whanganui-a-Tara; nō mua noa rātou heke ai i te rohe o Taranaki. Nā Te Mana i pōwhiri ngā rangatira o Ngāmotu - a Te Puni, a Te Wharepōuri, a Te Matangi rāua ko tana tama a Te Mānihera Te Toru, kia noho ki reira, nā te whanaungatanga i waenganui i a rātou.

I taua wā anō, e hoki whakatetonga ana tētahi ope taua nō Te Ati Awa, ko tōna kaingārahu, ko Wī Tako Ngātata. Ka piki te taua ki Heretaunga (Te Awakairangi), ka whakaekea a Ngāti Kahukura-awhitia ki tō rātou kāinga ki Pūniu-nuku. Ko te take o tā rātou whakaeke, he ranaki i te mate o Te Momi, he rangatira nō Ngāti Mutunga. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka rāhuitia e Patukawenga o Ngāti Mutunga tētahi whenua mō te iwi o Ngāmotu ki Waiwhetū, kei te taha rāwhiti o te pūwaha o te awa o Heretaunga.

Nā Patukawenga te wāhi nei i karanga, ko Te Iwi Tuarā o Tipi, hei whakamaumaharatanga mō tōna uri i pākūhātia ki tētahi rangatira nō Ngāmotu. Nō muri, ka whakatapuhia te whenua o Whiorau (Lowry Bay) e te iwi o Te Mana mō ngā tāngata o Ngāmotu. Nā ēnei takoha i whai tūrangawaewae ai a Te Āti Awa ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

Te heke paukena

I te ārahitanga o Te Puni rāua ko Te Wharepōuri i tētahi taua toto ki Wairarapa, ka kite rātou kei te wātea te whenua i te tangata. Nā, ko te take tērā i heke ai te rahi o te iwi kia noho ki te taha tonga o Wairarapa; ko ngā kaumātua i mahue ki Waiwhetū.

I te wā e noho ana te iwi o Ngāmotu ki Wairarapa, kua tupu te raruraru ki waenganui i ngā iwi kei Kapiti – mō ngā whakarohenga whenua me ngā riri o neherā. I te pakanga o Haowhenua i te tau 1834, ka heke anō tētahi tira i Taranaki ka kīia ai, ko te heke paukena; nō te takiwā o Waitara ki Taranaki te iwi nei. Ko te kaiārahi o tēnei heke o Te Ati Awa, ko Te Rangitāke, ko Wiremu Kīngi rānei tōna ingoa ki ētahi.

Te tuku whenua, 1835

I te tau 1835 i te noho māharahara a Ngāti Mutunga me tētahi wahanga o Ngāti Tama mō tō rātou noho ki te rohe, nā te taenga o Ngāti Raukawa ki te rohe o Kapiti, nā te whatinga hoki o te maungārongo ki a Ngāti Toa i te riri o Haowhenua. Nā tēnei āhuatanga, ka titiro rātou ki Wharekauri me āna rawa hei kāinga mō rātou; taro ake i whakamātau rātou ki te kāhaki i te kaipuke a Rodney hei heri i a rātou ki Wharekauri mai i te moutere o Matiu (Somes Island) i Te Whanganui-a-Tara. E rua ngā haerenga o te kaipuke nei. I mua i te haerenga whakamutunga i te marama o Nōema, 1835, ka tū tētahi hui ki Matiu. I taua hui ka tukua e Ngāti Mutunga o rātou whenua ki te whanga ki a Te Āti Awa me ngā rangatira o Taranaki katoa.

Te kūititanga

Nō te marama o Oketopa 1839, ka tū te riri o te Kūititanga. Koinei te riri whakamutunga mō te whenua i mua i te taenga o ngā tāngata whai a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Nā runga tonu i te whakahau a Te Rauparaha, ka whakaekea a Te Āti Awa e Ngāti Raukawa; ko te pae o te riri i Waikanae. Ko te take i pāhotia whānuitia mō te riri, ko te takahitanga o te mana a Waitohu, te tuahine a Te Rauparaha i a Ngāti Tama; nō mua tata tonu i te pakanga ka mate a Waitohi. Heoi anō, ko te tino pūtake mō te riri, ko te mana ki te whenua, ko te mana ki ngā rawa. Ko te tikanga ka toa ko Ngāti Raukawa, engari hinga atu, hinga mai. I te mutunga o te pakanga, nui ake te iwi o Ngāti Raukawa i hinga i ērā o te iwi o Te Āti Awa. Heoi, nā te riri ki te Kūititanga, ka mārama kei hea ngā paenga whenua o ngā iwi ki te rohe o Kapiti.


After 1840

Te Pākehā me ana tutetute

Ko 1839 te tau i hoko whenua ai te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (nō muri ka tautohea ngā hokonga nei). Nō te tau i muri mai, ka tīmata te taetae mai o ngā tāngata whai Pākehā, ka kaha rawa atu te hiahiatia o ngā whenua papai, o ngā whenua e tū ana ngā pā, ngā kāinga o te Māori. I hokona e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ētahi rohenga whenua i reira tonu ētahi Māori e noho ana, ki ngā tāngata whai. Ka tonoa e te Karauna a Rūtene Kānara William Anson McCleverty ki te whakarata i ngā iwi nō rātou te whenua. I kaha tana mahi kia riro mai ngā whakaritenga ā-pepa a ngā iwi mō ō rātou whenua, e pai ai te neke i a rātou ki wāhi kē noho mai ai, whakatipu mai ai i ā rātou kai.

Ko ngā whenua whakamutunga i rohea ki te Māori ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko ngā rohenga McCleverty, i tukuna ki te Māori i te tau 1847. Ko ētahi hua kino o te whakawhitiwhiti whenua, ka tukua ko ngā whenua kei tawhiti kē, ko ngā whenua kāore i te tino mōmona, hei wāhi mahinga kai hōu mō te iwi; nā tēnei, ka kore he whenua hei whāngai i ngā pā tūturu pēnei i a Te Aro, i a Pipitea, i a Kaiwharawhara. Taka rawa ki te tatauranga o te tau 1881, e 28 anake ngā Māori e noho ana ki Te Aro, tokoiwa ki Pipitea.

Ngā haerenga a te Māori

Nā te rongo e aurara ana te Pākehā ki ngā whenua papatipu o te iwi, ka hoki ētahi o te iwi ki Taranaki. I te tau 1848, e 600 ngā uri o Te Āti Awa i hoki ki Taranaki. Ka hoki anō ētahi i te tīmatanga o ngā pakanga whenua i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ko Te Matehou, he hapū nō Te Āti Awa e noho ana ki te pā o Pipitea; ka hūnuku rātou ki te taha o ō rātou uri i Waiwhetū. Ko Ngāti Tama e noho ana ki Ōhariu, ka heke ki Whakapuaka, e pātata ana ki Whakatū (Nelson). Ko te hunga ka noho ki te tahutahu i ngā ahi ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara nō ngā hapū o Te Āti Awa, arā, a Ngāti Te Whiti, a Te Matehou, a Ngāti Tawhirikura, a Ngāti Puketapu. Kei te pērā tonu te noho i ēnei rā.

Te korenga o ngā wāhi pā

Nā ngā whakawhiu o te ao Pākehā, ka ngaro haere te maha o ngā pā tawhito. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1890, ka puehu ngā pā o Te Aro rāua ko Pipitea; nō muri tata iho ka mahue te pā o Pito-one, heoi, e whakamahia tonutia ana te urupā ki te tiriti o Te Puni. I paheke anō te pā ki Ngāūranga; kia tae ki te rau tau 1900 kua kore kē.

Ko te pā o Waiwhetū te kāinga Māori whakamutunga ki Te Awakairangi i te tekau tau atu i 1920. Heoi anō, ka hipa te wā, ka tangohia te whenua hei whakahāngai i te awa, hei whakawhanake hoki i te tāone. Ko te urupā o Ōwhiti e tata ana ki te pūwaha o te awa o Waiwhetū; koinei te wāhi tū ai te pā o Waiwhetū. Ko ngā puni anake o Orongorongo me Parangarēhu i whakamahia tonuhia.

Nō mua tata nei

I pūmau tonu ngā here a Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki ngā uri ki Taranaki. I ngā tau i waenganui i ngā pakanga e rua o te ao, ka tīmata anō te heke o ngā uri o Taranaki ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ki te rapu mahi. Nā te rahi o ngā uri o Te Āti Awa e noho ana ki Te Awakairangi, i te tau 1933 ka whakatuwheratia te wharenui, a Te Tatau o Te Pō. Nō te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, nō muri iho hoki, ka heke te rahi o te iwi Māori ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te kimi mahi.

Te Whakatekau o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Tenths)

I te tau 1839, i hokona e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni he whenua Māori ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ko te tikanga, kia wehea te whakatekau o ngā whenua mō ngā rangatira nā rātou te whakaritenga i haina, tae atu ki ō rātou whānau. Nō konei i hua ai te kupu ‘whakatekau’, he tohu ki ngā whenua i rāhuitia mō te Māori ki te takiwā o Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

I te tau 1960 ka whakatuwheratia te marae o Waiwhetū ki Te Awakairangi. Whāia, i te tau 1977, ka whakatūria he rōpū tiaki i ngā pānga whenua ‘whakatekau’ o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, hei kanohi mō ngā uri whakaheke o te hunga nō rātou ngā whenua rāhui o te rohe. Ko ēnei tūpuna nō Te Āti Awa, nō ētahi atu iwi o Taranaki i noho ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara i te wā o ngā hokonga whenua a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1839. Mai i taua wā, kua whai kerēme te rōpū kaitiaki ki Te Rōpu Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ngā taumahatanga i pā ki a rātou atu i te tau 1839.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Te Āti Awa (Te Whanganui-a-Tara)

  • tatauranga o 1991: 45
  • tatauranga o 2001: 1,233
  • tatauranga o 2006: 1,728
  • tatauranga o 2013: 2,556

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 1,326

Te Āti Awa

  • tatauranga o 1991: 11,028
  • tatauranga o 2001: 4,929
  • tatauranga o 2006: 4,644
  • tatauranga o 2013: 3,063

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 588
  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 453
  • Taranaki: 357

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Morris Love, 'Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ati-awa-ki-te-whanganui-a-tara/print (accessed 14 October 2019)

Story by Morris Love, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 3 Mar 2017