Kōrero: Te reo Māori

I te tau 1986 ka puta te whakatau a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i mea ai, he taonga te reo Māori, ā, nō te tau i muri mai ka whakamanatia te reo hei reo ōkawa o Aotearoa. Ko ētahi o ngā kaupapa whakatairanga i te reo i puea ake ko ngā kura kaupapa Māori, ko ngā kōhanga reo, tae rawa iho ki ngā reo irirangi Māori me ngā kaupapa whakaatangia ai i te pouaka whakaata.

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane
Te āhua nui: Ko Hēmi Pōtatau me ngā akonga o Te Kura o Mt Cook , me tā rātou pitihana mō tētahi whakaata irirangi Māori, 1978

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ko te reo Māori te reo o te iwi Māori o Aotearoa. Nō te tau 1987 ka whakamanahia te reo hei reo mana i raro i te ture. E ai ki ngā tatauranga o te tau 2013, 21.3% ngā tāngata Māori me te 3.7% o te taupori nui o Aoteroa ka mōhio ki te kōrero Māori.

Ko te reo Māori taketake he reo nō Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, he pekanga o te whānau reo e kīia nei he Austronesian. E toru ngā mita matua - tērā o te taha rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui, tērā o te taha uru o Te Ika-a-Māui, me te mita mai i Te Wai Pounamu.

Ngā Pākehā tōmua ki te reo

Me matua ako i te reo ngā Pākehā tōmua ki Aotearoa; ko ētahi ka moe wāhine Māori ka whānau mai ā rāua tamariki ka mōhio ki te kōrero i ngā reo e rua.

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ehara te reo Māori i te reo tuhituhi. Heoi, he rerekē te tuhi a tēnā, a tēnā i te reo. Nāwai ā, mai i ngā tau 1820 ka tīmata te whakatikatika, te whakariterite i te tuhituhi i te reo. Nō te tau 1844 ka puta te papakupu a Te Wiremu (William Williams). Nō te tahuritanga o te Pākehā ki te hokohoko whenua, he mea nui ia kia matatau ki te tuhi i te reo Māori. Ka whakapākehātia e ngā mihinare te Paipera Tapu hei pānuitanga mā ngā apataki Māori.

Ka horapa te reo Ingarihi

Ka nui haere, ka nui haere ngā Pākehā, ka nui atu te hunga kōrero Pākehā; engari anō ngā kāinga Māori, ko te nuinga rawa atu he kāinga kōrero Māori. Nō te paunga o te rau tau 1800, ka tīmata te whakamārama ā-tuhi i ngā ture kāwana ka hāngai pū ki te Māori ki te reo Māori; tohungia ai he kaiwhakamāori ā-waha ki te Pāremata.

I te tīmatanga, ko te reo Māori te reo ako ki ngā kura o ngā mihinare; heoi, mai i te tau 1847 ka puta te whakatau i mea ai kia noho ko te reo Ingarihi anake te reo ako. I te rau tau o 1800 ka tīmata te tuhi o ngā tikanga me ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā tūpuna, ā, ka maranga ngā nūpepa Māori.

Te paheketanga o te reo

Tae rawa ake ki te tōmuatanga o te rau tau 1900, kua tokomaha ngā Māori matatau ki te kōrero i te reo Pākehā. I roto i te rau tau 1900 ka hāpaitia te reo Pākehā hei reo ako i ngā kura; tāpiri atu ko te tini toa Māori i hinga ki ngā pakanga o te ao; me te hūnuku a te tini mano Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai. Nāwai ā, ka noho ko te reo Ingarihi te reo whitiwhiti kōrero i ngā kāinga o ngā Māori, i te mea kei te tirohia te reo Ingarihi anō ko te reo e puta ai te ihu o te tangata Māori ki te ao hurihuri.

Ngā nekehanga ā, mohoa nei

Tae ana ki te tōmuritanga o te rau atu i 1900 ka whakatūria e ngā whare wānanga he akomanga mō ngā take Māori. I taua wā anō ka tahuri ētahi o ngā ākonga ki ngā take o te wā, arā, mō te whenua kei te ngaro, mō te reo kei te mimiti. I te tau 1972 ka takoto he pitihana i mea ai kia ākona te reo Māori ki ngā kura; e 30,000 te tini tāngata i haina i taua pitihana.

I te tekau tau atu i te tau 1970, ka tīmata ētahi kura tuarua ki te ako i te reo Māori. Mai i te tau 1982 ka tū ake ko ngā kōhanga reo, ka whai ake ngā kura kaupapa me ngā wharekura reo Māori.

Mai te tau 1987 kua tū ngā reo irirangi Māori. Ka whakatūria a Pouaka Whakaata Māori i te tau 2004, nō te tau 2008 ko te whakaterenga o te hongere e karangatia nei ko Te Reo.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, 'Te reo Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-reo-maori (accessed 10 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 5 Sep 2013, updated 1 Sep 2015