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Rātana Church – Te Haahi Rātana

by Keith Newman

I whakarauika a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana i ngā mōrehu o te iwi Māori, ā nāna rātou i whakahihiko ki te whakapono – me te tōrangapū. Nāna te kupu kōrero ki te pirimia o Aotearoa me te Karauna o Ingarangi kia whakahōnoretia te Tiriti o Waitangi. A tatū mai ki ngā tau rua mano nei, he manomano ngā pononga e whai tonu ana i te whakapono nei ki Aotearoa me Ahitereiria.


Founding the Rātana Church

Ko Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana tētahi matakite, tohunga whakaora nui hoki o te iwi Māori. Ka pūāwai i a ia te hāhi me te kaupapa kotahitanga noho ōrite o ngā iwi ki raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ngā tau tuatahi

I whānau mai a Rātana i te 25 o ngā rā o Kohitātea i te tau 1873 ki Te Kawau, e tata ana ki Tūtaenui. Ko Wiremu Rātana rāua ko Ihipera Kōria Erina ana mātua. He nui ana kārangaranga maha, engari ka noho pū ia ki tana iwi matua ki a Ngāti Apa. Nā tana māmā whāngai nā Ria Hamuera ia i whakatipu, ā nā tana whāea kēkē, te poropiti nei nā Mere Rikiriki ia i ako ki te taha wairua. Whai muri i tana kura i Awahuri ka mahi a Rātana ki te pāmu o tana whānau ki Awahou. I ngā wā o mua, ka ngahau anō a Rātana i ngā mahi whutupaoro, whakaoma hōiho, inu pia hoki. He tino toki ia ki ngā mahi parau me te heipū poro wīti. I te tau 1893 ka moe ia i a Te Urumanaao Ngāpaki. Tokowaru ā rāua tamariki.

Ngā poropiti me ngā matakite

I puta i a Mere Rikiriki te poropiti mō ngā mahi tohu tērā ka tutuki i a Rātana me ana tama i a Ārepa rāua ko Ōmeka. I te wā e hī ika ana rātou ko tana whānau ki Whangaehu, ka pae ngā tohorā e rua ki uta, ka mutu he tohu whakarite tērā i a ia ki te Karaiti, arā, ko ia anō hei ‘hī i te tangata’. Whai muri i te māuiuitanga o Ōmeka i te tūtanga ki te ngira, ka nohopuku a Rātana, ka karakia. I mea ia nō te 8 o ngā rā o Noema o te tau 1918 ka kite ia i te anahera. Ko tana i tohutohu ai ko te whakakotahitanga o te iwi Māori i raro i te maru o ‘Ihoa o ngā Mano’, ko te whakaora i te iwi me te whakatahuri i a rātou mai i ngā whakapono o ngā tohunga o ngā atua Māori.

Mana whakaora

Ka whakarerekē a Rātana i tana āhua noho, i te whakaoranga o tana tama. Nō te oranga ake anō o ētahi atu i ana rongoā ka hau te mana whakaora o Rātana. Taka mai ki te tekau tau 1920 kua tū mai he tāone tonu ki runga i te pāmu a Rātana, kei te rāwhiti o Whanganui – nō muri mai karangahia ai ko Rātana Pā. Ka karapinepine te tini me te mano ki te marae, ka mutu he huihuinga nō ngā iwi maha kīhai i kitea mō te wā roa. He tīmatanga hōu tēnei mō te iwi rawakore me rātou e hīkaka ana kia kite i ngā mahi whakaora māuiui a Rātana tae noa ki ngā māuiui o te whenua. Nā ana akoranga i ū ai he wairua hōu he aronga tōrangapū hōu ki te iwi whānui.

Te ao hāhi me te ao tōrangapū

Ko Te Haahi Rātana te peka wairua o ngā mahi a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana, ā, ko te Rōpū Rātana (Rātana Movement), te peka tōrangapū. Tērā te kōrero rongonui a Rātana, kei tana ringa matau te Paipera, kei tana ringa mauī te Tiriti o Waitangi. Pēnā ka tika te taha wairua, ka tika anō te taha tinana.

Tiriti o Waitangi

I te marama o Āperira i te tau 1924, ka māwhiti atu a Rātana me tana tira ki Rānana kia tūtaki i a Kīngi Hōri te tuarima. Ko tā rātou i haere ai he whakatakoto i ngā nawe a te iwi Māori ki ngā muru whenua me ngā takahi ture ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te kaupapa a Rātana kia whakaatuhia te petihana a te iwi Māori, i hainatia rā e te 45,000 tāngata Māori (e rua hautoru o te iwi Māori katoa), kia whakamanahia e te Karauna te Tiriti. Heoi ka wehi te Kāwanatanga o Nu Tireni tērā ka whakamā rātou mēnā ka tutuki taua hui nā ka whāia e rātou kia whakakorehia te hui. Ahakoa tērā, nō konā ka whakaputa anō te tiriti ki te ao mārama ki te aro o te iwi marea whānui e hia ngahuru tau e waiho noatia ana e te Karauna.

He hāhi hou

I te tuatahi, he kaha te tautoko mai a ngā Mihinare, Katorika me ngā hāhi Karaitiana i a Rātana, me te aha, ka akiaki a Rātana i tana iwi kia tautokona tonu ō rātou hāhi. Heoi kāore i mutu noa ngā tautohetohe hāhi nei mō tēnei mea te tūranga tohu o ngā anahera, me te whakahua o Rātana i te kupu ‘māngai’ hei whakamārama i tana whakahihikotanga e te Wairua Tapu. Nā tana hōhā ki ēnei tao kupu e whiua mai ana e ngā hāhi e hiahia ana kia noho ngā morehu ki ō rātou hāhi – ka whakatau a Rātana kia tū motuhake mai ia. I te 31 o ngā rā o Mei i te tau 1925 ka whakairohia te oati whakapono i whakatūria ai te hāhi motuhake o ‘Te Haahi Rātana’, ā, nō te 21 o ngā rā o Hūrae i taua tau, ka whakamanahia tēnei hāhi ki te ture.


Church growth

Te āria o Rātana

Kāre te Hāhi Rātana e aukati i ngā whakapono o ētahi hāhi kē. Ka whakapono tonu a Rātana ki te tokotoru tapu; arā, te Matua, te Tama me te Wairua Tapu, ka tāpirihia anō ngā Anahera Pono, ā, Te Māngai hoki i ētahi wā ki roto i ā rātou karakia. Ko te Paipera anō te puka tapu, engari ka whai wāhi anō te Puka Kahurangi. He mea tuhi te puka nei ki te reo Māori, ā, kei roto ko ngā karakia me ngā hīmene (i tāia e Rātana) e whakahaerehia ana ki ngā rangi whakamoemiti.

Ngā tohu

Ko te tohu matua o te hāhi ko te whetū mārama e whakamauhia ana ki ngā kara o ngā mōrehu me ngā whare karakia. Ko te marama kōura (he tohu māramatanga) ka anga ki ngā taha rerekē o te whetū: e tohu ana te kahurangi mō te Matua, te mā mō te Tama, te whero mō te Wairua Tapu, te waiporoporo mō ngā Anahera Pono. Ko te whetū mārama te tohu o te ao o te Māramatanga e tū kāmaka ana i ngā whakawhiunga o te mākutu.

Temepara

Ka matakite a Rātana mō te temepara kāmehameha e tauira ana i ngā pono o te Paipera me ana anō whakahau. I te 25 o ngā rā o Hānuere i te tau 1928 (te rā whānau 55 o Rātana) ka whakatuwherangia te Temepara Tapu o Ihoa me ana pou whakatangi pere e rua. Ko te kaiwāhi i taua rā ko te pīhopa o Hapanī a Juji Nakada – i noho mai a Rātana i tana taha i te haerenga ki Hapanī i te tau 1924. I te whakatuwheratanga, ka mea a Rātana kua tutuki tana mahi tohu, ā, kua riro mā ngā āpōtoro me ngā āpiha o te hāhi te mahi.

Ngā taonga waitohu

I te whakapūmautanga o te hononga ki a Reipa i te tau 1936, ka takohangia e Rātana ētahi taonga ki te Pirimia ki a Michael Savage. Ko te tuatahi o aua taonga, ko ngā rau huia e toru kua tītia ki tētahi rīwai. He tohu tērā mō ngā whenua whakatipu kai a te Māori i murua. Ko te taonga tuarua ko te pounamu, arā, he tohu mo te ngarotanga o te mana Māori. Ko te taonga tuatoru ko tētahi wati pakaru hei tohu i ngā oati kua whatia e te Karauna. Ko te whakamutunga o aua taonga ko te pine o Te Tohu o te Māramatanga, e mau nā te whetū mārama arā te tohu o te Hāhi Ratana. I titi katoa ēnei taonga ki te ngākau o Savage.

Ngā hiahia tōrangapū

Nō tērā wā ka nui atu te aro kaupapa tōrangapu a Rātana. Nā te tautoko mai o nga mōrehu i whai wāhi ana ‘koata e whā’ (hei tohu i tana tinana i ngā tūru Māori e whā) ki roto i te Pāremata. I te tau 1932, ka tū a Eruera Tirikātene hei mema paremata tuatahi mō Rātana. I te tau 1935, ka uru anō te tama a Rātana, a Tokouru. Nō te tau 1936, ka hono tahi a Rātana ki te rōpū Reipa: arā ka oati a Rātana ki raro i a Reipa mō ngā tautoko a Reipa i a Rātana ki ngā tūru Māori. Taka mai ki te tau 1943 ka riro ngā tūru Māori katoa i a Rātana, ā, he āhuatanga i mau tonu mō ngā tau e 50 te roa i te rironga atu o tētahi tūru i a Aotearoa Tuatahi.

Te hanganga o te hāhi

I ngā tau tuatahi o te rautau 2000, ko te Hāhi Rātana te hāhi Māori nui rawa o Aotearoa. I te tau 2006 e 50,565 ana mema. I te nuinga o te wā, ko te tumuaki o Te Haahi Rātana he uri tonu nō Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana. I te tau 2009, ko te tumuaki tuawhitu o te hāhi ko tana mokopuna ko Harerangi Meihana. Ko te Kōmiti Haahi Matua te rōpū whakahaere, ā, i ngā wā o te Aranga, ka karahui mai ngā kaiārahi o te hāhi ki te kōrero i ngā take hāhi. 127 te rahi o ngā pāriha o te hāhi Rātana ki Aotearoa e taurimahia ana e ngā āpōtoro rēhita 160 te rahi. Kei Ahitereiria anō tētahi kaupeka e whakarato ana i te ariki noanoa o te mōrehu puta noa.

Te whakareretanga iho

Ko te hiki a Rātana i tana iwi mōrehu ko rātou hei kaitiaki i tēnei tukanga tapu ki Aotearoa. Nāna te akiaki kia whai tonu i te Wairua Tapu me ngā Anahera Pono e tutuki ai te aroha me te hauora mō te iwi.

Ngā whakanuinga rā huritau

Hei te Hānuere o ia tau ka whakanuia te rā whānau o Rātana e te tini e te mano. I Rātana Pā ka tae anō te ‘māra puapua’ o Rātana, tae atu ki te rōpū raupō me ō rātou kākahu kōura; ngā āwhina (ngā hihita) e mau ana i ngā kahu waiporoporo me te mā; ngā āpōtoro rēhita e mau ana i ngā korowai waiporoporo me te mā; ngā āpōtoro wairua me ō rātou korowai kahurangi me te whero, tae atu ki ngā ākonga e mau ana i ngā kākahu kōura, mā hoki. E whitu ngā pēne paraihe me ō rātou tūmomo kākahu anō ka whakatau i ngā manuhiri, ā, he wāhi nui hoki ki ngā rōpū tīoriori ki te taha karakia.

Ka tū anō ngā kōrerorero tōrangapū i tēnei rā, ā, he maha ngā kaitōrangapū ka pōhiritia kia kōrero i runga i te marae. I mua, ko ngā mema o Reipa anake i tae ki ēnei hui, engari nō ngā tau tuatahi o te rautau 2000, ka tīmata te taetae o ngā mema o ētahi atu rōpū. Nō taua wā anō ka kōwhiti te tau tōrangapū, ka mutu e tohu ana tērā ki te whakahirahira o tēnei hāhi ki te motu whānui.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Keith Newman, 'Te Haahi Rātana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-haahi-ratana/print (accessed 24 September 2019)

Story by Keith Newman, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 4 Apr 2018