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Te hauora Māori i mua – history of Māori health

by Raeburn Lange

Inā te maha o ngā kāinga Māori i papahoro i ngā tahumaero Pākehā, pērā i te mate kohi me te pākerewhā. Nā te raupatu ka uaua te whai oranga a ngā iwi e noho manene ana. I te rautau 1900 ka ara anō te iwi Māori. Hāunga tērā, ki tā ngā tatauranga o tērā wā, e waru tau te iti iho o te oranga tangata Māori i tō te tangata Pākehā.


Pre-European health

He iwi hauora nui

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, he tāroaroa, he mārōrō te tangata Māori. E 28-30 tau te oranga tangata Māori. Kei mahara he tino iti kē tēnei, engari ki te whakataurite atu ki te Wīwī me te Pāniora o tērā wā, he iti iho ō rātou oranga i te 30 tau.

E ai ki ngā kaitaunaki Pākehā o mua, he tangata pakari te Māori. He nui ngā mahi a te Māori, ā, kāre anō te Māori kia pāngia e ngā mate nunui o te ao whānui. Heoi ki ētahi whakaaro ko ngā mate i pā pea ki a rātou ko te niumōnia, te pakaua hukihuki, mate kaikōiwi me ngā tūmomo hakihaki. Ko te aruhe te tino kai a te tokomaha. E whakapaetia ana ka kaha ake te mate pukupuku i tēnei kai. E ai ki ngā kōrero nā tēnei momo whakatiki a te Māori, ka pirau ngā niho, ā, ka pāngia e te mate.

Ngā whakapono māuiuitanga

E paihere ana ngā mahi whakaora Māori ki ōna whakapono me ōna kawa. Ka pā te mate inā ka takahia he atua, ka tānoanoatia rānei te tapu me te mana o tētahi mea o te ao tūroa. Kāre anō kia taka ki te ao ngā mātauranga pūtaiao o te horoi me te mate rere. Heoi nā te whakapono nui o te Māori ki tēnei mea te tapu ka noho mā ia, tae atu ki ōna wai. Hei tauira, he wāhi wehe te paepae turuma i te kāinga Māori. Nā te tapu i mā ai te mahi whakawhānau. Nā te tapu anō kāre e pā te tangata ki te tūpāpaku ka whakahorapa rānei i ētahi mate.

Ngā pure ora

Ka parea ngā mate i te karakia, te rongoā rākau, te mirimiri me te tāuwhiuwhi ki te wai. Ko te tohunga te kaiārahi wairua. I te wā o te whakaora ake i te tūroro, me kimi te pūtake o te mate, me pana taua mate, ā, me kimi te take i pā ai taua mate. Ākene pea mā te pure ora i te wairua ka ora anō mai te taha tinana. Ko ētahi mate he mate tangata, ā, ehara i te mate atua – hei tauira, ko ngā motunga ka tuia ki te muka, ko ngā kōiwi whati ka honoa, ā, ko ngā whēwhē ka okaina, ā ka kōpēa.


Health devastated, 1769 to 1901

Tahumaero

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, kāre he ārai o te Māori mō ōna mate maha. Hāunga kāre ētahi o ngā mate kino o Uropi, pērā i te mate tae kōwhai, te mate taikorea, te mate werawera, me te mate iraira i tae ki Aotearoa. Ka tere whakakorehia ngā tahumaero o te pakaua hukihuki me te urutā noa i ngā wā iti i ara ake ēnei mate.

Heoi i tau mai ngā mate kino rawa o te Pākehā ki runga i te Māori, pērā i ngā mate paipai, te karawaka, te rewharewha, te taipoi pīwa, te taikorea me te mate kohi. I te pānga mai o ēnei tahumaero ki te Māori, ka kīa ērā he ‘tokotoko rangi’.

Tau tōmua o te 1800

Mai i te tau 1769 ka pāheke te taupori Māori mai i te 100,000 te maha, ka pāheke mā te 10-30 ōrau i te tau 1840. Ko ngā kaupapa nui o tēnei pāheketanga, ko ngā tahumaero hou, ngā pakanga mau pū, me te whakamanenetanga o ngā iwi mai i ā rātou mahinga kai.

Nō te taenga mai o Kuki ka tau mai ngā mate paipai arā ētahi ko te 'gonorrhoea' me te 'syphilis'. Ko ngā whiunga o ēnei mate ko te huatea me te whānau kahukahu. Ko ētahi atu tahumaero ko te rewharewha me te mate kohi.

Ka tau kaha ngā mate ki ētahi iwi, heoi arā tonu ngā take kāre i tino horapa whānui ēnei mate, arā nā te noho kōrara a te Māori, ka tāiri ētahi mate ki te hapori kotahi. Ka mutu ko ētahi iwi anake i whai wāhi ki te Pākehā.

Te whakamanenetanga me ngā tahumaero, 1840 ki te 1891

Nā ngā panonitanga ā-hapori, ā-ōhanga hoki mai i te tau 1840 ki te tau 1891, ka tāmia te hauora o te iwi Māori.

Nā ngā pakanga me te raupatu ka noho rōrā ētahi iwi. Ka haere te kaiā o te whenua i ngā hoko, ngā whakahaere a te Kōti Whenua Māori, ngā tikanga whakahaere whenua hou me ngā ture whenua. Ka panoni ngā whare o te Māori, ka whakarerekēngia ōna pūnaha wai, tōna noho me ōna kai. Ka pā kino ēnei āhuatanga ki te hauora o te Māori.

Nā te tipu nui o te taupori Pākehā, ka tau haere tonu ngā momo mate hou. Ko te mahi a te tamariki Māori ka mate i ō rātou tau tuatahi i te niumōnia, me ngā mate pūkahukahu. Tāpiri atu, ko te hunga taiohi me te hunga pakeke ka pāngia e ngā kita whakamate, te taipoi pīwa me te mate kohi. Nā te nui o ngā mate, me te haumate haere o ngā whakawhānautanga ka tere pāheke te taupori Māori i waenganui i te tau 1840 me te tau 1878. Atu i te tau 1878 ki te tau 1891 ka āta heke te taupori Māori. E ai ki ngā kōrero i waenganui i te tau 1840 me te tau 1891, ka hauruatia te tokoiti o te taupori Māori.

Te whakoranga o te iwi, 1891 ki te 1901

Nō te mutunga o te rautau 1800, ka tīmata te whakaora ake o te taupori Māori. Atu i te tau 1891 ki te tau 1896, ka āta piki, hāunga atu i te tau 1896 ki te tau 1901 ka oreore mai anō te Māori i tōna wāia ki ngā tahumaero hou. I ōrite tēnei pana i tō te iwi Pākehā.

‘He iwi pahemo’

Ki te Pākehā he ‘iwi e mate ana’ te iwi Māori. Ka whakapono rātou e kore e tae te whakarauora i te iwi Māori i te pahemotanga. Ka whakapono hoki rātou koia ko te tikanga tonu tēnei o te taiao, arā, te whakakorenga o tētahi iwi i tētahi iwi kaha ake. Nō te tau 1891 ka tau te kōrero a te Mema Paremata Māori a Timi Kara, ‘I am forced to the conclusion that it is a mistaken theory that the Native Race will rapidly decrease' (He mea ākina au kia tae mai ki tēnei kōrero he whakapae teka tērā ka tere heke te mate o te tangata whenua).1 Otirā i taua wā kua hiki anō pea te taupori Māori.

Ngā ratonga hauora tōmua mō te Māori

Arā anō ngā manaakitanga a te hunga ngākau nui. Ko ngā mihinare te tuatahi o tēnei hunga. I te tekau tau 1840 ka whakatū te kāwanatanga i ētahi hōhipera ki ngā wāhi ruarua noa o te Māori.

Nā te nui haere o te taupori Pākehā, ka piki ake te mana whakahaere o te Pākehā ki ngā hōhipera maha e whakatūtū haerehia ana e ngā hapori tāngata whai. Nā ngā tikanga Māori ka noho māharahara te Māori ki te haere ki te hōhipera, hāunga anō te nui o te utu. Mai i ngā tekau tau 1840, ko te mahi a te kāwanatanga he utu i ngā nama o ngā rata tirotiro i ngā Māori rawa kore.

I ētahi wā ka whakarite ngā āpiha kāwanatanga i ngā mahi tautoko mō ngā mate urutā. He paku noa iho te whakaratonga o ngā rongoā ārai i te mate koroputaputa. Ka tītarihia anō ētahi rongoā ki ngā māhita kura Māori hei toha ki ngā tauira me ō rātou whānau. Ā, nō te tuhinga a te āpiha a James Pope i tāna pukapuka Te Ora Mō te Māori ki roto i te reo, ka kaha whakamahia e te tini.

Te oranga tonutanga o ngā rongoā Māori

Ahakoa te tokomaha o te Māori ka rata haere ki ngā tikanga hou a te Pākehā, ka mārō tonu ētahi ki ngā tikanga Māori. Hei painga mōna anō, ka whakakotahi ētahi tāngata Māori i ngā ao e rua. He maha ngā mate ka mahea ake i te rongoā Māori, engari kāre i whai kaha ki ngā tahumaero hou. Ka tūkinotia anō ētahi tāngata i ngā whakaoranga teka, i te aukati rānei kia whiwhi i ngā rongoā tika.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Richard Boast, Buying the land, selling the land: governments and Māori land in the North Island 1865–1921. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Victoria University Press me Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 2008, wh. 167. Back

Health improves, 1900 to 1920

I roto i te rautau 1900, ka matomato anō te tipu o te rākau Māori. He whakamīharotanga nui tēnei whakarauoratanga. Atu i tōna tipu pakari ki te ārai i ngā mate Pākehā, ko tētahi o ngā take nui o te whakaoranga nei ko ngā whakapau kaha a te hunga Māori me te kāwanatanga hoki i te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900.

Whanaketanga hauora Māori

Ko tā ētahi o ngā kaimautohe rangatahi i puta i Te Aute he tohe ki ngā whakatikatika mō ngā whakahaere hauora ki ngā whārua Māori puta noa, me te whakahau i te marea ki ngā ratonga me ngā whare hauora. Atu i te tekau tau 1890 ka whakapau kaha tērā hunga ki roto i te rōpū a Apirana Ngata mā, arā Te Aute College Students Association (ko te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori). He maha ngā rangatira ka tuku āwhina ki tērā kaupapa.

Nāwai ā ka kitea anō tēnei hunga i ngā mahi auaha a te kāwanatanga ki te hauora Māori. I te tau 1900 ka whakatūhia te Tari Hauora me te wāhanga Māori, e whakahaerehia ana e te āpiha hauora Māori e Māui Pōmare. I mua i tōna wehenga ki te whare paremata i te tau 1911, ka haerea e ia te motu whānui kia kitea ngā kāinga Māori, me te tuku kōrero, kupu akiaki hoki ki ngā rangatira ki te whakahaumaru ake i tō rātou hauora. Ko tōna kaiāwhina ko te āpiha hauora Māori ko Te Rangi Hīroa.

Ture Kaunihera Māori

Whai muri i te Ture Kaunihera Māori 1900 ka kōwhirihia ngā kaunihera Māori me ngā kōmiti marae kei ngā rohe Māori. Ko te whakapikinga o te hauora tētahi o ngā whāinga nui. He maha ngā kaihautū i tohua mō ngā mahi arotake hei tautoko i ngā whakapau kaha a ngā kaunihera. Nō te tekau tau tuatahi o ngā kaunihera Māori ka kitea ā rātou nā mahi pai rawa atu, engari nā te whakakorenga o ngā whakaratonga ka hinga te nuinga o ēnei kaupapa.

Ngā nēhi Māori

I te tau 1911 ka tohua ngā nēhi tiaki hauora (Pākehā mai Māori mai) ki te ratonga nēhi Māori i whakatūria e te kāwanatanga. Koinei te pūtake i hua mai ai te ratonga nēhi tūmatanui, ā, he nui ngā tautoko a Pōmare, a Te Rangi Hīroa me Ngata ki tēnei kaupapa. Ko tā tēnei ratonga mahi he whakatorotoro i ōna manaakitanga hauora ki ngā kāinga Māori me ngā whārua pāmamao kāre e taea e te tākuta.

Ngā tautoko kāwanatanga

Nō konei ka whakamahi tonu te kāwanatanga i ngā tākuta hei āpiha hauora Māori ki ngā rohe Māori, me te whakarato rongoā ki ngā māhita kura Māori hei tuku ki ngā tauira.

Ka nui ake te whakatūtū haere o ngā hōhipera. Hāunga he wāhanga noa o ēnei whare ka utua e te kāwanatanga, ā, nā te pōhēhē kāore ngā Māori e utu i ngā rēti whenua a ngā kaunihera, kāre ngā kaimahi hōhipera i tuku i ngā Māori ki roto i ngā hōhipera.

Ka noho māharahara ngā Māori ki ngā hōhipera, ā, ka kitea kāore e tiakina ngā tikanga Māori e ngā hōhipera. Kāre i tutuki te whakaaro ki te whakatū hōhipera Māori i taua wā.

Te maikiroa

Ahakoa te pikinga o ngā kano ārai mate hei patu i ngā tahumaero hou, me te pāheketanga o ngā tatauranga mate, ka pākinotia tonu te hauora o te Māori nā te āhua ki tāna ōhanga me tāna noho.

Ka pākia tonu ngā hapori Māori i te pakarutanga mai o te taipoi pīwa me te mate kohi. I te tau 1913 ka horapa te mate koroputaputa, i parekura nuitia anō ai te hunga Māori. I te pakarutanga mai o te mate rewharewha i te tau 1918, he maha ngā Pākehā ka mate me ngā miriona tāngata i mate puta noa i te ao. Heoi ko te Māori i tino pā mamaetia. E whakaarotia ana e 4 ōrau te nui o te taupori Māori i parekuratia, ā, e 7 ngā Māori i hemo mai mō ia tangata Pākehā kotahi.

Te oranga tonutanga o ngā tikanga rongoā

Ka kitea tonu ngā tikanga hauora Māori ki ngā rohe Māori katoa. Kore rawa ētahi tāngata i pai ki ngā whakahaeretanga hauora hou, tae rawa ki ērā e whakahaerehia ana e te kāwanatanga. I noho pēnei ngā rohe o Taranaki me Waikato whai muri i ngā raupatu whenua o te rautau 1900. Ki roto o Te Urewera nā te poropiti nā Rua Kēnana i manaaki te hauora o tōna iwi, ā, kāore i aro atu ki tō te kāwanatanga me ō ngā kaunihera Māori.

Ture Tāmi Tohunga

Ka whiua ngā whakapae a ētahi tērā kei te tūkino kē ngā mahi a ngā tohunga i te hauora Māori. I te tau 1907, ka whakaturehia te Ture Tāmi Tohunga i runga i te tautoko a ētahi rangatira me ngā kaitōrangapū Māori. Ko tōna kaupapa, he tāmi i te mahi tohunga. Ahakoa kāre i hangaia tērā ture hei aukati i ngā mahi hauora Māori katoa, ko tana mahi kē he whakaū i te whakaaro tērā he mahi hakirara a te tohunga. Hāunga tērā, kāre ngā tohunga i whiua ki te ture, ā, ka haere tonu ā rātou mahi.


Slow progress, 1920 to 1945

Āhuatanga hauora

Mai i te tau 1920 ki te tau 1940 ka mātotoru ake te taupori Māori, ā, i te tau 1945 ka kake ki te 115,646. Hāunga tērā ka tōmuri tonu te hauora Māori i tērā o tauiwi.

E ai ki ngā tatauranga tuatahi mō te āhua noho a te Māori i te tekau tau 1930, ko te nuinga o te Māori e noho ana ki ngā whare karukaru, ā, e noho kōtē ana, kāre he wai mā, he wharepaku rānei. I te tau 1934 ka kitea he tāpara te mate o te Māori i ērā o tauiwi. Ki tā ngā whika i te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1935, 10 ngā tāngata Māori ka mate i te mate kohi mō ia tangata Pākehā kotahi. He ōrite ēnei whika i te tau 1947. I roto i taua wā, ko te mate kohi te kaipatu kino rawa i te Māori. Ahakoa te heke o te mate taipoi pīwa i te tau 1937, he nui tonu te whakamatemate o te Māori. He maha ake ngā tamariki Māori ka mate i ō tauiwi, ā, i te tau 1938, e waru te whakareatanga ake o te kaha o ngā mate nei i tō tauiwi.

Ngā mahi whanake hauora Māori

I te hanganga hou o te Tari Hauora i te tau 1920 whai muri i te urutā rewharewha o te tau 1918, ka whakahaerehia te wāhanga tikanga akuaku Māori e Te Rangi Hīroa me te tākuta Māori a Edward Ellison i muri mai.

I te tau 1931, ka whakakorehia te wāhanga Māori ā ka whakawaimehatia ki roto i ngā whakahaerenga o te wāhanga Pākehā. Nā Te Rangi Hīroa i whakaara ake anō ngā kaunihera Māori (ka whakaingoatia kē ko ngā kaunihera hauora Māori). Ka haere tonu ā rātou mahi ā tae noa ki te tau 1945.

Ngā ratonga hauora ā-kāwanatanga

Ka whawhai tonu te kaitōrangapū a Apirana Ngata mō te hauora Māori i ngā tau o te 1920 me ō 1930. Ā, mai i te tau 1923 ki te tau 1926 ko Māui Pōmare te minita hauora.

I te tekau tau 1930 ka kaha ake ngā whakaratonga kāwanatanga ki te hauora Māori. Ka whakahaerehia te hōtaka pēhi i te mate kohi ki te Tai Rāwhiti, ā, nō muri mai ka whakahaerehia ki ētahi atu rohe. Ka tukuna anō ngā rongoā ārai mate ki ngā rohe Māori me ngā kura. Nāwai ā ka memeha rawa te taipō.

Nō raro mai i te Ture Whare Māori i te tau 1935, ka tukuna ngā pūtea tārewa mō te hanganga o ngā whare Māori. Hāunga tērā nō muri mai i te Pakanga Tuarua kātahi ka whakatūtūhia te tokomaha o ēnei whare.

Ngā nēhi me ngā whānautanga hōhipera

Ka tokomaha ake ngā nēhi hauora Māori, ā, nā rātou i whakaū ngā whakaaro ārai mate ki ngā māmā me ngā tamariki. Ko te nuinga o ngā whaea Māori i whakawhānau mai ki te kāinga, ā, kia taka mai ki te tekau tau 1920 ka riro mā ngā nēhi me ngā hōhipera e mahi. Ka akiaki te Tari Hauora kia whakawhānau hōhipera mai hei whakaheke iho i ngā mate hunga ririki i waenganui i te iwi Māori. Nō te tau 1937, 17 ōrau te tokomaha o ngā whakawhānautanga kei roto hōhipera. Ka kake ake tēnei i te noho kore utu mai o ngā āwhinatanga ki ngā māmā i te tau 1939. Taka mai ki te tau 1947, haurua o ngā whakawhānautanga Māori kei ngā hōhipera.

Ngā hōhipera me te noho kūare

Kāre e kitea ana he taunaki pēnā i whakapaua he kaha ki te noho maru mai o Māori mā ki rō hōhipera i ngā tekau tau o te 1920 me te 1930. Hāunga tērā, ka nui ake ngā Māori i whakaae kia kuhu ki te hōhipera. Nā te utu kāre ētahi i tae. Heoi nō raro mai i te Ture Haumaru Hapori o te tau 1938, ka noho kore utu te haere ki te hōhipera i te tau 1939. Nā tēnei ture anō ka whakamanahia ngā painga hauora i te tau 1941. Nō konei ka wātea kau ake te haere ki te tākuta, heoi kāre i tino nui ngā tākuta ki ngā whārua Māori.


Changing health, 1945 onwards

I te tekau tau o te 1950 me te 1960 ka piki anō te taupori Māori, ā, ka whakatika anō te heketanga mai i nga taiwhenua ki ngā taone.

Te āhua hauora

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tīmata te kitea o ngā hua i te tāmitanga o te mate kohi i waenganui i te Māori. Mai i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1950 ka pāheke te mate kohi i te whakaratonga atu o ngā rongoā ārai mate. I te tau 1964 ka kī ake te Tari Hauora kua kore e tāmia te Māori e te mate kohi.

Mai i te tekau tau 1940, ka āta heke te auau mate o te hunga tamariki, heoi anō, he kaha ake tonu te auau mate o te hunga tamariki Māori i tō te hunga tamariki Pākehā i roto i te manotau 2000.

Nō te tau 1950, tē kitea te pakarutanga mai o te mate taipō piwa.

Ngā whakatauritenga

Kei muri tonu te hauora Māori i te hauora o te taupori Pākehā. I te tau 1960 ka puta te rangahau he tāpara te kaha ake o ngā mate Māori i ō tauiwi, ā, he tino nui rawa i waenganui i te hunga tamariki. Ka kaha pāngia anō te Māori ki ngā mate pērā i te mate huka, te mate pukupuku, te mate manawa me te tūnga roro, arā, he mate kīhai i tino kitea. Ahakoa te pāheke o ngā mate rere, ka taikaha anō ētahi atu mate. I te paunga o te rautau 1900, e kaha tonu ana ngā mate puta mai ana i te pakeketanga me te kaumātuatanga.

Ngā rerekētanga

I te tau 2006, e waru tau te iti iho o te oranga tāngata Māori i tō tauiwi (wāhine mai tāne mai). I tērā tau anō he tāpara te mate o te tāne Māori i te tāne Pākehā mō te mate pukupuku pūkahukahu; ā, he toru me te haurua te whakareanga ake o te mate wahine Māori i tō te wahine tauiwi mō taua mate anō. E rim ate whakareanga ake o te nui o te mate huka i waenganui i te Māori i tō tauiwi, ā, he tāpara mō te mate manawa. Ahakoa te pikinga o te āhua noho a te Māori, ka takamuri tonu ia i ngā tatauranga mate katoa.

Ngā take rerekētanga

Nā te rerekētanga i waenganui i te Māori me tauiwi ki roto i ngā āhuatanga o te mahi, te utu me te whai tohu mātauranga ka hinga anō ai te hauora Māori. He mea nui anō te āhuatanga o ngā whare noho. Ka aua atu te wā kātahi ka hīkina ake te taumata noho o ngā Māori tae rawa ake ki ngā wāhi taiwhenua. I te wā o te kaupapa hanga whare Māori, ka piki anō te taupori Māori, ā, ka noho kōpā tonu ngā whare, ahakoa te whakatūtū haeretanga o ngā whare.

Te Māori me te pūnaha hauora

Nā te hekenga nui ki ngā taone, ka whai wāhi te Māori ki ngā ratonga hauora. Heoi i noho tonu ētahi momo aukatitanga i ngā utu me ngā rerekētanga ā-iwi. Nā ngā hōtaka hauora kāwanatanga i tuku āwhina ki ngā hapori Māori kei ngā wāhi e tika ana, ā, he pānga nui tēnei ki te hauora Māori.

Mai i te tau 1957 ka whakarato te kāwanatanga i ngā hōhipera. Nō konei ka whakakorengia te whakaaro, nā te kore utu reiti kaunihera, kāre te Māori e tautoko ā-pūtea i ngā hōhipera. Nō te tau 1959, e 90 ōrau o ngā whakawhānautanga Māori ka whānau mai ki roto i te hōhipera. Neke atu i te kotahi rau tau te tū o te Māori hei tākuta, hei nēhi, hei āpiha hauora hoki – ā, e haere tonu ana tēnei āhuatanga i roto i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 2000. Heoi kei te tōmuri tonu te Māori i ētahi atu iwi ki ēnei tū mahi katoa.

Ngā whai aro hauora

Mai i te mutunga o te tekau tau 1940, ka aro haere te kāwanatanga ki ngā ao e rua i roto i ngā mahi hauora Māori. I hua tēnei i te hiahia o te Māori kia whai wāhi ki ōna take hauora. Ka kaha ake tēnei āhuatanga i roto o te tekau tau 1980, arā i te whai tūranga o te Māori ki ngā whakahaerenga o ōna hōtaka hauora me te whakarangatira ake i ngā āhuatanga Māori ki roto i te wāhanga hauora.

I te tau 1984 ka huri te tai i te tūnga o te Te Hui Whakaoranga ki roto o Tāmaki. Nāwai ka kitea te whakatūnga o ngā ratonga hauora ki ngā marae ki ētahi atu wāhi maha e whakahaerehia ana ‘e te Māori mō te Māori’. Ka whakaae te kāwanatanga ki te whakaōrite i te kaha o te hauora i waenganui i te iwi Māori me te Pākehā.

Rongoā Māori

Ka mau tonu i te Māori ōna āria ake mō te hauora Māori. Ka tahuri anō ngā āpiha hauora kia mārama ki ngā tikanga hauora, māuiui hoki a te Māori, ā, ka kaha ake te tautokohia e ngā ture kāwanatanga. Ka whanake tonu te mahi a ngā tohunga ki ngā hapori Māori, ā, ka tahuri anō te Pākehā kia whakamīharo atu ki ā rātou mahi. I te tau 1962, ka whakakorehia te Ture Tāmi Tohunga. E rua tekau tau i muri mai, ka tūwhera kau ake ngā mana hauora ki ngā rongoā Māori, ā, ka whakamahia tahi me ērā o te ao Pākehā, ā, nō te tū hīranga ake o ngā tohunga, ka whakakotahitia atu ētahi o ā rātou mahi ki roto i te pūnaha hauora whānui.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Raeburn Lange, 'Te hauora Māori i mua – history of Māori health', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hauora-maori-i-mua/print (accessed 30 March 2020)

He kōrero nā Raeburn Lange, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 4 Apr 2018