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Māori creation traditions

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā tōpūtanga tāngata āna kōrero, whakamārama mō te orokohanga o te ao. He pērā ā te Māori. Ko ngā kōrero whakahirahira ka kōrero mō te pō ka awatea, mō te kore ka auaha, te wehenga o te rangi me te whenua, me te puta o ngā koiora ki te ao. Mā te tuku i ngā kōrero i roto i ngā whakatipuranga, ka kitea e orokohanga tonu ana te ao hurihuri nei i a ia anō.


Common threads in creation stories

Kei ngā iwi katoa o te ao he kōrero mō te orokohanga o te ao. Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi āna kōrero, whakamārama mō te orokohanga o te ao e hāngai tonu ana ki a rātou i tēnei ao hurihuri. He maha ngā āhua o ēnei kōrero, kei te ao pūtaiao, kei ngā mahi toi me ngā pūrākau.

He ataata ngā pūrākau mō te koiora me te orokohanga o te ao. I ngā rā onamata ko ngā pūrākau mō te orokohanga ngā whakamārama i whakaponotia e te tangata. I tēnā me tēnā hapori āna anō kōrero mō te takenga mai o te koiora, te āhua o te tangata, te taiao, me te hanganga o te ao. Ahakoa ahurei ngā kōrero a te Māori, taea ai te tiro whānui ki ngā kōrero puta i te ao.

Ngā kaupapa i ngā pūrākau a te Māori mō te orokohanga o te ao

He rite ngā kaupapa kei ngā kōrero a ngā iwi Māori mō te orokohanga o te ao. Ko ētahi o ēnei ko:

  • te whanaketanga o te kore ki te pō, ki te ao mārama
  • te wehenga o Rangi rāua ko Papa
  • ngā mahi a ngā atua ki te whakairo i te ao tūroa.

Atu i ngā kōrero nei, he rerekē te nuinga o ngā kōrero a ngā iwi mō te orokohanga, tae rawa ake ki a Io.

Te pōuri me te mārama

Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero a ngā iwi ka hoki ki Te Kore, Te Pō, me Te Ao. Kei ia iwi āna ake whakamārama mō te whanaketanga o te ao. I te nuinga o te wā mā te whakapapa ngā korikoringa e whakatakoto, pēnei i te tātaitanga o te whakapapa, ka whānau mai tētahi ao i tētahi atu. E whai ake nei ko te tauira a Hūkiki Te Ahukaramu rangatira o Ngāti Raukawa i te rau tau 1800 mō te whakapaparanga mai o te pō tae ki te māramatanga:

Te Pō
Te Ata
Te Ao
Te Ao-tū-roa
Te Ao Mārama.

Ko te tauira nei nā Te Ahukaramū e whai ana i te whakapapa mai i te kore ki te whakatinanatanga:

Aituā
Te Kore
Te Mangu
Rangipōtiki.

Te wehenga o Rangi rāua ko Papa

Kōrero ai te nuinga o ngā pūrākau mō te auahatanga mai o te ao. Kei te karaipiture e mea ana, nā te Atua te ao i hanga i roto i ngā rā e whitu. Kei ngā kōrero a te iwi Navajo, ka whānau mai he ao i tētahi atu ao. Ki tā te Māori, ko te wehenga o Rangi rāua ko Papa te mahi nui i te orokohanga mai ai te ao.

Ka tīmata ngā kōrero a te Māori mō te orokohanga o te ao i te kore, i te pō, kia whānau mai ko Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku. I te tuatahi e piri tahi ana a Rangi rāua ko Papa, ka whānau mai ā rāua tamariki ki waenganui i a rāua. Heoi nō tā rāua wehenga e ā rāua tamariki, ka uru mai te mārama ki te ao. Nā reira nā ngā mahi a ngā tamariki kia wehe i ō rātou mātua ka uru mai te mārama ki roto i te pō, ka puta ko te ao mārama.

Te pūtake o te ao tūroa

Ka whakamārama te pūrākau i te āhuatanga i tū ai ngā tamariki hei atua o te ao tūroa. Hei tauira, ko Tāne te atua o te ngahere, ko Tangaroa, te atua o te moana, ko Rūaumoko te atua o te rū, ko Tawhirimatea te atua o te hau me te āhuarangi. Mā te kōtuitui i ngā kōrero mō ngā atua ki roto i ngā whakapapa, ka whakamārama te Māori i tōna ao me tōna hanganga.


Different creation traditions

Ngā kōrero a ngā iwi mō te orokohanga

He rerekē ngā kōrero a ia iwi mō ngā whakapaparanga e toru o te orokohanga mai – te putanga o te mārama i te kore me te pō, te wehenga o Rangi rāua ko Papa me te auahatanga i te ao tūroa. Kei ētahi kōrero nā te marama ngā tamariki i akiaki kia wehe i ō rātou mātua; kei ētahi atu nā Tamanuiterā kē. Arā anō te kōrero i poua i tokona e Tāne te rangi ki runga; kei ētahi ka takoto a Tāne ki raro, kātahi ka whana i a Rangi ki runga me ōna waewae.

Ngā kōrero mō Io

Pouaka kaupapa: te ao nui mārama

He wāhanga tēnei o te karakia a Te Kohuroa o Rongoroa mō ngā mātauranga ao nui mārama:

Nā te kune te pupuke
Nā te pupuke te hihiri
Nā te hihiri te mahara
Nā te mahara te hinengaro
Nā te hinengaro te manako
Ka hua te wānanga. 1

Ko tētahi o ngā rerekētanga nui a ngā iwi Māori mō te orokohanga, ko ngā kōrero mō Io. Ka nui ngā tautohe mō Io, nā te kore kōrero mōna i roto i ngā tuhituhinga tōmua. Me kī, nō te paunga o te rau tau 1800 kātahi anō ka puta he kōrero mō Io. He wāhanga nui tō te putanga o te pukapuka a Te Mete (S. Percy Smith) mō Io, The Esoteric lore of the whare wananga (1913) i roto i ngā kōrero mō Io. Kei te pukapuka nei ngā whakamārama whānui tuatahi mō Io. Kei ētahi te kōrero, he tino tapu rawa atu ngā kōrero mō Io, ā, kia huraina rā anō e Te Mete ngā kōrero, kātahi ka whānui te mōhio mōna. Heoi, ka tītaha te titiro a te tini ki a Te Mete me ngā tāngata whāngai kōrero ki a ia – a Te Whatahoro Jury, a Nēpia Pōhūhū, a Te Mātorohanga, nō Wairarapa katoa rātou. Heoi, ka aro ngā rangatira Māori o te rau tau 1800 me ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900 ki ngā kōrero mō Io. He kōrero tā tēnā iwi, tā tēnā iwi mō Io.

Ngā whakapapa tawhito

Ka tātai whakapapa ētahi iwi hei whakamārama i te auaha haere o te ao. E whai ake nei tētahi whakapapa nā Māori Marsden o Te Tai Tokerau, e kōrero ana mō ngā momo tipu. Ko tētahi ka kōrero mō te kahu kākano.

Te Pū
Te Weu
Te More
Te Aka
Te Rea.

Ka tātai tēnei whakapapa i te tipu o te hiringa:

Te Rapunga
Te Whāinga
Te Kukune
Te Pupuke
Te Hihiri.

Ka tātai tēnei whakapapa i te mātauranga:

Te Mahara
Te Hinengaro
Te Whakaaro
Te Whē
Te Wānanga.

Koinei te whakapapa mō te ātea me te wā i mua i a Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku:

Te Hauora
Te Ātāmai
Te Āhua

Ātea.

Ehara i te mea kei te whakamārama ngā whakapapa nei i tētahi mahinga orokohanga taketake, engari he huarahi whakamārama i te āhua o te koiora mutunga kore.

Footnotes
  1. Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Auckland: Viking, 1991, pp. 171–72. › Back

Creation and the Māori world view

Hei ētahi wā, nā te kaha o ngā kōrero tuku iho mō te orokohanga, ka pā a ia ki ngā āhuatanga katoa o te koiora. Mā konei ka whakaputahia ngā kōrero taketake o te tikanga ki roto i āna tikanga, mahi katoa. He maha ngā āhuatanga o te noho a te Māori ka puta i ngā whakamārama mō te orokohanga o te ao.

He tauira whanonga

Mā ngā kōrero mō te orokohanga tuwhera ai tētahi tirohanga ki te ao. Ka kōrero ngā pūrākau nei mō ētahi tipua me ā rātou mahinga nui whakahirahira ki te ao nei. Nā reira tū ana ngā kōrero nei hei whanonga hei whai mā te tangata. Nā tana hopu i te rā, tana heke ki Rarohenga me tana hī ake i te motu, ka tū a Māui hei tauira mō ngā āheinga a te tangata kotahi ki te mahi i ngā mahi nui me te whanake i tōna iwi. He tauira ngā kōrero mō te kakenga a Tāne ki te rangi ngahuru mā rua ki te tiki i ngā kete o te wānanga, mō te whai a te tangata i te mōhio me te māramatanga.

Te orokohanga me ngā kōrero tuku iho

He maha ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori ka tiki atu i ngā tohu o te whakawhānau, te tipu o te rākau, te mahara, te hihiri, tae atu ki te whenua mōmona hei whakaputa i te ariā o te orokohanga mutunga kore nei. Ka mutu kei roto i ngā tohutohu nei tauiratia ai he ao hurihuri, e kore e mutu tana whanake. He ariā nui tēnei o te tirohanga a te Māori ki te ao whānui.

Ko ngā pūrākau ngā kōrero mō te āhua o te ao nei. Mā te hoki atu, hoki atu ki aua kōrero ka mau. Hei ngā wā whakahuatia ai ngā whakapapa me ngā pūrākau, ka hangaia hōutia anō te ao.

Ko ngā atua o te ao tūroa, pērā i a Haumia-tiketike, ka tātaia ki roto i ngā whakapapa tūhono i te tangata ki tōna taiao.

Te kawa o te pōwhiri

Pouaka Kaupapa: Te aonga ake o ao

Hei te ata hāpara whakatuwheratia ai te whare whakairo, hei tohu maumahara ki te hangatanga o te ao i te wehenga o Rangi rāua ko Papa. Ka tākiri mai te rā, he tohu ki te orokohanga o te ao mārama.

Mō te maha o ngā iwi, ko ngā pūrākau te tūāpapa o ā rātou kawa. Taketake mai ai te pōwhiri i ngā kōrero a te mäori mō te orokohanga o te ao. Tū ai te pōhiri ki runga marae. Ka whakaeke te tira mai i te Pō ki Te Ao Mārama. Ko Te Ao Mārama tēnei, ko tōna whakatinanatanga, ko te whare whakairo. Ko Ranginui te tuanui, ko Papatuanuku te papa. Ko ngā pou o te whare ka tohu ki ērā pou i tokona e Tāne hei whakawehe i a Rangi rāua ko Papa. Ko te pare i runga i te kūaha he tohu mō Hine, te kaitiaki o te ao i waenganui i te pō me te ao, te pouri me te māramatanga. Nā reira, he tikanga te pōwhiri ka ārahi i te tangata mai i tētahi ao, ki tētahi atu. Mā konei ka hangaia houhia anō te orokohanga o te ao.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Te orokohanga mai o te ao', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-orokohanga-mai-o-te-ao/print (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, published 8 Feb 2005