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Te Kōti Whenua – Māori Land Court

by Mere Whaanga

I whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori i ngā tau tuatahi mai i 1860, hei whakaōrite i te mana whenua tūturu o te Māori ki te taitara Pākehā o Peretānia. Nāwai ka huaina te Kōti Whenua Māori ko te Kōti Tango Whenua, nā te mea ko te kōti nei te huarahi i ngaro ai ngā whenua o te iwi Māori. Tae mai ki ēnei rangi, kua arotahi kē te kōti kia tāwhi ngā ringa o te Māori ki ōna whenua me te whakatairanga i te whakamahinga o te whenua. 


From tribal to individual ownership, 1840–1862

E toru ngā momo puritanga whenua o Aotearoa:

  • ko te whenua Karauna
  • ko te whenua matawhānui
  • ko te whenua Māori. Kei raro i te mana whakawā o te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Kāore pea he kōti taurite ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, puta noa i te ao.

Mana whenua tūturu

He rerekē te mana whenua o te Māori i tērā o te Pākehā. Nō te whenua te Māori; ehara nōna ake te whenua. Ka mutu nō te hapū, nō te iwi whānui kē.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Nō te tīmatanga tonu o te noho Pākehā ka tīmata te hiahia a te hunga tauhou ki te whenua Māori. E 27 miriona heketea ngā whenua e puritia ana e te Māori i tērā wā. Ki tā te wāhanga Ingarihi o te Tiriti, ka tukuna mā te Karauna anake te tika ki te hoko i ngā whenua Māori. Kātahi ka hokona anō aua whenua mō tētahi utu nui kē atu, hei pūtea āwhina, hei whakatairanga hoki i te noho a te Pākehā. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1860 kua riro katoa atu ngā whenua Māori ki Te Waipounamu i te Pākehā, ā, kua hauruatia ngā whenua Māori ki te 14 miriona heketea. E 75 ōrau o ngā heketea 11 miriona o Te Ika-a-Māui i roto tonu i te ringaringa Māori.

Te Ture Whenua Māori 1862

Ka haere tonu ngā hoko whenua takitahi a te Karauna, ā, i te tau 1863 ka whakaaetia te hoko whenua Māori ki te hunga kotahi. Hei whakamāmā i te tukanga, nā te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1862 i whakamana te pūnaha mana kaipupuri hou, arā, me āta whakatau haere te Māori i ōna mana ki ōna whenua. Ka rūritia te whenua, kātahi ka tukuna te taitara ki ngā kaipupuri ā-ture. Ko te pūtake o ēnei ko te takahuri i te tikanga whenua Māori ki te ture Pākehā.1 Mā tēnei ture ka tukuna te kaipupuri whenua Māori kia hoko ki te hunga takitahi, takitini anō hoki.2

Ngā Kōti Tuatahi

I runga i te Ture Whenua 1862 ka whakamanaia te kāwana kia whakatū i te kōti:

for the purpose of ascertaining and declaring who according to Native Custom are the proprietors of any Native Lands and the estate or interest held in them therein, and for the purpose of granting to such proprietors Certificates of their title to such lands (ki te titiro me te whakatau ko wai ngā kaipupuri o ngā whenua me ngā rawa Māori me te tuku ki ēnei kaipupuri tētahi tiwhikete taitara ki aua whenua).3

I te Āperira o te tau 1864 ka waihangatia te tuatahi o ēnei kōti ki te takiwā o Kaipara. Ka puare ētahi atu kōti ki te Tai Tokerau i taua tau anō hoki. I roto i ēnei kōti ka whakatūria ngā rangatira hei kaiwhakawā i te taha o ngā apataki Pākehā.

Te whakamārama i te mana whenua

E riro mai ai te taitara ki ō rātou whenua, me puta rawa ki te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakamārama i ō rātou pānga. Ka tukuna ngā whakapapa, ngā hapū, ngā pou tara-ā-waho, ngā tohu whenua, ngā maunga, ngā awa, ngā kōawa, ngā tūtū manu, ngā taunga ika, ngā whenua māra, ngā umu pokapoka, ngā pā, ngā wharenui, ngā urupā, ngā wāhi motuhenga, ngā pā tuna, ngā waikaukau tae atu ki ngā wāhi horoi kākahu. Ka whakatakotoria hoki ngā kōrero tuku iho, ngā mōteatea me ngā mātauranga katoa i pūrangiaho ai nō rātou taketake te whenua mai anō i ngā tau ukiuki. Nā runga i tēnei hātepe ka tokaina ngā paenga tūtanga whenua ā-iwi, nā reira hoki ka mutu ngā haerenga a ngā iwi a ngā hapū, ki tēnā takiwā, ki tēnā takiwā, i ōna anō wāhanga o te tau e tika ana ki te kohi mātaitai, ki te mahi kai, ki te aha atu.

Footnotes
    • Native Lands Act 1862, preamble. Back
    • Native Lands Act 1862, s. 17. Back
    • Native Lands Act 1862, s. 4. Back

‘Te kōti tango whenua’, 1865–1873

Te Ture Whenua 1865

Nā te whakakapinga o te Ture Whenua Māori o 1862 e te Ture Whenua Māori o 1865 ka whakamanahia te Kōti Whenua Māori hei kōti tūturu, hei kōti whakaū kōrero pono. Kāti, nā Francis Dart Fenton te ture i whakatakoto; koia hoki te kaiwhakawā matua tuatahi o te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nō te Tīhema o te tau 1864 ka whakaputaina te pūnaha Ture Whenua Māori hou ki te motu whānui. Tokotoru ngā kaiwhakawā o tēnei kōti, kotahi te Pākehā, tokorua he Māori.

He kaiwhakawā harakoa

Ko Francis Fenton te kaiwhakawā matua tuatahi o te Kōti Whenua Māori. He tangata kōrero Māori, he maha hoki āna tuhinga e pā ana ki te hītori Māori. Whai muri i ngā hoko whenua tuatahi i Rotorua i te tau 1880, ka mea te niupepa o te Bay of Plenty Times, ‘a disturbance was observable at one end of the room … it was Fenton, the Chief Judge … in an ecstasy of delight performing a haka with two old Rotorua savages, one a hunchback. The ecstasy of the trio arose from the success of the Rotorua scheme, and the prospect of manipulating [£]2,700 odd per annum’ (kātahi ka pakaru mai tētahi āhuatanga ki rahaki o te rūma…ko Fenton rātou ko ngā koroua (he tuarā hake tētahi) tokorua o Rotorua e taki haka ana. Harakoakoa te tokotoru mō te whakamanatanga o te kaupapa mō Rotorua, me te tūmanako pea ki te whāwhā i ētahi o te 2,700 pauna i te tau ka hoake mō tērā kaupapa).1

Te tikanga kaipupuri-tekau

He ōrite tonu te ture whenua o 1865 ki tērā o te tau 1862, engari tekau anake ngā kaipupuri ki te rārangi taitara. Mena he nui ake te poraka i te 5,000 eka (2,023 heketea) i āhei anō te kōti ki te whakaputa i tōna taitara i raro i te ingoa o te iwi. Te āhua nei kāore tērā āhua whakatau i puta i te kōti, ā, nō te puku o te tau 1872 e 2 miriona heketea whenua kua riro taitara; ko te nuinga ki Tāmaki-makaurau, Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Te Matau-a-Māui. Ko te katoa o ēnei whenua i hokona i raro i te ture kaipupuri-tekau.

Te raupatu whenua

I muri i te pakanga whenua i ngā tau o 1860, ka uru mai te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te raupatu i te whenua. Ka hoatu ngā mana ki te kōti hei āta wetewete i ngā whenua o ngā iwi whana me ngā iwi ehara i te iwi whana. Kātahi ka murua ngā whenua o ’ngā iwi whana’ e te Karauna.

Te whakataunga kore wira

I tētahi whakamātautau i te tau 1867 ko Kaiwhakawā Fenton te tuatahi ki te whakatau rerekētanga mō ngā ōhākī ture o te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nō te tau 1864 ka mate te rangatira a Ihaka Takaanini ki Papakura, ā, kāore ōna wira. Ka riri tara ā-whare ngā uri tokotoru mō ngā whenua te ito. Ko te whakatau a Fenton, kia mate te tangata Māori kāore ōna wira, ka whakahekehia ngā hea ōrite ki āna tamariki.

‘Te kōti tango whenua’

Nāwai, ka kīia te kōti whenua ko ‘te kōti tango whenua’ kē. Nā te apataki Karauna nā Kāpene Reginald Biggs i whiu tēnei kōrero, ka mutu nāna anō te akiaki ki ngā kaipupuri whenua i te Tai Rāwhiti kia whakatauria ngā poraka whenua nunui ki mua i te kōti. Ahakoa te taupatupatu o ngā whakaaro a ngā tumu kōrero mō te Kōti Whenua Māori, he nui tonu ōna tukituki ki te ao Māori.

Te Hunga Whākorekore

Taka mai ki te tau 1873 kāore tonu te Pākehā i noho nui ki te Ika-a-Māui; nā ngā pakanga me te iti o te koura. Ka tohu anō te Karauna ki te whakatairanga i te noho Pākehā, ā, ka hoki ia ki te hoko whenua Māori. Nā runga i te ture o te wā ka whakaara ake te rōpū whakahē a ngā rangatira o Te Matau-a-Māui me tō rātou hiahia ki te whakakore i ngā hoko, ki te whakahoki i te moni kia whakahokihia ō rātou whenua. Tahi ka whakarewaina te kōmihana tirotiro i ngā hoko mūrere ki te rohe o Te Matau-a-Māui. Kāore ngā kaihoko o reira i utua ki te moni, ā, ka utua kētia ki ngā rawa, ka whakakorea rānei ētahi nama o mua. Nā ngā tirohanga a te kōmihana ka whakahoutia te ture hoko whenua Māori.

Ture Whenua Māori 1873

Nā te Kōti Whenua Māori anō i whakatakoto te pūnaha Ture Whenua Māori e kitea ana i ēnei rangi. I runga i te ture ka whakakorehia te tikanga kaipupuri-tekau, ā, kia whakarārangihia ngā kaipupuri katoa ki tētahi taitara kaipupuri whānui. Ka āhei ngā kaipupuri te tuku i ā rātou taonga ki ō rātou piki tūranga, ā, kia mate te kaipupuri ka heke ngā hea ōrite ki ōna uri. Nō konei anō i kōpā ai ngā taitara whenua.

I raro i te ture o 1873 ka uaua ake te hoko whenua Māori, nā te mea me mātua tūtohu rā anō ngā kaihoko. Ka wāhia hoki ngā poraka whenua, ko ngā kaihoko ki tētahi taha, ko ngā uri kāore i pīrangi ki te hoko ki tētahi taha. Ko te manako o te Minita Māori, a Te Makarīni, mā taua ture e mau tonu ai te Māori ki ōna whenua. Engari ka parea ki rahaki te hunga kāore i pīrangi ki te hoko e ngā kaihoko hīkaka, e rere mai ana ki te hoko whenua.

Footnotes
  1. Bay of Plenty Times, 9 Poutū-te-rangi 1882, wh. 2. Back

Surveying and other costs, 1880–1900

He whīwhiwhi, he takaroa, he moumou pūtea hoki ngā whakawākanga Kōti Whenua Māori. I āhei noa iho te kōti ki te whakatewhatewha i ngā poraka rūri, ā, mā ngā kaipupuri Māori e waha ngā utu rūri. Mō te tini o ngā poraka e 20 ōrau o te uara o te whenua ka whakapaua ki ngā mahi rūri. I te haerenga o ngā kaikereme ki te kōti ka muia rātou e te hunga kaihoko, kairūri, rōia, kaihoko whenua, kaituku pūtea taurewa hoki.1 He roa ngā marama e haere ana ngā kōti whenua, ā, ka tāpiritia atu ko ngā utu kōti, ngā utu ture me ngā utu mō te haerenga me te noho. I tētahi whakawākanga i Kemureti i te tau 1882, ka horomia te wāriu o te whenua i te nui o te utu noho.2

Ka mahara te Māori ki ngā mahi a te kōti, ā, inā te tokomaha o ngā pitihana i whakatakotoria ki te Whare Pāremata mō tēnei take.

Te Porohaurangi

Ka hora hoki te mahi haurangi i ngā noho ki te Kōti Whenua Māori. E ai ki tētahi o ngā minita ki te Kōmihana Karauna i te tau 1898, ‘Whenever the Natives had their land purchased … it was a scene of continual orgies until the money was spent. They would go up to the hotels and buy liquor in quantities, drinking to excess, which led to frequent accidents, some of which were fatal’ (Ina hokona ngā whenua o ngā Māori ka kai, ka inu, tae noa ki te whakapaunga o te moni. Ka haere ki ngā hōtera hoko ai i te waipiro, ka haurangi rawa, ā, ka mate kūare noa.)3 I ngā whakahaere kōti i te Rohe Pōtae, ‘drunken Maori women and girls are a common sight there; and the results generally … are most deplorable’ (he tokomaha rawa ngā wāhine me ngā kōtiro haurangi; ā, ko ngā hua he weriweri).’4

Te ture whīwhiwhi

Ko tētahi take i roa ai ngā whakawākanga Kōti Whenua Māori ko te whīwhiwhi o ngā ture whenua Māori. He maha ngā kāwanatanga i tahuri ki te whakamana i ngā ture maha mō te whenua Māori me te Kōti Whenua Māori – e waru ngā whakahounga ture i te tau 1888, e iwa i te tau 1889. Huia katoatia, e 560 ngā ture whenua Māori i whakapūmautia mai i te takiwā o te tau 1865 ki te tau 1909.

Ko te Kōmihana Rees–Carroll

Nā ngā uauatanga o te ture me ngā kokoraho teka a ētahi kaikereme, ka whakatū te kāwanatanga i te kōmihana rangahau i te ture whenua Māori; te tāpaetanga o ngā rawa whenua Māori; me te Kōti Whenua Māori.5 Ka tonoa hoki te kōmihana ki te waihanga mātāpono mō te whakahaerenga o te whenua Māori e tairanga anō ai te noho Pākehā. Nō muri ka tapaina tēnei kōmihana ko te Kōmihana o Rees-Carroll, arā, ki te roia me te kaitōrangapū ki a William Lee Ree Coomas rāua ko te kaitōrangapū, a Timi Kara (ngā kaikōmihana o te uepū).

Ko ēnei ngā huatau i tūtohua e te kōmihana:

  • Me waihanga tētahi Kōti Taitara Māori hei tirotiro i ngā tāpaetanga whenua Māori me te whakamana i ngā hoko tōtika. Ka āhei tēnei kōti ki te whakaputa taitara, engari anō i ngā kēhi i uru atu ai te heitara takahi ture. Ka waihangatia te kōti whakamana hei whakatewhatewha, hei whakatau i te wāhi ki ngā taitara tautohe. Nō te tau 1909 ka mutu tēnei kōti.
  • Te hanga hou i te Kōti Whenua Māori kia kotahi te kaiwhakawā matua, kia tokorima ngā kaiwhakawā rohe, kia tokorima hoki ngā kaikōmihana rohe. I mua i te haerenga o te poraka whenua ki mua ki te kōti, ka whakarite kētia te rārangi kaipupuri.

Kāore tonu i whai mana ētahi o ngā tūtohunga o te kōti nā te taupatupatu o ngā ture kāwanatanga me te hiahia o te kāwanatanga ki te whakatuwhera i ngā whenua Māori mō te Pākehā.

Ture Kōti Whenua Māori o 1894

Nā te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1894 ka māmā anō te hokonga o te whenua Māori. Ka waihanga tēnei ture i ngā kōti pīra, ā, ka whakahokia mai te ture hoko tuatahi mō te Karauna, ā, tae rawa ki te tau 1909 e whakamahia ana. Heoi anō kua oti kē i te Karauna te hoko ngā whenua tārake, ā, hei ētahi kēhi kāore tonu i arohia te ture hoko tuatahi.

Footnotes
  1. Alan Ward, A show of justice: racial ‘amalgamation’ in nineteenth century New Zealand. Tāmaki-makaurau: Auckland University Press, 1973, wh. 185. Back
  2. ‘Royal Commission of Enquiry into native lands.’ Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1891, G-1, wh. 9. Back
  3. ‘Report and evidence of the Royal Commission on the police force of New Zealand.’ AJHR, 1898, H-2, wh. 1,120. Back
  4. ‘Report and evidence of the Royal Commission on the police force of New Zealand.’AJHR, 1898, H-2, wh. 1,137. Back
  5. ‘Report of the commission appointed to inquire into the subject of the native land laws.’ AJHR, 1891, G-1, wh. v. Back

The ‘taihoa’ policy, 1900–1920

I te takiwā ki te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 e 2 miriona heketea ngā whenua i te ringaringa Māori tonu. He nui ngā petihana i whakatakotoria ki te Whare Pāremata mō te noho whenua kore, me te whakamahi i ngā whenua Māori i kīia he whenua māheuheu, he tītōhea rānei. I ngana tonu a Timi Kara (Minita Māori mai i te tau 1899) ki te aukati i ngā tāpaetanga whenua Māori, ā, ka kīia ōna kaupapa ko te ture ‘taihoa’.

Ture Whakahaere Whenua Māori 1900

Ko tētahi o ngā whakapetonga ngoi a Kara mō te iwi Māori ko te Ture Whakahaere Whenua Māori o te tau 1900. I runga i tēnei ture i hangā ai Tari Whenua Māori me ngā Kaunihera Whenua Māori. Kātahi ka ūhia te mana ki ngā kaunihera ki te tūtohu i ngā papakāinga whenua o te Māori e kore rawa e taea te hoko. Engari nā te kore moni; te kore hiahia o ngā Māori kia tukua ō rātou whenua ki ngā kaunihera; me te kaikā o te hunga Pākehā ki ngā whenua Māori, ka whakakorehia ngā kaunihera Māori i roto i te rima tau.

Kua roa rawa

E kitea ana te āhua ārau me te kore e tika o ngā ture o te Kōti Whenua Māori i te hoko o Tūtira, he whenua hiwihiwi whaka-te-raki o Ahuriri. Nō tētahi hapū o Ngāti Kahungunu ngā whenua rā, ā, he mea rīhi ki a Herbert Guthrie-Smith, kaituhi o Tutira (he puka e kōrero ana mō ōna mahi ki te whakawhanake i te whenua). I te tau 1917 ka whakatau ētahi o ngā kaipupuri ki te hoko atu i te whenua ki te Karauna, engari nō te tau 1941 rā anō tutuki rawa ai te hoko. Otirā ka makaia hoki te hunga whakahē (i te hoko) ki ngā utu rūri.

Ture Whakatau Whenua Māori 1905

Nā runga i te Ture Whakataunga Whenua Māori o 1905 ka whakakapia Ngā Kaunihera Whenua Māori ki ngā Poari Whenua Māori e whitu. Kotahi te perehitini; e rua ngā mema, he Māori tētahi. Ka āhei ngā Māori te tuku i ōna whenua ki ēnei poari (i te Ika-a-Māui anake). Mēnā i noho nama te kaipupuri i ōna rēiti, mēnā rānei he whenua māheuheu, ka āhei te Karauna ki te tīnao atu ki aua poari rā. Ka riro hoki mā ngā poari e whakahaere ngā rawa mō ngā uri, ā, ka taea hoki te rīhi atu mō te 50 tau. I te 20 tau i muri mai ka whakaritea e te kōti te hokotanga o ngā whenua Māori e 930,000 heketea.

He rite tonu te wā ko te kaiwhakawā me te rēhita o te Kōti Whenua Māori ā-rohe ngā mema poari; i whakarite rāua i ngā rawa me ngā ture o ngā whenua Māori. Kātahi ka hangā te Kōti Whenua Māori i te peka whakahaere rawa, ā, ka whakamahia tēnei tae noa ki te tau 1952, i te whakakapinga e te Kaitiakitanga Māori.

Ture Whenua Māori 1909

Nā te Ture Whenua Māori o 1909 i whakakotahi mai ētahi ture whenua ki tētahi ture kotahi. Nā tēnei ture i ārai te hoko a te Karauna i te whenua Māori mōna, kia hui rā anō ngā kaipupuri whenua katoa. Kātahi ka whakakorehia anō te ture hoko tuatahi a te Karauna, ā, ka whakamanahia te Kōti Whenua Māori hei whakarōpū i ngā poraka whenua kia pai ai te hoko ki te Karauna. Ka whakawhānuitia anō ngā mana o te kōti ki ngā mahi pāpori:

  • te whakatau i ngā whāngai tamariki a te Māori
  • te tono kaitiakitanga mō ngā Māori kāore e taea te whakarite i ō rātou ake whakahaere
  • te whakamahinga o ngā kaipupuri whenua Māori.

Kāore tonu tēnei ture i aukati i ngā hoko whenua Māori a te Karauna, ā, e 800,000 heketea i riro atu ki Te Ika-a-Māui i roto i te 14 tau i muri mai.


From Native to Māori Land Court, 1920–1980

E ai ki te rangahau o te tau 1920, e 19 eka (7.6 heketea) noa iho ngā whenua e toe ana mō ia Māori. E 49,000 te nui o te taupori Māori i Te Ika-a-Māui i tērā wā. Mai i taua wā ka arotahi te kāwanatanga mai i te hoko whenua kia kaua te Māori e whakahōhā i te kāwanatanga. Nō konei i nuku atu te Kōti i tōna whakatūnga hei “Kōti tango whenua”, ā, ka āwhina kē te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakawhanake i ngā whenua Māori e toe ana. Kātahi ka whakatūria te Kaitiakitanga Māori hei tuku pūtea taurewa ki ngā Māori mō te whakawhanake i ō rātou whenua. I raro mai i te mana o Āpirana Ngata, ka āwhinatia e te Kaitiakitanga Māori ngā whenua maha ki te pūtea, puta noa i ngā taiwhenua.

Te whakarerekētanga i te ingoa

I raro i te Ture Take Māori o te tau 1947 ka whakaingoa kētia te Kōti Whenua Māori mai i te Native Land Court ki te Māori Land Court. I te tau 1952 ka riro ngā whakahaere o Ngā Poari Māori ki te Kaitiakitanga Māori.

Te Ture Take Māori 1953

E toru ngā momo whenua Māori i roto i Ture Whenua Māori o 1953 – te customary, te freehold me te reserve land. Ko tētahi ohoreretanga o te ture ko te tukunga ki te Kōti Whenua Māori te mana kia whakaheke i ngā whenua korehere o te Māori, kei raro iho te uara i te 25 pāuna; ki te Kaitiakitanga Māori. Ko te ngako o tēnei ture he whakapai ake i te whakamahi me te whakawhanake i te whenua Māori mā ētahi whakahaerenga whenua māmā pērā i te kaitiakitanga. I noho kōhatu ēnei ture whakahaere whenua Māori mō te 40 tau.

Whakahounga Ture Take Māori 1967

I te tau 1967 ka arotake tētahi komiti i ngā mana o te kōti. Ko tōna tumuaki ko te Kaiwhakawā Matua o mua o te Kōti Whenua Māori ko Ivor Pritchard. He nui ngā tūtohunga o te komiti i whakakotahitia ki te ture o muri tata mai, arā, te Whakahounga Ture Take Māori o te tau 1967. Nā te whakahē o te iwi Māori ki te rironga o ngā whenua ‘kore hua’ (ngā poraka whenua kei raro iho te uara i te $50); me te āheitanga kia panoni i te whenua Māori (ngā whenua e rima, iti iho rānei ōna kaipupuri) hei whenua matawhānui; ka whakakapihia tērā ture ki te Whakahounga Ture Take Māori o te tau 1974.

Kōmihana McCarthy 1978

I te tau 1978 ka whakatūria anō te komiti arotake, ā, ko Tā Thaddeus McCarthy tōna tumu. Ko tōna matū he aromatawai i te hanganga me ngā whakahaerenga o te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Kōti Pīra Māori. I tōna pūrongo i te tau 1980 ka tūtohua kia kaua e tino nui ngā rerekētanga ki ōna whakahaere kia mau rā anō i ngā Rēhitatanga Whenua Rohe ngā whenua Māori puta noa. Ka whakataua hoki kia riro ngā whakawākanga o aua kōti ki ngā kōti matawhānui, ā, ko ngā whakahaere o te whenua; ka riro ki Te Tari Māori me ngā uepū pēnei i te Poari Whenua Māori me ngā Komiti Ārahi Whenua Māori. Ka whakahua te Komihana McCarthy i te whīwhiwhi o te Ture Whenua Māori o 1953, ā, ka tohutohu kia arotake katoatia ngā ture whakahaere take Māori.

Te Ture Whenua Maori 1993

I ngā tau o te tekau tau 1970 ka whai hiranga ake ngā take Māori i ngā tōrangapū o te motu. Nā te huri aro kētanga ki te aukati i ngā hoko whenua Māori ka whakahoutia anō te ture whenua Māori i whakaritea e te Kōmihana McCarthy i te tau 1978. Kāti, ko tōna otinga ko Te Ture Whenua Māori 1993; arā, te ture Māori tuatahi kia whakauru i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kei tōna kupu whakataki ka whakapuakina te hononga o te iwi Māori me te Karauna i tiria i te Tiriti; me te whakaae he taonga tuku iho te whenua nā te Māori. Ka whakatairanga hoki te ture hou i te pupuritanga, te nohonga, te whakawhanaketanga, me te whakamahinga o te whenua Māori hei painga mō ngā whānau me ngā hapū.


The Māori Land Court in the 2000s

Ngā whāinga

Mai i te tau 1993, he tino rerekē atu ngā whakahaere o te Kōti Whenua Māori i ērā o mua. I mua ko tōna pūtake he huhuti ake i ngā whenua o ngā Māori. Heoi inaianei ko ōna whāinga matua:

  • ko te pupuri i te whenua Māori me ngā whenua tūmatawhānui e puritia ana e te Māori
  • ko te whakatairanga i te whakamahinga pai, te whakahaerenga me te whakawhanaketanga o te whenua mō ngā uri whai pānga.

Ka haere katoa ngā tāpaetanga whenua Māori mā te Kōti Whenua Māori tonu. He iti iho te uara pūtea o te whenua Māori nā te āhei noa iho o te hunga tokoiti kia hoko. Ko tōna pūtake kia mau tonu ai ngā whenua Māori i ngā hapū. Kei te kōti anō te mana ki te whakarongo ki ngā kēhi kei raro i te Ture Takutai Moana o te tau 2004, te Ture Whakataunga Take Ahumoana o te tau 2004 me ētahi atu ture.

Ngā puna kōrero o te Kōti Whenua Māori

Kei te Kōti Whenua Māori anō ngā mauranga taitara me ngā mōhiotanga kaipupuri whenua Māori. Kei ngā puka o mua rawa atu tonu ngā kōrero papai mō ngā hunga tumu kōrero, tauira reo Māori, me ngā kairangahau.

Ngā tono noho

Ka whakahau hoki te kōti i ngā tohutohu noho e āhei ai te kaipupuri ki te whakatū kāinga (kia kaua anō e whai i te taitara wehe o te poraka). Me whai whakaaro te kōti ki te tautoko a ētahi atu o ngā kaipupuri; ki te whakamahinga pai rawa mō te whenua me te pānga o te whakahaunga noho ki ētahi atu kaipupuri. He huarahi pai hoki tēnei ki te whakamahi tika i te whenua Māori.

Ngā whakaawenga ki te ao Māori

I roto i te tau ruamano kei te kōti tonu te mana ki ngā āhuatanga pāpori o te ao Māori. Ko ō tātou marae ērā kei ngā whenua rāhui Māori, kāti, ko te kōti tonu te kaiarotake o ngā kaitiakitanga marae. Mō ngā kaitiakitanga whenua me ngā kāporeihana Māori; ko te Kōti Whenua anō te kaiwhakahaere i ngā pupuritanga hea me ngā ngā utu rawa; koia anō ka tono mō ngā kaimātai uara, ngā kaiarotake nama, tae atu ki ngā pūkete pūtea.

Kei te kōti te mana ki te tohutohu i te whai kanohitanga o ngā rōpū Māori. Ka āhei anō tōna tonohia kia tuku kupu āwhina mō ngā māngai Māori pai rawa mō ngā whiriwhiringa kōrero, ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero, ngā tītaringa whenua me ētahi atu take. Kei te kōti whenua anō te mana ki te whakatau ko wai te tangata tika hei kaitiaki mō ngā taonga tūturu ka kitea ake i ēnei rā.

Nā runga anō i te maha o Ngāi Māori e noho manene ana, ko te Kōti Whenua Māori tētahi pūtahi whakahirahira rawa atu ki te iwi Māori.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Mere Whaanga, 'Te Kōti Whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-koti-whenua/print (accessed 20 September 2019)

Story by Mere Whaanga, published 20 Jun 2012