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Te hī ika – Māori fishing

by  Paul Meredith

Hei ngā rā o mua ka haere te tangata ki te hī ika hei oranga mō te tinana, hei oranga mō te wairua. I a te Māori ngā tikanga me ngā taputapu katoa mō te hī ika - ngā maramataka, ngā maimoa pīataata, ngā tāruke, ngā hīnaki, aha atu. Ahakoa tērā, i mōhio rātou, he tamariki nā Tangaroa ngā ika. Whāia, mā te karakia me ngā tikanga makere ai ngā hua a Tangaroa kei ngā moana, ngā roto, ngā awa, ngā repo, ngā kōawa, arā atu.


Tangaroa, god of the sea

Ko Tangaroa ara rau

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori, hei tama a Tangaroa - atua o te moana - nā Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku. Nā Tangaroa ko tana tama a Punga, nā Punga ko Ikatere rāua ko Tūtewehiwehi. Ko Ikatere i haere ki te moana; ka hurihia rātou ko ana tamariki hei ika. Ko Tūtewehiwehi i haere ki uta, ka hurihia rātou ko ana tamariki hei ngārara.

Ka pakanga a Tūmatauenga –te atua o te riri - ki a Tangaroa. Koirā te take ka haere tonu te tangata ki te hī ika, ki te kawe tonu i te pakanga ki te tini a Tangaroa.

Te ika a Māui

He nui ngā kōrero a te Māori mō te mahi ika. Koia pea ko te kōrero rongonui rawa atu, mō Māui, te tipua nāna i hī ake tana ika, Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka tangohia e Māui te kauae o tōna kuia a Murirangawhenua hei matau. I a ia e hī ana ka karakia ia:

Homai e te Moana,
Te ika a Weroti, te ika a Werota
Te toka o Nuku
Kake ki te Rangi. 1

Me he whai (stingray) te āhua hanga o Te Ika-a-Māui, kei Te Tai Tokerau tōna hiku, kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara ko tōna ūpoko.

Ko Kupe me te wheke

Arā anō ngā kōrero mō Kupe nāna a Aotearoa i tūhura. I a ia e hī ika ana i Hawaiki ka tae ake te wheke kaitā a Muturangi ki te whakararuraru i a ia. Waihoki, ka whāia e Kupe ki Te Moana-o-Raukawa (Te Moana-a-Kupe) rā anō hopukina ai.

Footnotes
  1. Tāmati R. Poata, The Maori as a fisherman and his methods. Papakura: Southern Reprints, 1989, w. 3 (nō te tau 1919 whakaputahia tuatahitia ai). › Back

Tools, grounds and methods

He maha ngā taputapu mahi ika o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i auahatia kia hāngai ki te hī ika ki Aotearoa: te kupenga, te aho, te matau, te matira, te pātia, te tāruke, te hīnaki, te pā tuna.

Ngā kupenga

He nui te tapu i runga i te mahi hanga kupenga, ā, he maha ngā tikanga, ture hoki. I mahia te nuinga o ngā kupenga i te harakeke māota, atu i te tītoko ika (hand net), ki te kaharoa (seine net). He māhē (stone sinkers) hei whakatau i te kupenga ki roto i te wai; ko ngā tahā hei pōito (floats).

I te tau 1886 ka mahia he kupenga nui whakaharahara ki Maketū i Te Moana-a-Toi e Te Pōkiha Taranui (Major Fox rānei) me tana rahi o Ngāti Pikiao. E 400 rātou. E 1.6 kiromita te roa o te kupenga rā. Kotahi anake te wā i whakamahia te kupenga nei, mō tētahi hui nui. Me mahi te iwi katoa ki te tuku kupenga pērā rawa te rahi.

Aho (lines), matau (sinkers), pātia (spears)

Mahia nuitia ai te aho me te matau ki te hopu hāpuku, kahawai hoki. He kaha ngā aho, he mea hanga i te muka harakeke.

Ka mahia te matau mai te rākau, te kōiwi rānei, te kōhatu rānei, te anga rānei. Hei ētahi wā ka whakamahia he pito kōiwi koikoi rawa hei matau; ina naomia atu e te ika, ka mau te poroiwi rā ki te korokoro, kūmea ana. He anga pāua pīataata hei maimoa (lure).

Ko te kāniwha (barbed spear) hei wero pātiki; he rite tēnei momo pātia ki ērā mō te mahi manu.

Ngā tāruke (pots)

Whakakīia ai ngā tāruke ki te mōunu hei hopu kōura. Hangaia ai te tāruke i ngā tātā mānuka ka pōkaia ki tētahi anga pirita, mānuka rānei, kātahi ka herea katoatia ki te harakeke me te pirita.

Ngā tauranga ika

He ingoa tō tērā tauranga ika, he ingoa tō tērā pari, he ingoa tō tērā toka. Kei waho rawa atu i te moana ētahi o ēnei tauranga ika. Hei tā Rēweti Kōhere o Ngāti Porou ko Hapurapoi te tino tauranga ika o ōna tūpuna, e 12 kiromita ki waho atu o Whanga-o-keno (East Cape). Ka whakahāngai ngā kaihī i ngā tohu o te whenua pērā i te maunga, te kūrae rānei hei tohu ko hea te tauranga ika:

Ki te moana ka titiro atu ki ngā pari tea ki uta. Kei reira tētahi papa matā e kōrekoreko mai ana ngā kōhatu. Tēnā tahuri tō titiro ki te mauī, ka pōhēhētia e piri ana te moutere o Murimotu ki te taiwhenua. Kāore e kitea te moana ki waenganui i a rāua. Koinei tō tauranga. 1

He mea nui rawa atu ki tēnā, ki tēnā iwi ō rātou ake tauranga ika, inarā, he taonga tuku iho i ngā whakatipuranga. Hei tohu ki te mahinga ika o tēnā whānau, o tēnā hapū, ka tokona he pou ki te wai - ngā roto, wahapū, aha atu.

Ngā wā mahi ika

I mōhio ngā mātanga ki ngā tohutohu mō te mahi ika, tae atu ki te maramataka whakaatu ko hea ngā rā pai. Whakamahia tonutia ana ēnei tohutohu i ēnei rā. Hei ētahi o ngā mahinga ika nui rawa atu, ko te rangatira tonu o te iwi ka whakahaere i ngā mahi, mai i tētahi tirohanga mātārae, e pā ai tana tohutohu ko hea ngā wāhi pai hei mahinga ika.

Waihoki, ka mōhio ngā tohunga ki ngā nekeneke me ngā marama hī i tēnā ika, i tēnā ika. E ai ki a Tāmati Poata o Ngāti Porou, ko te Māehe, te Āperira me te Mei ngā marama pai mō te hī tāmure ki Te Tai Rāwhiti; hei te Hune me te Hūrae ko te warehou me te moki. Hei ngā marama o Ākuhata me Hepetema ka haongia ko te tarakihi, te pōrae (trumpeter), te rāwaru te taipua (blue cod) rānei, te kehe (granite trout) tae atu ki te kumukumu (gurnard).

I Te Wai Pounamu ka hopukina te mangā (barracouta) mā te pōhau (large wooden hook with bone barb); ka haongia te mango nohinohi ki roto kupenga rarahi; ka mau te mango rarahi i ngā matau kua pōtaea ki te mōunu. Ka hopukina te ngōiro (conger eel) me te whakapuku mā te puru mōunu ki tētahi rau kua whiriwhiria ki te harakeke. Ka taea te kōura mā te poraka (he kupenga ka rite ki te pūkoro, ka tuwhera te waha), ka haongia te īnanga mā te koko, he kupenga whiri ita.

Footnotes
  1. Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on the Muriwhenua fishing claim (Wai 22). Wellington: The Tribunal, 1989, w. 35. › Back

Traditional practices

Ngā tikanga o mua

He wāhi nui tō te karakia i te mahi ika. Ka tuku karakia ki a Tangaroa me ērā o ngā kaitiaki kia tukua mai he ika. He karakia nā Mohi Ruatapu mō Tangaroa:

Kuku, kuku ika, kuku wehiwehi
Takina ko koe nā, te iho o ika
Te iho o Tangaroa
Uara ki uta rā, uara ki tai rā.

Te ika whakataki

Ko te tikanga, me whakahoki te ika tuatahi ki te moana. Ka whakaritea he wāhi ki tātahi hei taki karakia, hei tuku ika whakahere ki a Tangaroa.

Māwe

Ko te māwe tētahi mea, wāhi rānei ka whakakaha i te mahi kei te mahia, ahakoa he aha taua mahi. I ngā rā ki mua, he momo māwe hei tōmina ika. Hei tauira, kei te pūaha o Mōkau te punga o Tainui e takoto ana. Koia te māwe o ngā tauranga ika o taua takiwā, te kaipupuri i ngā ika kei ngaro. He kaitiaki anō te māwe i ngā ika. Kei kō atu o Mōkau ko Te Naenae, he wāhi whakahere ki a Tangaroa.

Rāhui

He tikanga, he whakahaere anō ā te Māori mō ngā mahi i te wai. He wā mō te mahi i tēnā ika, he wā mō te mahi i tēnā ika; he wā mō te haere ki tērā tauranga ika, he wā mō te haere ki tērā tauranga ika. Ko te rāhui, hei rauhī tauranga ika kei memeha noa.

Nā te nui o te mahi hī ika, kei runga te tapu i ngā āhuatanga katoa. Mā te pūmau ki ngā tohutohu me ngā tikanga mai anō, ka angitū te tangata. Kei runga te tapu i te hunga ka puta ki te mahi ika, tae rawa ki ō rātou waka. Tino kore nei i whakaaetia te hāpai ō i ngā haerenga ki te mahi ika; mēnā he kai māoa, kātahi ka tino hē rawa atu. Kei runga tonu taua tapu i ngā kaihī kia heuea rā anō e te tohunga ina ū ki uta.

Te rau tau 1900

Taka rawa iho ki te rau tau e 1900, kei te hī ika tonu te Māori i raro i ngā tikanga mai anō. He kōrero tēnei nō te tekau tau atu i 1950 mō te mahi kahawai ki te awa o Waiapu i te rohe o Ngāti Porou:

Ka oti te kupenga ka purua he aho ki roto i nga mata o waho. Ka kiia tenei ko te ngakau o te kupenga. I muri iho ka whakawhataina, ka utaina he mea taumaha ki roto hei whakau i te mau o nga mata o te kupenga. Ka oti tena ka tikina he manuka kahikatoa me nga pirita hei tango mo te kupenga. Whakamaroketia ai enei mea a ka mutu ka whakamaua nga pirita ki runga o te manuka kia rite ki te rahi o te kupenga. Kua tika i tenei wa mo te mau ki te one, engari hei te one whakamau a i te kupenga ki runga i te tango.
I mua o te hekenga ki roto i te tiana hoki o te Kai-hao. Hei reira ra ano ka heke ai te Kai-hao ki roto i te wai. Pena tikanga i nga wa katoa. Kei te mau tonu i a Ngati Porou inaianei. Ka mau te ika tuatahi i roto o te kupenga hou, ka whatia te upoko kia pakaru iho te toto ki runga i te kupenga, mehema ra he kupenga hou. Ka mutu tera ka whakairiria taua ika ki runga i tetahi rakau i tahaki atu o te haoanga. Kaore tera ika e kainga. Katahi ano ka maro te hao a te Kaihao he ika mana. Ka kiia i tena wa kua noa te kupenga. Kaore e uru te mango me nga ngarara whararihariha o te moana ki roto. 1

Ki ētahi, ki ngā tāne te mahi ika, ki ngā wāhine te mahi mātaitai. Heoi, kei te wānangatia tonutia tēnei ariā.

Footnotes
  1. Koro Dewes, ‘Te hī ika ki te awa o Waiapu’. Te Ao Hou 23 (1958), http://teaohou.natlib.govt.nz/teaohou/issue/Mao23TeA/c11.html (nō te 12 o Hānuere 2006 te toronga mutunga). › Back

Communal sharing and gifting

Ngā haonga ika ā-iwi

He rite ngā wā haere ai te iwi ki te hao ika. Tērā tētahi haerenga o Te Rarawa i te tau 1855 i raro i a Popota Te Waha, e 1000 ngā tāngata i runga ngā waka e 50; e rua ngā rā e hao ana te iwi.

Ka tohaina ngā rawa hao ika ki ngā māngai o tēnā o tēnā whānau. Ka tao te ika ki roto hāngī, ka whakairi ki runga whata rānei kia maroke i te rā. Whai muri ka purua ki roto pātaka mō te wā ka hiahiatia.

Tauhokohoko ika

He wā anō ka hokohoko e ngā iwi ki-tai ā rātou ika ki ngā iwi o uta. He ika pāwhara, he parengo, he hinu mango, aha atu ngā kai ki-tai hei hokohoko mō te huahua, te kiore, te hīnau me ērā atu kai ki-uta.

He wā anō kua tū he hākari nui. Tērā tētahi hākari nā Te Waharoa o Ngāti Hauā i taka i te tau 1837; e 20,000 ngā tuna pāwhara me te hia tana ika. I te tau 1844, nā Pōtatau Te Wherowhero tētahi hākari nui whakaharahara i taka ki Remuera; e 9,000 ngā mango maroke hei whāngai i te tini.

He pērā anō te āhua ki Te Wai Pounamu. Anei he kōrero mō tētahi hokohoko a ngā hapū o Ngāi Tahu ki Hakaroa (Banks Peninsula):

Kei Wakaroa (Pigeon Bay) e mahia nuitia ana te ika e te Māori. Ka haongia, ka whakairia kia maroke. He tino kai te mango ki te Māori. Tērā te tikanga i ngā tau ‘tekau-mā-whā’, ka kuhu whakauta ngā Māori o Wakaroa o Koukourarata (Port Levy) me ā rātou ika pāwhara, kia tūtaki i ngā Māori o Ōnawe (Little River) i te huarahi me ā rātou tuna. Kei tētahi taumata i te huarahi, ka tū ngā tira e rua nei, ka haere ngā kōrero, ka mutu, ka whakawhiti ngā ika mō ngā tuna, ka hoki ngā tira, tēnā ki tōna kāinga, tēnā ki tōna kāinga. 1
Footnotes
  1. Ngāi Tahu Sea Fisheries Report, 3.7.2. http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/reports/sichat/wai027S/Chapt03.pdf (nō te 9 Pēpuere 2006 te toronga mutunga). › Back

European contact and impact

Kōrero ai ngā Pākehā tōmua mō te nui o te ika, mō te tino mōhio o te Māori ki te hao. E ai ki a Kāpene Kuki i te tau 1773, ‘He mōhio atu rātou i a mātou ki te mahi ika, tae rawa ki ā rātou tikanga hao’. 1

Kupenga nui whakaharahara

He nui whakaharahara ngā kupenga a te Māori. I te 4 o Tīhema i te tau 1769, ka tuhi a Joseph Banks mō ngā Māori o Pēwhairangi e kata ana i a rātou mō te pakupaku o tō rātou kupenga i te Endeavour: ‘Ka mutu tā rātou kata i te pakupaku o tā mātou kupenga, ka whakaaturia mai tō rātou kupenga, e 9 mita te hōhonu, me te roa! E hika! Kāore e paku iho i te e 720-900 mita tōna roa ina tautau ana taua kupenga i te ika. 2

Ngā tauhokohoko me te Pākehā

Ka tipu ngā tāone, ka haere tonu ngā mahi hī ika a te Māori. I te tīmatanga, nā te Māori ngā ika whāngai i a Tāmaki, i a Te Whanganui-a-Tara, i a Ōtākou. E ai ki a William Swainson te rōia matua, i te tau 1852, e 1,792 ngā waka Māori i tomo ki te whanga o Tāmaki, e kawe ana i te e 45 tana ika me ētahi atu kai.

Te paheketanga o ngā mahi hao ika a te Māori

Ka pakari haere te noho a te Pākehā, ka paheke haere te noho a te Māori. Nā te rironga o ngā whenua tata ki ngā tauranga ika me te tuwhera mai o ētahi atu mahi, kua kore ngā haerenga ā-iwi ki te hao ika. Nā te aro o te Pākehā ki te hao ika hei kaupapa arumoni, tāpae atu ki te memeha haere o te ika me ngā ture i utaina ki runga i te hao ika, ka paheke te hao ika a te Māori. Kāore i whai hua te Māori i te hao ika hei kaupapa arumoni; i te nuinga o te wā, he mahi te hī ika hei tāpiri i ngā mahi ahuwhenua.

Ka noho tonu te ika hei tino kai mā te Māori – kainga tonutia i ngā tangihanga me ngā hui nui. Ahakoa te paheketanga o ngā mahi hī ika a te Māori, i whāia tonutia e ia āna tikanga hao ika tuku iho. Nāwai ā, ka hōhā te Māori mō te korenga o ngā rawa hao ika. I te tau 1991 ka kōrero a Mere Hutcheson o Pōrangahau mō te wā i a ia e tamariki ana, mō te kohi mātaitai - te pūpū, te kina, te pāua, te kuku:

Ka tonoa mātou ngā tamariki e ō mātou kaumātua kia haere ki tātahi…He nui te kai i aua rā, kāore i pēnei i ēnei rā. Kua kore te karengo, me uaua ka taea he kōura. I ngā rā ki mua ka whakahokia e mātou ngā mātaitai ki te kāinga, ka akona mātou e tō mātou whāea kia tākai i te mātaitai ki te rau karamu ka tao ki te hāngī. Koirā te mahi i ngā rā ki mua, he pāwhara tuna, he pāwhara ika; engari anō ēnei rā. Ka hipa ngā tau, ka rerekē te titiro ki tēnei mea te mahi ika.
Footnotes
  1. J. C. Beaglehole, ed., The journals of Captain James Cook on his voyages of discovery. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1961, w. 169. › Back
  2. Hautaka a Banks: kōrero ia rā: 4 Tīhema 1769. http://southseas.nla.gov.au/journals/banks/17691204.html (nō te 12 Hanuere 2006 te toronga mutunga). › Back
  3. Kei te kōrero a Mira Szaszy, Te tīmatanga tātau tātau: early stories from founding members of the Māori Women’s Welfare League, nā Anna Rogers rāua ko Miria Simpson i ētita. Wellington: Māori Women’s Welfare League and Bridget Williams, 1993, w. 55. › Back

Fisheries management and practice

Ngā whakatau: 1989 me 1992

Ko te iwi Māori te tōpūtanga tāngata nui rawa i roto i ngā mahi hao ika ki Aotearoa. Neke atu i te hautoru o te ahumahi hao ika kei roto i ngā ringaringa o te Māori. I hua mai tēnei āhuatanga i ngā whakataunga a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, arā:

  • i te tau 1989 e 10% o ngā rawa hao ika o Aotearoa i tāpaea ki te Māori, tae atu ki tētahi tahua moni
  • i te tau 1992 ko te whakataunga whakamutunga o ngā tono a te iwi Māori mō ngā rawa hao ika. Kīia ai tēnei whakataunga, ko te whakataunga o Sealord. Ko Sealord Products te kamupene hao ika nui rawa ki Aotearoa. E 50% o Sealord Products i tukuna e te kāwanatanga ki te iwi Māori.

Ka puritia e Sealord Products e 22% o ngā roherohenga hao ika katoa i raro i te tikanga Quota Management System, arā, te tikanga whakahaere i ngā rawa hao ika o Aotearoa. I tua atu, ka whakaritea mā te Māori te e 20% o ngā haonga momo ika hōu ka kuhuna ki te Quota Management System.

Nō te tau 1989 ka whakatūria te Kōmihana Hao Ika Māori (Māori Fisheries Commission); nā te taunga whakamutunga ka puea ake ko Te Ohu Kaimoana (Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission). Ko te kaupapa a Te Ohu Kaimoana, ko te whakatenatena i te Māori ki ngā mahi hī ika, ko te tohatoha i ngā rawa hao ika ki ngā iwi. Kei te haere tonu ngā whakawākanga ki roto whare kōti mō te tikanga tohatoha i ngā rawa hao ika.

Ture Hī Ika Māori 2004

Nā te Ture Hī Ika Māori 2004 te kaupapa nei i whakatau. Ko te tikanga ka tohaina te haurua o te e $750 miriona o ngā rawa whakatau ki ngā iwi Māori.

Nā tēnei ture i turaki te Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission, ā, ko āna rawa i tukuna ki a Aotearoa Fisheries Limited me tōna kaipupuri hea, a Te Ohu Kaimoana. Ko ngā kawenga o tēnei rōpū tuarua mō:

  • Aotearoa Fisheries
  • Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust (e tautoko ana i ngā hiahia Māori i roto i ngā kaupapa hao ika)
  • Te Wai Māori Trust (e whakatairanga ana i ngā hiahia Māori i roto i ngā haonga ika waimāori)
  • Te toha i ngā rawa hao ika ki ngā iwi.

Te hī ika a ngā iwi i ēnei rā

Kua hou kē ētahi iwi ki roto i ngā haonga ika arumoni, pērā i ngā iwi o Tainui, a Ngāti Maniapoto, a Ngāti Raukawa, a Waikato. He hoa tahi rātou i roto i a Raukura Moana, he kamupene hī ika ki moana uriuri. Whāia, ko Ngāi Tahu ngā rangatira o Ngāi Tahu Seafood Group, tētahi o ngā kamupene rawa hao ika nui ki Aotearoa.

Kei te hao ika tonu te Māori i raro i ngā tikanga mai anō, hei whāngai i te whānau, hei taka kai ki ngā huihui. Tērā tētahi hui ka tū ki te marae o Ōkahu ki Kāwhia, ka hora ngā kai reka rawa a te Māori, pērā i te pātiki maroke, te kōkī (tōtiti mai te ate o te mango). I mahia ngā ika nei i te whanga o Aotea. E ngana ana te iwi kāinga a Ngāti Te Wehi ki te pupuri i ngā tikanga mahi kai tūturu, ki te tiaki hoki i te moana me āna rawa.

Nā te whakataunga o te tau 1992 ka arongia nuitia ngā tikanga me ngā mahi hao ika a te Māori mai anō. Kua tū ētahi kaupapa arumoni i raro i te Fisheries Act 1996, pērā i ngā taiapure me ngā mahinga mātaitai. Whāia, i te tau 2000 ka whakatūria te taiapure o Kāwhia–Aotea. Mā ēnei kaupapa ka whai wāhi te Māori ki ngā mahinga ika me te tū hei kaitiaki.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Paul Meredith, 'Te hī ika – Māori fishing', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hi-ika/print (accessed 26 January 2020)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 12 Jun 2006