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Māori

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

Ko te Māori te tangata whenua o Aotearoa. Kua 700 tau te roa o tā rātou noho ki tēnei whenua. I kaha rātou ki te ako i tēnei taiao hōu; i kaha hoki rātou ki te ako mai te Pākehā me tōna ao.


People and culture today

Te taupori

I te tau 2001 e 15 % (526,281) o te taupori o Aotearoa he Māori. Ko te titiro, ā te tau 2021 ka kake te taupori Māori ki te 16.6 % (750,000).

Te noho a te iwi

Kātahi tētahi iwi hōrapa ko te iwi Māori o ēnei rā. Kei te noho tonu ētahi ki ō rātou rohe ā-iwi. Heoi, ko te nuinga kei wāhi kē e noho ana, me kī, kei ngā tāone. I te tau 2001, e 64 % o te iwi Māori e noho ana ki ngā tāone; 16 % anake e noho ana kei ngā taiwhenua. He nui anō te iwi Māori kei tāwāhi, e 70,000 ki Ahitereiria, e 10,000 ki Piritana Nui.

Te reo

He reo ā-ture te reo Māori ki Aotearoa. Nō ngā tau tata nei kua ora anō te reo. Heoi kei te mōrearea tonu tana noho; otirā, e ai ki te tatauranga o te tau 2001, kotahi anake Māori i roto i te tokowhā ka kōrero i te reo Māori. Āwhiwhiwhi e 30,000 ngā tāngata ehara i te Māori ka mōhio ki te kōrero i te reo.

Te ahurea

I tēnei wā, he nui ngā piki me ngā heke kei te pā ki te ahurea a te Māori. Kua tū te maha o ngā rōpū hei tautoko i tēnei āhuatanga. Arā:

  • ngā wāhi ako i roto i te reo Māori kua whakatūria. I te tau 2001 e 500 ngā kōhanga reo e ako ana i ngā kōhungahunga e 10,000; neke atu i te 50 ngā kura kaupapa Māori; e toru ngā whare wānanga.
  • te whakatikatika me te whakapakari i ngā whakahaere me ngā kaunihera a ngā iwi
  • te whakangao i ngā rawa a ngā iwi
  • ngā reo irirangi Māori e 20 kua tū, tae atu ki te pouaka whakaata Māori
  • te ao tōrangapū; tekau mā ono ngā mema paremata Māori i te tau 2004.

Ngā Māori rongonui

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 2000 ka eke ētahi tāngata Māori ki mua i te aroaro o te iwi whānui o Aotearoa, kua hau rānei te rongo ki te ao mō ā rātau mahi. Ko ētahi o tēnei hunga ko Kahurangi Kiri Te Kanawa rātou ko te kaiwhakahaere kiriata a Lee Tamahori, te kōtiro whakaari a Keisha Castle-Hughes, te toa haupōro a Michael Campbell, te tohungatā a Ralph Hōtere, ngā kaituhi a Patricia Grace me Witi Ihimaera.


Pre-European society

Pūtakenga

He uri whakaheke te Māori o Aotearoa nō ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nō te rau tau o 1300 AD ū ai rātau ki Aotearoa. Ahakoa ngā tautohe, e tohu ana ngā taunakitanga ki te rau tau 1200 mō te wā tae mai ai ngā waka tere moana ki Aotearoa mai i te taha rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kei te tohea tonutia te wāhi ake i ahu mai te Māori. E whakapae ana ētahi i ahu mai rātou i Rarotonga kei ngā moutere o Kuki; ko ētahi e whakapono ana i heke mai rātou i Raiatea i ngā moutere o Society. Nā te rite o ngā ingoa wāhi me te reo Māori ki ērā takiwā o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, kāore e kore he hononga kei waenganui i ngā iwi nei.

Ka ū ki Aotearoa

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, ka ū ētahi waka ki Te Tai Rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui. E mea ana te kōrero, ko Whangaparāoa te wāhi ū mai ai a Tainui me Te Arawa me ētahi atu waka. Ko te waka Mataatua ka ū ki te pūaha o te awa o Ōhinemataroa (Whakatāne).

I hōrapa te nuinga o ngā tāngata ki ngā takutai, ki te mātaki i te whenua me te titiro kei hea ngā wāhi whakamarumaru. Ko Tainui tērā ka haere mā Te Moana-a-Toi kia tae ki Tīkapa Moana, tatū rawa ki Te Waitematā; kātahi ka rere whakarunga te waka i te awa o Tāmaki. Nō te maunga o Tainui, ka tōia te waka mā te kūititanga o Tāmaki (takiwā ki Ōtāhuhu), kia taka ki roto i ngā wai o Manukau. Whāia, ka ahu atu te waka ki Mōkau i te tonga, i mua i te hokinga anō ki te raki. Ka ū te waka ki Rangiāhua kei Kāwhia.

Ngā nohoanga tōmua

Kōrero ai ngā iwi mō ō rātou tūpuna ka haere i ā rātou haerenga rongonui, pērā i a Tamatea-pōkai-whenua, i tīmata rā tana haere i Te Tai Tokerau, ka tae ki te tonga rā anō. Nō te paunga o te rau tau 1300 kua huraina katoatia ngā motu nei. Heoi, ko te āhua nei, i noho te iwi ki ngā kāinga tūturu. Hei tauira, noho ai ngā iwi o Tainui ki Kāwhia mō ngā whakatipuranga e ono, e whitu rānei. I roto i taua wā, ka rongo rātou i te āhuarangi hōu (he makariri ake a Aotearoa), ka kite hoki rātou i ngā tipu hōu (pērā i te harakeke) me ngā manu hōu pērā i te tūī. I te nuinga o te wā i ngā whanga me ngā pūaha o ngā awa ō rātou kāinga tūturu – e tata ai ki te moana me ngā mātaitai. Nui te kekeno me te moa i patua e rātou.

‘Kekeno’

Ko te kekeno tētahi kararehe tino rerekē ki te Māori i te whenua hōu nei. I tērā wā, nui te kekeno ki ngā takutai o ngā motu nei. Ko te ingoa a te Māori mōna, ko te kekeno – nā te hurihuri o tōna māhunga, anō nei kei tirotiro haere te kekeno. Ki te haere koe ki te mātaki i tētahi huinga kekeno, ka mōhio koe he aha te take ingoatia pērātia ai te kekeno e te Māori.

Ka neke ki tuawhenua

Ka piki haere ngā mōhiotanga o te Māori ki te ahuone. Whakamahia ai e rātou ngā kōhatu hei pātū, ngā pungarehu hei whakamahana i te one. Ka taea e rātou te whakatipu i te kūmara me ētahi atu tipu mai Hawaiki. I a rātou ka hīkoi whakauta, ka kite te Māori i te wao nui. Ki ētahi takiwā, ka huri te aronga o ngā tāngata mai i tai ki uta, ki te wāhi kei reira te mahi a te manu.

Te ahurea

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, mā te kōrero ā-waha kawe ai ngā tikanga a te Māori. He kotahi te noho a ngā whānau me ngā hapū ki ō rātou kāinga motuhake i ngā whārua me ngā wāhi ki tai. He mea nui te pakanga ki ngā iwi Māori – inarā he tini ngā puke hiwi puta i te motu i waihangahia hei pā, he tohu ki te wāhi nui o te riri ki te Māori o aua wā.

Pā whawhai

I te marama o Māehe 2003, ka puta te kōrero a te New Zealand Archaeology Association e mea ana, e 6,852 ngā pā puta i Aotearoa kei runga i tā rātou rēhita. Ko te nuinga o ngā pā nei kei ngā rohe kei te raki o te rārangi atu i Whanganui ki Te Matau-a-Māui.

He kai tangata te mahi i aua wā, whakaaetia hokitia te moe i te maha o ngā hoa. Kāore i tua atu i te pounamu me te tūhua hei auaha taonga me te taputapu; mahia ai te harakeke i ngā mahi raranga, whatu kākahu, whāriki, aha atu. He nui te tauhokohoko i ēnei taonga.

Te noho a te whānau, te hapū, te iwi

I ara mai ngā tikanga a te ao Māori i te āhua o tā rātou noho. Tirohia ai te tangata takitahi ano he wāhanga o te whānau, hapū, iwi ranei. He mea nui ki te Māori tōna whakapapa, e mōhio pai ai ia ki taua whakataukī e kī ana, ko te whiunga ki uta, ko te pānga ki tai. Ko te whakapono, he kotahi te tangata me te taiao – te ngahere, te moana, ngā roma wai. Ki tā te tangata titiro i aua wā, he tapu te tangata, he tapu hoki te taiao. Nā reira ki te tango rawa, kai, aha rānei te tangata mai te taiao, mā te karakia a te tohunga rā anō te tapu e hiki.

I te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, kua tau te noho o ngā hapū me ngā iwi Māori ki ngā tōpito katoa o te whenua.


The arrival of Europeans

He kākarepō nō te moana nui

Ka tau te ao Pākehā ki Aotearoa i te taenga o Abel Tasman i te tau 1642 me Kāpene Hēmi Kuki i te tau 1769.

I haere a Tasman mā te taha uru o te motu, heoi, kāore ia i pae ki uta. Engari anō a Kuki. He nui ngā tuhituhinga mō te wa i a ia i Aotearoa. Kei tua atu i ētahi maramara kōrero i tuhia i te rau tau 1800, kāore i te mōhiotia he aha ngā whakaaro o te iwi Māori mō Kuki i tana taenga ki Aotearoa. Ko te tuhinga nui rawa atu mō tēnei take, nā Hōreta Te Taniwha o Ngāti Whanaunga (ki Moehau). Kua kaumātua kē te koroheke nei ka kōrero a ia i tana kōrero. E kōrero ana te koroua rā mō te whakatau a ōna kaumātua, he kākarepō te Pakeha, nā tā rātou hoe whakamuri i ō rātou waka.

I noho mātou ki Whitianga ka ū mai tō rātou waka. Kīia ai e ō mātou kaumātua taua waka, he atua, ko ngā tāngata o runga, he kākarepō. Ka tau te waka rā, ka tīmata tētahi waka iti te hoe ki uta. Kātahi ka kī ngā kaumātua, ‘Ae rā he kākarepō te iwi rā, i te mea kei muri kē ō rātou kanohi i ō rātou māhunga. Koirā te take ka hoe rātou ko ō rātou tuarā e anga atu ana ki tātahi.’ 1

Ngā tau tōmua

Nō te takiwā o te tau 1800 ka tīmata te tau mai o ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. Tatū rawa ki te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i 1840, he nui ngā nekehanga i te ao Māori. Ka kaha te tipu o te riri i waenganui i ngā iwi. Ka kuhu mai ngā hangarau a te Pākehā pēnei i ngā hoiho me ngā paki; te pānui me te tuhi; te pū. Koinei te wā o ngā riri nui kei waenganui i ngā iwi.

I te tau 1814 ka tū te teihana mihinare Karaitiana tuatahi. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1830 ka rongohia tōna awe. Ka whakatūhia ngā kura me ngā whare mīhana hei kawe i te rongopai. Ka kuhu ētahi iwi ki te tauhokohoko me te Pākehā, ko ngā taonga hokohoko ko te rīwai, te poaka, te papa rākau, te harakeke, e riro mai he pū.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1840, ka hainahia tētahi tiriti e ngā māngai o Kuini Wikitōria o Ingarangi me ngā rangatira e 500 o ngā iwi maha puta noa i te motu. Ko tētahi hua o te Tiriti o Waitangi ko te mutunga o ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi; i tua atu, nā te tiriti i whakakaupapa mai te ture me te kāwanatanga Pākehā ki Aotearoa. E kī ana te wāhanga Pākehā o te tiriti i tukuna te tino rangatiratanga ki te Kuini o Ingarangi. Heoi, ki tā te wāhanga Māori o te tiriti, ka noho te ‘tino rangatiratanga’ o Aotearoa ki te Māori. Kei te haere tonu ngā taupatupatu mō te take nei.

Ngā umanga

I ngā tau 1840 ki 1860 ka tipu tētahi ōhanga ki waenganui i ngā iwi. Ka tahuri ētahi iwi ki te whakatipu kai hei hoko ki ngā mākete ki ngā tāone, pērā i a Tāmaki-makau-rau me Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I hokona rā anōtia ngā rawa a te Māori ki ngā mākete i tāwāhi pērā i Ahitereiria.

Ngā rangatira i te wā o te riri me te rangimārie

I te wā o ngā pakanga o Aotearoa, ka puta ētahi kaingārahu nui whakaharahara, a Kawiti o Ngāpuhi, a Te Kooti o Rongowhakaata, a Tītokowaru o Ngāti Ruanui, a Rewi Maniapoto o Ngāti Maniapoto. Heoi, kei Parihaka i te tonga o Taranaki tētahi tokorua, a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti, i mautohe mārire i te Pākehā i te tau 1881.

Pakanga

I te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1840, ka pakanga te Māori me te Pākehā ki te tauihu o Te Waka-a-Māui me te hiku o Te Ika a Māui. Ka pēnei nā te huri o ngā iwi ki te pupuri ō rātou whenua me ō rātou mana ki runga i ō rātou rohe. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka kaha ake ngā pakanga nā te hiahia o te Pākehā ki te whenua. Ahakoa te māia, kaha, a te iwi Māori kia pupuri ōna whenua, ka riro tonu ngā miriona eka. Nā te raupatu me te Kōti Whenua Māori ka ngaro te whenua. Ko te whāinga o te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakatakitahi i ngā pānga whenua o te tangata, kia kore ai tētahi wāhi ki te iwi, e wawe ai te hoko te whenua.

Footnotes
  1. John White, Ancient history of the Maori . Vol. 5. Wellington: Government Printer, 1888, p. 105. › Back

Decline and revival

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, kei raro te Māori e putu ana. I taua wā, kei raro iho te taupori Māori i te e 50,000, te tatauranga paku rawa mō te iwi, i roto i te tatauranga e 800,00 mō te taupori whānui. Nā te iti o te taupori, ka heke te awe o te Māori ki runga i ngā nekeneke o te motu.

Nō te rau tau 1900 tonu, ka ara mai ngā tipua o te iwi Māori, a Tā Āpirana Ngata, a Tā Māui Pōmare, a Te Puea Hērangi, a Te Rangihīroa, arā noa atu. I te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1890, ka waihangahia te Rōpū Taitamariki Māori hei whakakaha i te ahurea me te taha tōrangapū o te ao Māori.

Tā Āpirana Ngata

Ko Tā Āpirana Ngata te tauira taiea mō rātou te hunga i whakapau kaha kia kake anō te iwi Māori ki runga i ngā tūpuhitanga o te rau tau 1800.

Mahia ai e Āpirana Ngata mā ā rātou mahinga nui i ngā tau 1900 ki te 1950. Ko ētahi o ngā kaupapa maha i tutuki e rātou ko:

  • te kuhu ki roto Paremata (he wā anō ka ekea te rūnanga kāwanatanga)
  • te whakatū i te Rōpū Paionia o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Pioneer Battalion) me Te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion) i ngā pakanga e rua o te ao
  • te whakarerekē a Te Rangihīroa rāua ko Pōmare i te rāngai hauora
  • te whakahōu i nga ritenga mō te pupuri whenua.

Nā Ngata anō i arataki te aranga o ngā mātauranga me ngā tikanga Māori. Nā rāua ko Pei Te Hurinui Jones o Ngāti Maniapoto te mahi nui ki te rangahau me te whakapukapuka i ngā waiata tawhito a te Māori ki Ngā Mōteatea; e whā ngā wāhanga o tēnei mahi nui. Nā Ngata ka tū te maha o ngā whare whakairo puta noa i te motu; nāna hoki ka whakapaipaitia ētahi atu whare.


Urbanisation and renaissance

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao tini te Māori ka nuku ki ngā tāone mai ō rātou kāinga ki te kimi mahi. Ahakoa te kaha o ētahi ki te whakatū marae ki ngā tāone nui, ka nui te pānga mai o te noho tāone ki te ahurea o te iwi Māori. Ka heke te kaha o ngā whakahaere o mua, ka tīmata te ako a ngā Māori noho tāone ki ngā mātauranga a te Pākehā.

Ka mate a Āpirana Ngata i te tau 1950, ka ara mai he rangatira mō ngā hapori Māori ki ngā tāone.

Mautohe

I te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1960, ka hau whānui te rongo mō ngā tūkinotanga ka pā ki te iwi Māori. Nō konei ka hua mai ngā rōpū mautohe pērā i a Ngā Tamatoa. Ka mautohe ēnei tūmomo rōpū mō te rironga o te whenua me te ngaronga o ngā tikanga. I te tau 1975 ka arahina e Kahurangi Whina Cooper te hīkoi mō ngā whenua Māori i te roa o Te Ika-a-Māui, mai i Te Hāpua ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ka tū te hīkoi whenua hei tohu mō te whakahē a te Māori ki te hokonga o te whenua. Ka haere tonu ngā mautohe tōrangapū ki Waitangi. Hei ngā tau 1977–78 ka nōhia e Ngāti Whātua mā a Takaparawhā (Bastion Point), kei runga ake i te whanga o Ōkahu i Tāmaki-makaurau. Nō te tau 1951 panaia ai te iwi i ō rātou kāinga i te whanga, nā ngā mahi tango whenua a te Karauna mai anō te tau 1870.

I te tau 1975 ka waihangahia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te whakawā i ngā whatinga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Whāia, ka tū te rōpū nei hei papa e putaina ai e te Māori tōna riri mō ngā pānga kino o te noho a te Pākehā.

Ka ora anō

Kātahi tētahi mea mīharo ko te oranga ake anō o te ao Māori atu i te tau 1970. Kua horahia ētahi o ngā kerēme nui mō ngā whenua i murua ki mua i te aroaro o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi; kua hoki ngā whakahaere o ngā rawa a ētahi iwi ki a rātou anō; kua tū tētahi pūnaha mātauranga reo Māori; kua tere ētahi ahumahi nui a te Māori i ngā kaupapa hī ika, ahumoana, ahuwhenua hoki.

Kei te piki haere, kei te piki haere ngā whakahaere Māori i ēnei rā, ko te pouaka whakaata Māori tērā, ko ngā reo irirangi tērā, ko ngā mahi tāpoi tērā. I tua atu, kua whai kanohi anō te Māori ki roto i te ao tōrangapū. Kei te rongohia ētahi Māori ki tāwāhi mō ā rātou mahi. I ēnei rā kitea ai te Māori ki ngā momo ūmanga, kaupapa puta noa i te motu me te ao.

Ngā wero o te rau tau 2000

He nui ngā wero ki mua i te iwi Māori. Ko ngā mate pērā i te mate huka, te mate manawa me te mate pukupuku kei te pā kino. Ahakoa te piki o te mātauranga o ētahi Māori, tini tonu te iwi kei te tūpuhi tā rātou pānui, tuhituhi; kāore i te pai ētahi o ngā kāinga i ētahi takiwā o te motu; he kino ake te kore mahi ki te iwi Māori tērā ki te iwi Pākehā. Kei te haere tonu ngā kōrero mō te ora o te reo me te wāhi ki ngā tikanga Māori i tēnei wā. Otirā, tērā anō tētahi pātai nui, he aha te wāhi ki te tuakiri Māori i roto i te mātotoru o iwi kē.

He wāhi nui tō te Māori i roto i te ahurea me te hapori o Aotearoa. Ahakoa te nui o ngā kōrero mō ngā tūkinotanga o te noho Pākehā ka pā ki te Māori, he hua anō i taka ki te Māori, nā tana hīkaka, māia, matatau ki te hopu i ētahi painga mōna. Ka mihi ngā tohunga Pākehā mō te mōhio a te Māori ki te waihanga pā maioro kaha. He kōrero nui hoki tērā mō te mōhio a te Māori kia whakawhiti i te moana nui mā runga waka ririki.

Te kakama ki te hopu mea hōu

Tere te Māori ki te nanao ki ngā taonga a te Pākehā mō ā rātou mahi toi. I te rau tau 1800, ka hauwarea e ngā tohunga whakairo ā rātou toki kōhatu, ka hiko ki ngā whao maitai; whakamahia e ngā wāhine ngā momo wūru ki roto i ā rātou raranga. Ka huri ētahi pērā i a Cliff Whiting ki te mahi me ngā papa hōu; e whakamahi ana ngā tohungatā i te hinu, te kōata me te rino. Kua noho mai te kutā hei taonga waiata nui a te Māori.

I roto i ngā tau e 200 kua pahure ka nanao te Māori ki ngā rākau o te ao Pākehā hei painga mō ana mahi toi. He mārama te kite i tēnei wairua auaha i te hanganga hōu o te ao Māori i ēnei rā – ngā rōpū me ngā whakahaere hōu, te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, te kaha o te taha tōrangapū – he whakaaturanga tēnei ki te āheinga o te iwi Māori ki te whanake, te whakapakari, te tipu.


How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Te iwi Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-iwi-maori/print (accessed 22 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005