Kōrero: Te Kōti Whenua

Whārangi 2. ‘Te kōti tango whenua’, 1865–1873

Ngā whakaahua

Te Ture Whenua 1865

Nā te whakakapinga o te Ture Whenua Māori o 1862 e te Ture Whenua Māori o 1865 ka whakamanahia te Kōti Whenua Māori hei kōti tūturu, hei kōti whakaū kōrero pono. Kāti, nā Francis Dart Fenton te ture i whakatakoto; koia hoki te kaiwhakawā matua tuatahi o te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nō te Tīhema o te tau 1864 ka whakaputaina te pūnaha Ture Whenua Māori hou ki te motu whānui. Tokotoru ngā kaiwhakawā o tēnei kōti, kotahi te Pākehā, tokorua he Māori.

He kaiwhakawā harakoa

Ko Francis Fenton te kaiwhakawā matua tuatahi o te Kōti Whenua Māori. He tangata kōrero Māori, he maha hoki āna tuhinga e pā ana ki te hītori Māori. Whai muri i ngā hoko whenua tuatahi i Rotorua i te tau 1880, ka mea te niupepa o te Bay of Plenty Times, ‘a disturbance was observable at one end of the room … it was Fenton, the Chief Judge … in an ecstasy of delight performing a haka with two old Rotorua savages, one a hunchback. The ecstasy of the trio arose from the success of the Rotorua scheme, and the prospect of manipulating [£]2,700 odd per annum’ (kātahi ka pakaru mai tētahi āhuatanga ki rahaki o te rūma…ko Fenton rātou ko ngā koroua (he tuarā hake tētahi) tokorua o Rotorua e taki haka ana. Harakoakoa te tokotoru mō te whakamanatanga o te kaupapa mō Rotorua, me te tūmanako pea ki te whāwhā i ētahi o te 2,700 pauna i te tau ka hoake mō tērā kaupapa).1

Te tikanga kaipupuri-tekau

He ōrite tonu te ture whenua o 1865 ki tērā o te tau 1862, engari tekau anake ngā kaipupuri ki te rārangi taitara. Mena he nui ake te poraka i te 5,000 eka (2,023 heketea) i āhei anō te kōti ki te whakaputa i tōna taitara i raro i te ingoa o te iwi. Te āhua nei kāore tērā āhua whakatau i puta i te kōti, ā, nō te puku o te tau 1872 e 2 miriona heketea whenua kua riro taitara; ko te nuinga ki Tāmaki-makaurau, Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Te Matau-a-Māui. Ko te katoa o ēnei whenua i hokona i raro i te ture kaipupuri-tekau.

Te raupatu whenua

I muri i te pakanga whenua i ngā tau o 1860, ka uru mai te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te raupatu i te whenua. Ka hoatu ngā mana ki te kōti hei āta wetewete i ngā whenua o ngā iwi whana me ngā iwi ehara i te iwi whana. Kātahi ka murua ngā whenua o ’ngā iwi whana’ e te Karauna.

Te whakataunga kore wira

I tētahi whakamātautau i te tau 1867 ko Kaiwhakawā Fenton te tuatahi ki te whakatau rerekētanga mō ngā ōhākī ture o te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nō te tau 1864 ka mate te rangatira a Ihaka Takaanini ki Papakura, ā, kāore ōna wira. Ka riri tara ā-whare ngā uri tokotoru mō ngā whenua te ito. Ko te whakatau a Fenton, kia mate te tangata Māori kāore ōna wira, ka whakahekehia ngā hea ōrite ki āna tamariki.

‘Te kōti tango whenua’

Nāwai, ka kīia te kōti whenua ko ‘te kōti tango whenua’ kē. Nā te apataki Karauna nā Kāpene Reginald Biggs i whiu tēnei kōrero, ka mutu nāna anō te akiaki ki ngā kaipupuri whenua i te Tai Rāwhiti kia whakatauria ngā poraka whenua nunui ki mua i te kōti. Ahakoa te taupatupatu o ngā whakaaro a ngā tumu kōrero mō te Kōti Whenua Māori, he nui tonu ōna tukituki ki te ao Māori.

Te Hunga Whākorekore

Taka mai ki te tau 1873 kāore tonu te Pākehā i noho nui ki te Ika-a-Māui; nā ngā pakanga me te iti o te koura. Ka tohu anō te Karauna ki te whakatairanga i te noho Pākehā, ā, ka hoki ia ki te hoko whenua Māori. Nā runga i te ture o te wā ka whakaara ake te rōpū whakahē a ngā rangatira o Te Matau-a-Māui me tō rātou hiahia ki te whakakore i ngā hoko, ki te whakahoki i te moni kia whakahokihia ō rātou whenua. Tahi ka whakarewaina te kōmihana tirotiro i ngā hoko mūrere ki te rohe o Te Matau-a-Māui. Kāore ngā kaihoko o reira i utua ki te moni, ā, ka utua kētia ki ngā rawa, ka whakakorea rānei ētahi nama o mua. Nā ngā tirohanga a te kōmihana ka whakahoutia te ture hoko whenua Māori.

Ture Whenua Māori 1873

Nā te Kōti Whenua Māori anō i whakatakoto te pūnaha Ture Whenua Māori e kitea ana i ēnei rangi. I runga i te ture ka whakakorehia te tikanga kaipupuri-tekau, ā, kia whakarārangihia ngā kaipupuri katoa ki tētahi taitara kaipupuri whānui. Ka āhei ngā kaipupuri te tuku i ā rātou taonga ki ō rātou piki tūranga, ā, kia mate te kaipupuri ka heke ngā hea ōrite ki ōna uri. Nō konei anō i kōpā ai ngā taitara whenua.

I raro i te ture o 1873 ka uaua ake te hoko whenua Māori, nā te mea me mātua tūtohu rā anō ngā kaihoko. Ka wāhia hoki ngā poraka whenua, ko ngā kaihoko ki tētahi taha, ko ngā uri kāore i pīrangi ki te hoko ki tētahi taha. Ko te manako o te Minita Māori, a Te Makarīni, mā taua ture e mau tonu ai te Māori ki ōna whenua. Engari ka parea ki rahaki te hunga kāore i pīrangi ki te hoko e ngā kaihoko hīkaka, e rere mai ana ki te hoko whenua.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Bay of Plenty Times, 9 Poutū-te-rangi 1882, wh. 2. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mere Whaanga, 'Te Kōti Whenua - ‘Te kōti tango whenua’, 1865–1873', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-koti-whenua/page-2 (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Mere Whaanga, published 20 Jun 2012