Kōrero: Te hauora Māori i mua

Whārangi 2. Te urutātanga hauora, 1769 ki te 1901

Ngā whakaahua

Tahumaero

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, kāre he ārai o te Māori mō ōna mate maha. Hāunga kāre ētahi o ngā mate kino o Uropi, pērā i te mate tae kōwhai, te mate taikorea, te mate werawera, me te mate iraira i tae ki Aotearoa. Ka tere whakakorehia ngā tahumaero o te pakaua hukihuki me te urutā noa i ngā wā iti i ara ake ēnei mate.

Heoi i tau mai ngā mate kino rawa o te Pākehā ki runga i te Māori, pērā i ngā mate paipai, te karawaka, te rewharewha, te taipoi pīwa, te taikorea me te mate kohi. I te pānga mai o ēnei tahumaero ki te Māori, ka kīa ērā he ‘tokotoko rangi’.

Tau tōmua o te 1800

Mai i te tau 1769 ka pāheke te taupori Māori mai i te 100,000 te maha, ka pāheke mā te 10-30 ōrau i te tau 1840. Ko ngā kaupapa nui o tēnei pāheketanga, ko ngā tahumaero hou, ngā pakanga mau pū, me te whakamanenetanga o ngā iwi mai i ā rātou mahinga kai.

Nō te taenga mai o Kuki ka tau mai ngā mate paipai arā ētahi ko te 'gonorrhoea' me te 'syphilis'. Ko ngā whiunga o ēnei mate ko te huatea me te whānau kahukahu. Ko ētahi atu tahumaero ko te rewharewha me te mate kohi.

Ka tau kaha ngā mate ki ētahi iwi, heoi arā tonu ngā take kāre i tino horapa whānui ēnei mate, arā nā te noho kōrara a te Māori, ka tāiri ētahi mate ki te hapori kotahi. Ka mutu ko ētahi iwi anake i whai wāhi ki te Pākehā.

Te whakamanenetanga me ngā tahumaero, 1840 ki te 1891

Nā ngā panonitanga ā-hapori, ā-ōhanga hoki mai i te tau 1840 ki te tau 1891, ka tāmia te hauora o te iwi Māori.

Nā ngā pakanga me te raupatu ka noho rōrā ētahi iwi. Ka haere te kaiā o te whenua i ngā hoko, ngā whakahaere a te Kōti Whenua Māori, ngā tikanga whakahaere whenua hou me ngā ture whenua. Ka panoni ngā whare o te Māori, ka whakarerekēngia ōna pūnaha wai, tōna noho me ōna kai. Ka pā kino ēnei āhuatanga ki te hauora o te Māori.

Nā te tipu nui o te taupori Pākehā, ka tau haere tonu ngā momo mate hou. Ko te mahi a te tamariki Māori ka mate i ō rātou tau tuatahi i te niumōnia, me ngā mate pūkahukahu. Tāpiri atu, ko te hunga taiohi me te hunga pakeke ka pāngia e ngā kita whakamate, te taipoi pīwa me te mate kohi. Nā te nui o ngā mate, me te haumate haere o ngā whakawhānautanga ka tere pāheke te taupori Māori i waenganui i te tau 1840 me te tau 1878. Atu i te tau 1878 ki te tau 1891 ka āta heke te taupori Māori. E ai ki ngā kōrero i waenganui i te tau 1840 me te tau 1891, ka hauruatia te tokoiti o te taupori Māori.

Te whakoranga o te iwi, 1891 ki te 1901

Nō te mutunga o te rautau 1800, ka tīmata te whakaora ake o te taupori Māori. Atu i te tau 1891 ki te tau 1896, ka āta piki, hāunga atu i te tau 1896 ki te tau 1901 ka oreore mai anō te Māori i tōna wāia ki ngā tahumaero hou. I ōrite tēnei pana i tō te iwi Pākehā.

‘He iwi pahemo’

Ki te Pākehā he ‘iwi e mate ana’ te iwi Māori. Ka whakapono rātou e kore e tae te whakarauora i te iwi Māori i te pahemotanga. Ka whakapono hoki rātou koia ko te tikanga tonu tēnei o te taiao, arā, te whakakorenga o tētahi iwi i tētahi iwi kaha ake. Nō te tau 1891 ka tau te kōrero a te Mema Paremata Māori a Timi Kara, ‘I am forced to the conclusion that it is a mistaken theory that the Native Race will rapidly decrease' (He mea ākina au kia tae mai ki tēnei kōrero he whakapae teka tērā ka tere heke te mate o te tangata whenua).1 Otirā i taua wā kua hiki anō pea te taupori Māori.

Ngā ratonga hauora tōmua mō te Māori

Arā anō ngā manaakitanga a te hunga ngākau nui. Ko ngā mihinare te tuatahi o tēnei hunga. I te tekau tau 1840 ka whakatū te kāwanatanga i ētahi hōhipera ki ngā wāhi ruarua noa o te Māori.

Nā te nui haere o te taupori Pākehā, ka piki ake te mana whakahaere o te Pākehā ki ngā hōhipera maha e whakatūtū haerehia ana e ngā hapori tāngata whai. Nā ngā tikanga Māori ka noho māharahara te Māori ki te haere ki te hōhipera, hāunga anō te nui o te utu. Mai i ngā tekau tau 1840, ko te mahi a te kāwanatanga he utu i ngā nama o ngā rata tirotiro i ngā Māori rawa kore.

I ētahi wā ka whakarite ngā āpiha kāwanatanga i ngā mahi tautoko mō ngā mate urutā. He paku noa iho te whakaratonga o ngā rongoā ārai i te mate koroputaputa. Ka tītarihia anō ētahi rongoā ki ngā māhita kura Māori hei toha ki ngā tauira me ō rātou whānau. Ā, nō te tuhinga a te āpiha a James Pope i tāna pukapuka Te Ora Mō te Māori ki roto i te reo, ka kaha whakamahia e te tini.

Te oranga tonutanga o ngā rongoā Māori

Ahakoa te tokomaha o te Māori ka rata haere ki ngā tikanga hou a te Pākehā, ka mārō tonu ētahi ki ngā tikanga Māori. Hei painga mōna anō, ka whakakotahi ētahi tāngata Māori i ngā ao e rua. He maha ngā mate ka mahea ake i te rongoā Māori, engari kāre i whai kaha ki ngā tahumaero hou. Ka tūkinotia anō ētahi tāngata i ngā whakaoranga teka, i te aukati rānei kia whiwhi i ngā rongoā tika.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Richard Boast, Buying the land, selling the land: governments and Māori land in the North Island 1865–1921. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University Press me Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 2008, wh. 167. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Raeburn Lange, 'Te hauora Māori i mua - Te urutātanga hauora, 1769 ki te 1901', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hauora-maori-i-mua/page-2 (accessed 14 November 2019)

Story by Raeburn Lange, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 4 Apr 2018