Kōrero: Te Haahi Rātana

Whārangi 1. Te pūaotanga o Te Haahi Rātana

Ngā whakaahua

Ko Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana tētahi matakite, tohunga whakaora nui hoki o te iwi Māori. Ka pūāwai i a ia te hāhi me te kaupapa kotahitanga noho ōrite o ngā iwi ki raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ngā tau tuatahi

I whānau mai a Rātana i te 25 o ngā rā o Kohitātea i te tau 1873 ki Te Kawau, e tata ana ki Tūtaenui. Ko Wiremu Rātana rāua ko Ihipera Kōria Erina ana mātua. He nui ana kārangaranga maha, engari ka noho pū ia ki tana iwi matua ki a Ngāti Apa. Nā tana māmā whāngai nā Ria Hamuera ia i whakatipu, ā nā tana whāea kēkē, te poropiti nei nā Mere Rikiriki ia i ako ki te taha wairua. Whai muri i tana kura i Awahuri ka mahi a Rātana ki te pāmu o tana whānau ki Awahou. I ngā wā o mua, ka ngahau anō a Rātana i ngā mahi whutupaoro, whakaoma hōiho, inu pia hoki. He tino toki ia ki ngā mahi parau me te heipū poro wīti. I te tau 1893 ka moe ia i a Te Urumanaao Ngāpaki. Tokowaru ā rāua tamariki.

Ngā poropiti me ngā matakite

I puta i a Mere Rikiriki te poropiti mō ngā mahi tohu tērā ka tutuki i a Rātana me ana tama i a Ārepa rāua ko Ōmeka. I te wā e hī ika ana rātou ko tana whānau ki Whangaehu, ka pae ngā tohorā e rua ki uta, ka mutu he tohu whakarite tērā i a ia ki te Karaiti, arā, ko ia anō hei ‘hī i te tangata’. Whai muri i te māuiuitanga o Ōmeka i te tūtanga ki te ngira, ka nohopuku a Rātana, ka karakia. I mea ia nō te 8 o ngā rā o Noema o te tau 1918 ka kite ia i te anahera. Ko tana i tohutohu ai ko te whakakotahitanga o te iwi Māori i raro i te maru o ‘Ihoa o ngā Mano’, ko te whakaora i te iwi me te whakatahuri i a rātou mai i ngā whakapono o ngā tohunga o ngā atua Māori.

Mana whakaora

Ka whakarerekē a Rātana i tana āhua noho, i te whakaoranga o tana tama. Nō te oranga ake anō o ētahi atu i ana rongoā ka hau te mana whakaora o Rātana. Taka mai ki te tekau tau 1920 kua tū mai he tāone tonu ki runga i te pāmu a Rātana, kei te rāwhiti o Whanganui – nō muri mai karangahia ai ko Rātana Pā. Ka karapinepine te tini me te mano ki te marae, ka mutu he huihuinga nō ngā iwi maha kīhai i kitea mō te wā roa. He tīmatanga hōu tēnei mō te iwi rawakore me rātou e hīkaka ana kia kite i ngā mahi whakaora māuiui a Rātana tae noa ki ngā māuiui o te whenua. Nā ana akoranga i ū ai he wairua hōu he aronga tōrangapū hōu ki te iwi whānui.

Te ao hāhi me te ao tōrangapū

Ko Te Haahi Rātana te peka wairua o ngā mahi a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana, ā, ko te Rōpū Rātana (Rātana Movement), te peka tōrangapū. Tērā te kōrero rongonui a Rātana, kei tana ringa matau te Paipera, kei tana ringa mauī te Tiriti o Waitangi. Pēnā ka tika te taha wairua, ka tika anō te taha tinana.

Tiriti o Waitangi

I te marama o Āperira i te tau 1924, ka māwhiti atu a Rātana me tana tira ki Rānana kia tūtaki i a Kīngi Hōri te tuarima. Ko tā rātou i haere ai he whakatakoto i ngā nawe a te iwi Māori ki ngā muru whenua me ngā takahi ture ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te kaupapa a Rātana kia whakaatuhia te petihana a te iwi Māori, i hainatia rā e te 45,000 tāngata Māori (e rua hautoru o te iwi Māori katoa), kia whakamanahia e te Karauna te Tiriti. Heoi ka wehi te Kāwanatanga o Nu Tireni tērā ka whakamā rātou mēnā ka tutuki taua hui nā ka whāia e rātou kia whakakorehia te hui. Ahakoa tērā, nō konā ka whakaputa anō te tiriti ki te ao mārama ki te aro o te iwi marea whānui e hia ngahuru tau e waiho noatia ana e te Karauna.

He hāhi hou

I te tuatahi, he kaha te tautoko mai a ngā Mihinare, Katorika me ngā hāhi Karaitiana i a Rātana, me te aha, ka akiaki a Rātana i tana iwi kia tautokona tonu ō rātou hāhi. Heoi kāore i mutu noa ngā tautohetohe hāhi nei mō tēnei mea te tūranga tohu o ngā anahera, me te whakahua o Rātana i te kupu ‘māngai’ hei whakamārama i tana whakahihikotanga e te Wairua Tapu. Nā tana hōhā ki ēnei tao kupu e whiua mai ana e ngā hāhi e hiahia ana kia noho ngā morehu ki ō rātou hāhi – ka whakatau a Rātana kia tū motuhake mai ia. I te 31 o ngā rā o Mei i te tau 1925 ka whakairohia te oati whakapono i whakatūria ai te hāhi motuhake o ‘Te Haahi Rātana’, ā, nō te 21 o ngā rā o Hūrae i taua tau, ka whakamanahia tēnei hāhi ki te ture.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Keith Newman, 'Te Haahi Rātana - Te pūaotanga o Te Haahi Rātana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-haahi-ratana/page-1 (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Keith Newman, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 4 Apr 2018