Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Daily life in Māori communities – te noho a te hapori

by Mark Derby

He mahi kai te mahi nui a te kāinga Māori i ngā wā ō mua. Nō te taenga mai o te Pākehā – ngā kaihorapa whenua, te hunga patu tohorā, ngā mihingare, ā, i muri ko ngā tauhou me ō rātou whānau, ka rerekē te āhua o te noho me ngā mahi o te iwi Māori.


Daily life in traditional communities

Ma wai e moe te tane
Mangere ki te mahi-kai?

He whakataukī tēnei hei tohu i te nui whakaharahara o tēnei mea te mahi kai i ngā wā o mua atu i te rautau 1800. Ko te kai te oranga o te tangata, mai i te ūnga o ngā waka i Hawaiki i te rautau 1200.  Nā reira ka pau atu ngā tāngata ki te whakatipu, ki te kato, ki te aruaru kai mā te iwi. Nā whai anō i mahi ai te tangata i te ao i te pō.

Ngā karakia i te whitinga o te rā

Ki ētahi iwi ko te mahi tuatahi he whakamoemiti i te whitinga ake o te rā. I te tau 1805 ka kite te kaipoka tinana a John Savage i ngā iwi o Pēwhairangi e karakia moata ana, ā, ka hora ngā ringa, ka tuohu ngā māhunga me te ‘harakoa o te kanohi, e whakaatu ana i te ngākau whakaiti.’1 I tēnei wā ka waiata i runga i te koa me te aiō.

Ngā marama tūturu

He mea whakarōpū e te Māori ngā kaupeka o te tau; ka whai tikanga hoki ngā ingoa wāhanga o te tau. Tekau noa iho ngā marama a ētahi iwi. Ko te tuangahuru o ngā marama (i te Pēpuere-Maehe) nei ko Poutū-terangi. Kāore he mahi nui i ngā huringa marama e rua whai i muri, nā reira kāre he ingoa motuhake mō aua marama. Nā te pukahu o te kai i tēnei wāhanga o te tau, kua whakawhanaunga, kua kai, kua tākaro, kua moemoe.

Ngā mahitahi a te hapori

I muri ka haere ngā mahi ngaki i ngā māra, ngā mahi hī ika, kohi mātaitai rānei. Ka aruarungia te moa (i ngā wā o te moa ki Aotearoa) me ētahi manu anō, kēkeno hoki. Ko te kai tuatahi o te rā, nō te 10, nō te 11 o ngā haora i te ata. I muri, ka tīmata anō ngā mahi me ngā waiata kia tapatahi ai ngā mahi, pērā i te mahi keri.

Ngā tūranga mahi

Mahi ai ngā rangatira i te taha o te iwi.  He whakataukī tonu te pūkenga, me te whai hihiri o ā rātou mahi. Ko ētahi rangatira he ringa rehe ki ngā mahi whakairo, tā moko, whatu korowai rānei. Ka mahi tahi hoki ngā tamariki i te taha o ngā mātua kia pai ai te tāwhai i ngā mahi pakeke. Ka whai wāhi anō ngā kaumātua ki te tapitapi i ngā kupenga, ki te kauorooro rānei i ngā whao me ngā taonga pounamu.

Te kai aruhe

I te tau 1771 ka kite te heramana Wīwī i ētahi Māori e kai ana i te aruhe. ‘He roa rātou e kai ana; inā hoki he mahi uaua te whakarite i te aruhe hei kai…He hatekēhi te kite i ngā tāngata tekau mā rima, tāne mai, wāhine mai, tamariki mai e whakatatae ana ki te toro i ngā aruhe ki roro i te ahi, ki te tukituki me te ngangau i ngā aruhe.'2

Te whakarite mō te pō

Nō te tōnga haeretanga o te rā, ka hoki haere te iwi ki te kāinga. Ko te wai, te wāhie me ngā kai he mea kawe mai e te hunga wāhine e ngā hapai ō rānei – kore rawa ēnei mahi i te hunga rangatira. Mā te rangatira anō e tohatoha ngā kai ki te hunga kāinga, he ika, he huahua, he aha atu rānei. I taua wā anō ka tahuna ngā umu me ngā ahi mō te tunu kai. Koirā i kīa tēnei wāhanga o te rā ko te ahiahi.

I muri i te kai

I te roanga o te pō kua tākaro, kua whakawhiti kōrero ngā reanga katoa. I konei kua tukuna ngā tamariki kia whakarongo ki ngā kōrero a ngā rangatira o te marae. I ētahi anō wāhi, ka tuku karakia i te tōnga o te rā, ā, ka waiatatia ngā waiata, ka tākina hoki ngā kōrero takutaku ahi. Pō noa, kua moe. Atu i ētahi mahi aruaru, hī ika rānei, kāore i pai te mahi i te pō, i te mea e haere ana ngā wairua i te pōuri.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Anne Salmond, Between worlds: early exchanges between Maori and Europeans, 17731815. Auckland: Viking, 1997, wh. 335. Back
    • I takoto ki Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 16421772. Auckland: Viking, 1991, wh. 410. Back

Changes in daily life after European arrival

Ngā kawenga o Tauiwi

Ka huri te ao i te taunga mai o ngā taonga o te ao hou, pērā i te poaka, te rīwai me ngā hangarau hou o ngā whao rino me ngā pū. Nā ēnei momo āhuatanga hou ka rerekē tonu atu ngā momo mahi a te whānau Māori ia rā, ia rā, ā, mohoa noa nei.

Te rerekē haere o ngā āhuatanga o te mahi

Ka tīmata te taetae mai o ngā kaipuke ka huri te mahi harakeke, mahi papa rākau hoki mō te hoko atu ki ngā kaipuke nunui. Ka whakatipuria te rīwai hei hoko. He rite tonu te mahi ohu o ngā tāngata o ngā hapū maha, nā konā i āhua ngaro ai ngā whakaritenga mahi rapu kai, i ōna wāhanga o te tau, o te ao kōhatu.

Ngā rautaki pakanga hou

Ko tētahi o ngā whāinga o te hoko atu i ēnei hua ki te Pākehā ko te hoko pū. Ko te pakanga te umanga nui i tērā wā, arā, i te kakenga o te taupori me ngā taupatupatu mahinga kai. Hāunga ia ngā patu ka mauria e rātou, he iti noa iho ngā ō ka haria i te wā o te pakanga. I ngā pakanga i mua i te taenga mai o te pū, he iti iho ngā taotū, ā, ka āhei anō te whawhai i te ngahuru, i muri i te hauhake, i te wā kāore e nui te mahi kai.

He tino pai te rīwai, ina hoki rā he māmā ki te whakatipu, ā, heria ai hei kai mā ngā ope taua i te haere. I ētahi wā e hia marama rātou e ngaro ana i te wā kāinga. Kia nui haere ngā pū e mauria ana e ngā taua, kātahi ka nui haere ngā mate. Ka whakarerekēhia ngā pā kia rite mō ngā ope taua mau pū. Nō konei ka huri anō te āhua noho a te iwi me ngā mahi o ia rā.

Ngā mahi kawe ngākau a te hunga mihingare

Ka roa te wā, kātahi anō te Māori ka tahuri ki te Whakapono Hou, ā, ka whakarērea ngā karakia ki ngā atua o te ao tawhito. Ka akona rātou e te hunga mihingare ki te pānui me te tuhi. He mahi tino pārekareka te pānui pukapuka i ngā pā o mua, ki ngā tāngata o te pā. He mea akiaki ngā tamariki kia haere ki te kura, ā, ka whakangungua rātou ki ngā mātauranga o te ao hou.

He tamarikitanga kāore i rerekē

I tipu ake te kaimātai momo tangata a Patuone Hōhepa ki Waimā, takiwā ki Hokianga. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1960 ka rangahau ia i tana kaupapa mātauranga ki reira. Ka kite ia kāore ētahi mahi i tino rerekē. ‘Ko te awa te tino wahi o ngā tamariki ki te kaukau, te rapu tuna me te whiu kōhatu. He tūrangahakoa hoki ngā hiwi me te ngahere mō ngā mahi horapa, pupuhi nanekoti, rapu kai, me te hopu koura, taraute hoki.’1

Te hoki ki ngā tikanga o mua

I muri mai i ngā pakanga a te kāwanatanga me ngā iwi Māori i te wāhanga tuarua o te rautau 1800, ka kaha ake ngā mahi pāhekoheko i waenganui i ngā kāinga Māori me Tauiwi. Kua tīmata te tahuri o ngā kāinga Pākehā ki te whai utu mahi. Hāunga ētahi iwi i whawhai ki te kāwanatanga; ka hoki anō rātou ki ngā tikanga o mua. Nā te hāhi Pai Mārire i whakahoki ngā karakia moata me ngā karakia o te ahiahipō. Kīhai te nuinga o ngā tamariki o ēnei pā i tae ki ngā kura mīhana, ā, ka ākona noa iho ki ngā mahi ā-ringa. Ahakoa kua whakarērea ngā kākahu Māori (i ngā rā whai ahurea anake ka mau ki ngā kākahu Māori), me te nanao atu ki ngā toki, hāwara me ngā umu a te Pākehā; ka noho tonu te āhua noho a te Māori ki ngā taiwhenua. 

Te noho a te hapori ki ngā taiwhenua

I te tau 1900 e 98 ōrau o te iwi Māori kei ngā taiwhenua e noho ana. Ko te mahi a te iwi o Paritū ki Hauraki, he whakatipu  huarākau, huawhenua me ngā kararehe a te Pākehā hei oranga, tāpiri atu ki ngā mahi hī ika. Ka whakarērea te mahi tahi i roto i ngā māra, ā, ka haere ki ngā mahi keri kāpia, mira, maina, pāmu me ngā mahi kaunihera. Ahakoa i haere ētahi tamariki ki te kura, me te whai wāhi ki ngā tākuta Pākehā, e kaha tonu ana te mahi a ngā tohunga. Ka mau ētahi ki te Whakapono Hou me ngā atua Māori. Ko te marae tonu te pūtahi nui a te iwi – i reira kitea ai te whaikōrero, te manaakitanga, te kōrero whenua, te haka me te waiata. Ko te tangihanga te āhuatanga whai hiranga ka tū ki runga marae. 

Ngā hapori miraka kau

I te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 ka kaha ake te whai a te Māori i ngā āhuatanga Pākehā, ā, ka kai anō rātou i te poupoutanga o te rā. I ngā pāmu miraka kau o Waimā ki Hokianga, ka whāia ngā huringa marama o ngā pāmu a te Pākehā. Itiiti rawa te rangatahi ka tomo ki te kura tuarua. I ngā pō wātea ka taki puta ki ngā pikitia, ki ngā karapu taiohi me ngā kanikani. Ko ngā tākaro papai he tēnehi, he haki, he pāhiketepōro me te whutupōro i te Hātarei.

I runga i te whai utu mahi ka waimeha haere te mahi tahi o te hapori, ā, pūehu noa ana ngā marae. Ahakoa rā, ko te nuinga he noho pātata ki ngā whānau, ngā marae me te urupā.

Footnotes
    • P. W. Hōhepa, A Maori community in Northland. Wellington: A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1970, p. 87–88 (originally published in 1964). Back

Daily life in modern Māori communities

Te pānga o te noho tāone

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka maunu atu te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone. He ōrite te kaha o tēnei rerekētanga noho ki tērā o te rautau i mua. Nō konā i pātata ake ai te noho a te Māori me te Pākehā. Ko te hiahia o te iwi Pākehā kia tahuri wawe mai te Māori ki ngā tikanga noho me ngā āhuatanga o tauiwi, me te waiho i āna ki tahaki.

Te tikanga o te whai utu mahi

Ko te kaupapa matua o te heke a te Māori ki ngā tāone he noho hei kaimahi i ngā whare patu mīti me ngā ahumahi hou. Nō konei ka whakarērea ngā mahi a ngā tīpuna me ngā tikanga noho, ā, ka tahuri ki te mahi mō te waru hāora ia rā; te taima me te hāwhe, me ngā pō whakangahau inu pia.

Te noho ki Murupara

I te tau 1953 ka tū te rangahau ki te tāone mira rākau o Murupara. E ai ki tētahi tangata, ‘Tō ana te rā, kāore e nui ngā mahi ki konei … e rua taima i te wiki ka whakaaturia ngā pikitia. I ngā rangi whakangā ko ngā hākinakina … ngā haerenga ki te tāone, ki tātahi ki te rapu kaimoana, ki ngā tauomaoma hōiho … me ngā mahi aruaru, hī ika hoki … He pahupahu ki ngā wāhi hui ngā mahi pārekareka … Hei ngā rangi whakangā kua taki haurangi, kua inu pia.’1

Ngā āhuatanga hou o te ao

Ahakoa te rahi o ngā whare kāwanatanga ka hangaia mō ngā Māori, kīhai i whai whakaaro ki ngā rerekētanga o te ahurea Māori i te hanganga o aua whare, pērā i te noho ā-whānau a te Māori. I ētahi wā ka hua mai ko te noho apiapi, me te whawhai ki ngā whare pātata. I ngā rā whakangā ka hoki ētahi ki te toutou i te ahi o te wā kāinga; ko ētahi ka haere ki te tiki kaimoana i te takutai.

Ngā pānga ki ngā hapori

Ka kite ngā kaumātua o te wā kāinga kua kore katoa ngā rangatahi hei hiki i ngā mahi o te marae. Nō konei ka tāmate haere te rangatiratanga o runga i ngā marae. Ka ngaro i konei te kaha o aua rangatira i runga i ō rātou marae. Tae rawa ake ki te tāone, kua wehe kē te Māori i ōna hapū ake, i ōna marae ake, kua noho tahi ki ngā Māori o iwi kē, ā, ka ngaro te tuakiri o te tangata. Kīhai rawa ētahi i pai ki ngā takahuringa o te ao, ā, ka takaware ki te pia, ki te tarutaru, ki te koremahi, ki te herehere me te wairangi. Ko ētahi ka taka ki roto i ngā kēnge, ā, ko ēnei rōpū te whānau, te hapū mō rātou.

Te hanga hou i ngā tikanga noho

Mai i te tekau tau 1960 ka tipu ake ngā marae me ngā kōhanga reo i ngā tāone ki te āwhina i te noho a te Māori ki roto ki te ao hurihuri, iti nei te aronga ki ngā tikanga Māori. He rangatahi, he ihumanea hoki ngā kaiārahi o ēnei hapori Māori, ā, i ētahi wā he mātau ake ki ngā mātauranga o ngā kura me ngā whare wānanga, tēnā i ō rātou kaumātua. Nā rātou hoki i kakari kia whiwhi te Māori i ētahi rā whakatārewa mō ngā tangihanga kia taea ai e rātou te tangi ki ō rātou whanaunga i te wā e tika ana.

Te pōwhiri me te rāhui

Tae noa mai ki te tau ruamano, e noho tata ana te nuinga o te iwi Māori me tauiwi; ko rāua rāua. Engari kei te mau tonu ētahi tikanga tūturu a te Māori, te whanaungatanga, te manaaki tangata, te piri ki te reo, ki te whakapapa, me ngā mahi o te marae. Kei te ora tonu te tangihanga i ngā wā e hinga ai te tangata. Ko te pōwhiri tērā, ko te tā moko tērā, ko te mau rākau tērā, ko ngā pūoro ērā ka noho hei whakamīharotanga tonu mā te Māori, me tauiwi anō hoki.

He huhua ngā tohu o te taiao kua hoki anō ki te tikanga Māori, ā, ko ētahi kua whakatapua. Ina toremi he tangata i te wai, ka āhei te Māori te whakatau rāhui, ki te whakakore rānei i ngā mahi hī ika. Ka noho tēnei hei tauira ki te ao Māori ka taea ngā tikanga o nehe te kawe, te whakarauora, te whakahāngai hoki ki ngā whakatipuranga kei te heke mai.

Footnotes
    • James E. Ritchie, The making of a Maori: a case study of a changing community. Wellington: Reed, 1963, p. 79–80. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Mark Derby, 'Te noho a te hapori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-noho-a-te-hapori/print (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Mark Derby, published 5 Sep 2013