Kōrero: Te Kōti Whenua

Whārangi 5. Mai i te kupu Native ki te kupu Māori, 1920–1980

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

E ai ki te rangahau o te tau 1920, e 19 eka (7.6 heketea) noa iho ngā whenua e toe ana mō ia Māori. E 49,000 te nui o te taupori Māori i Te Ika-a-Māui i tērā wā. Mai i taua wā ka arotahi te kāwanatanga mai i te hoko whenua kia kaua te Māori e whakahōhā i te kāwanatanga. Nō konei i nuku atu te Kōti i tōna whakatūnga hei “Kōti tango whenua”, ā, ka āwhina kē te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakawhanake i ngā whenua Māori e toe ana. Kātahi ka whakatūria te Kaitiakitanga Māori hei tuku pūtea taurewa ki ngā Māori mō te whakawhanake i ō rātou whenua. I raro mai i te mana o Āpirana Ngata, ka āwhinatia e te Kaitiakitanga Māori ngā whenua maha ki te pūtea, puta noa i ngā taiwhenua.

Te whakarerekētanga i te ingoa

I raro i te Ture Take Māori o te tau 1947 ka whakaingoa kētia te Kōti Whenua Māori mai i te Native Land Court ki te Māori Land Court. I te tau 1952 ka riro ngā whakahaere o Ngā Poari Māori ki te Kaitiakitanga Māori.

Te Ture Take Māori 1953

E toru ngā momo whenua Māori i roto i Ture Whenua Māori o 1953 – te customary, te freehold me te reserve land. Ko tētahi ohoreretanga o te ture ko te tukunga ki te Kōti Whenua Māori te mana kia whakaheke i ngā whenua korehere o te Māori, kei raro iho te uara i te 25 pāuna; ki te Kaitiakitanga Māori. Ko te ngako o tēnei ture he whakapai ake i te whakamahi me te whakawhanake i te whenua Māori mā ētahi whakahaerenga whenua māmā pērā i te kaitiakitanga. I noho kōhatu ēnei ture whakahaere whenua Māori mō te 40 tau.

Whakahounga Ture Take Māori 1967

I te tau 1967 ka arotake tētahi komiti i ngā mana o te kōti. Ko tōna tumuaki ko te Kaiwhakawā Matua o mua o te Kōti Whenua Māori ko Ivor Pritchard. He nui ngā tūtohunga o te komiti i whakakotahitia ki te ture o muri tata mai, arā, te Whakahounga Ture Take Māori o te tau 1967. Nā te whakahē o te iwi Māori ki te rironga o ngā whenua ‘kore hua’ (ngā poraka whenua kei raro iho te uara i te $50); me te āheitanga kia panoni i te whenua Māori (ngā whenua e rima, iti iho rānei ōna kaipupuri) hei whenua matawhānui; ka whakakapihia tērā ture ki te Whakahounga Ture Take Māori o te tau 1974.

Kōmihana McCarthy 1978

I te tau 1978 ka whakatūria anō te komiti arotake, ā, ko Tā Thaddeus McCarthy tōna tumu. Ko tōna matū he aromatawai i te hanganga me ngā whakahaerenga o te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Kōti Pīra Māori. I tōna pūrongo i te tau 1980 ka tūtohua kia kaua e tino nui ngā rerekētanga ki ōna whakahaere kia mau rā anō i ngā Rēhitatanga Whenua Rohe ngā whenua Māori puta noa. Ka whakataua hoki kia riro ngā whakawākanga o aua kōti ki ngā kōti matawhānui, ā, ko ngā whakahaere o te whenua; ka riro ki Te Tari Māori me ngā uepū pēnei i te Poari Whenua Māori me ngā Komiti Ārahi Whenua Māori. Ka whakahua te Komihana McCarthy i te whīwhiwhi o te Ture Whenua Māori o 1953, ā, ka tohutohu kia arotake katoatia ngā ture whakahaere take Māori.

Te Ture Whenua Maori 1993

I ngā tau o te tekau tau 1970 ka whai hiranga ake ngā take Māori i ngā tōrangapū o te motu. Nā te huri aro kētanga ki te aukati i ngā hoko whenua Māori ka whakahoutia anō te ture whenua Māori i whakaritea e te Kōmihana McCarthy i te tau 1978. Kāti, ko tōna otinga ko Te Ture Whenua Māori 1993; arā, te ture Māori tuatahi kia whakauru i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kei tōna kupu whakataki ka whakapuakina te hononga o te iwi Māori me te Karauna i tiria i te Tiriti; me te whakaae he taonga tuku iho te whenua nā te Māori. Ka whakatairanga hoki te ture hou i te pupuritanga, te nohonga, te whakawhanaketanga, me te whakamahinga o te whenua Māori hei painga mō ngā whānau me ngā hapū.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mere Whaanga, 'Te Kōti Whenua - Mai i te kupu Native ki te kupu Māori, 1920–1980', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-koti-whenua/page-5 (accessed 18 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Mere Whaanga, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012