Kōrero: Te Kōti Whenua

I whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori i ngā tau tuatahi mai i 1860, hei whakaōrite i te mana whenua tūturu o te Māori ki te taitara Pākehā o Peretānia. Nāwai ka huaina te Kōti Whenua Māori ko te Kōti Tango Whenua, nā te mea ko te kōti nei te huarahi i ngaro ai ngā whenua o te iwi Māori. Tae mai ki ēnei rangi, kua arotahi kē te kōti kia tāwhi ngā ringa o te Māori ki ōna whenua me te whakatairanga i te whakamahinga o te whenua. 

Story by Mere Whaanga
Te āhua nui: He hui mō te hokonga o Rotorua, Ōhinemutu, 1890

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Takitini, takitahi

Nō te whānau, nō te hapū ngā mana whenua tūturu o te Māori i mua. Nō muri mai i te waitohutanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, ko te Karauna anake te kaihoko whenua Māori, ā, nā roto i a ia hokona anō ai ki tauiwi. Mai i te tau 1863 ka taea e te tangata takitahi te hoko whenua i te Māori. Ka āhei hoki te Māori kia whiwhi taitara ture mō te whenua, whai muri tonu i te whakamārama i tō take ki te Kōti Whenua Māori.

‘Te kooti tango whenua’

I te tau 1865 ka whakatūria te pūnaha kōti whenua, kia tekau anake ngā kaipupuri o tēnā wāhanga, o tēnā wāhanga. Ka huaina kētia i reira ko Te Kōti Tango Whenua. I uru anō te kōti ki te raupatuhanga o ngā whenua Māori, i muri i ngā pakanga o Aotearoa.

I te tau 1873 ka whakakorehia te ture ‘kaipupuri-10, ā, ka whakarārangihia ngā kaipupuri katoa ki te taitara.

Ngā utu ki te Māori

He nui te utu o ngā whakawākanga kōti whenua. Kia rūri rā anō te whenua kātahi ka āhei te kōti ki te tiro atu, ā, mā ngā kaipupuri e kawe ngā utu rūri. He takaroaroa hoki ētahi whakawākanga, nā reira i teitei anō ai ngā utu mō ngā haerenga me ngā noho. Ka pitihana te Māori ki te Pāremata mō ngā mahi hangareka a te kōti.

Te murunga whenua

Nō te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 e 2 miriona heketea whenua anake kei ngā ringaringa Māori e pupuri ana (o te tōpūtanga ā-motu 27 miriona). Ka wero anō te Māori i te Paremata, ā, i mahi nui a Tā Timi Kara ki te whakamutu i ngā hoko hē. Engari ka haere tonu te hoko o te whenua.

Native ki te Māori

Mai i te tekau tau 1920 ka māharahara kē te kāwanatanga kei pōraruraru ia i te hunga Māori rawakore. Ko te huringa tērā o te kōti ki te whakawhanake i te toenga o ngā whenua Māori.

I te tau 1947 ka mōhiotia te kōti ko te Māori Land Court (i mua ko te Native Land Court). Mai i te tau 1953, ka āhei te whakahau i te Māori kia hoko i ngā wāhanga whenua kei raro iho i te 25 pauna te uara, ki te kāwanatanga.

Te Arokētanga

I te tekau tau 1970 ka piki te mana Māori, me te aro a te motu ki ngā take Māori, ā, i te tau 1993 ka whakataua ngā whāinga o te Kōti Whenua Māori he āwheo i ngā whenua Māori ki te iwi Māori, he whakatairanga hoki i tōna whakamahinga. I ngā tau mai i 2000 me whakawā katoa ngā hokohokonga whenua Māori i roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori, ā, ko te Kōti hoki te mana mō ētahi atu āhuatanga o te noho a te iwi Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mere Whaanga, 'Te Kōti Whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-koti-whenua (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Mere Whaanga, published 20 Jun 2012