Kōrero: Te tango whenua

He maha ngā take i riro atu ai ngā whenua o te Maori. I hokona he whenua ki te kāwanatanga me ētahi atu kaihoko. He tino iti te utu mō ēnei whenua. I raupatungia ngā whenua o te Māori whai muri i ngā pakanga o Aotearoa hei aha, hei whakanoho i ngā Pākehā tauhou. Ka tahuri te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakataka i ngā whenua Māori ki raro i ngā tikanga pupuri whenua a te Pākehā. Nā tēnei mahi ka nui atu ngā whenua i riro.

Story by Richard Boast
Te āhua nui: Te hoko atu o Wairarapa ki te Karauna

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā tauwhitiwhitinga whenua tōmua

I te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, ka whakaae te Māori kia whakamahia ētahi o ō rātou whenua hei whakatū mīhana, hei tauranga waka, hei poro rākau. Ka tuku whenua ētahi rangatira ki ngā Pākehā i moe wāhine Māori.

Ka whiriwhiri te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni me ētahi rangatira Māori mō ētahi whenua hei whakanoho i ngā tāngata Pākehā.

Nō te ūnga o te mana o Ingarangi ki runga i a Aotearoa i te tau 1840, ka aru te kāwanatanga i te tika o ngā hokonga whenua.

Te hoko whenua ki te kāwanatanga

Atu i te tau 1840 ki te tau 1865, me hoko te Māori i ōna whenua ki te kāwanatanga anake. I whakahaua ngā rangatira kia hokona ō rātou whenua mō te moni iti noa. Whāia, e 66% o ngā whenua o Aotearoa i hokona e te kāwanatanga – tata ki te katoa o Te Wai Pounamu me te nui o ngā whenua i Te Ika-a-Māui. Nō muri ka hokona e te kāwanatanga ngā whenua ki ngā tāngata whai Pākehā.

Raupatu

Whai muri i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, he nui ngā whenua o te Māori i raupatungia. I te tīmatanga ka raupatungia ngā whenua o ngā iwi whakakeke. Nāwai ā, ka tangohia ngā whenua o iwi kē.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori hei whakatau i ngā taitara whenua Māori. Heoi, ka tipu te raruraru:

  • he tikanga kai i ngā moni a te Māori. Me utu te Māori mō te rūri i ngā whenua, tae atu ki ngā kai me tētahi wāhi noho i te tāone i ngā wā ka hui te kōti
  • ina whakataungia ngā taitara whenua, he māmā te hoko noa atu i ngā whenua Māori. He nui ngā whenua i riro i te kōti
  • he uaua te whakahaere i ngā whenua Māori, nā te maha o ngā tāngata i te whenua kotahi. Ka taka iho ki ngā uri, kātahi ka uaua rawa atu te whakahaere i te whenua Māori.

Te rau tau 1900

Ka haere tonu ngā hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga, ā, tae noa ki te tekau tau atu i 1920. Tangohia ai ngā whenua o te Māori hei hanga taunga waka rererangi, wharekura, aha atu. Atu i te tekau tau 1950, me hoko te tangata Māori i āna hea i ngā whenua paku iho i te e £25 te uara.

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

Nō te tau 1975 ka whakatūria te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei aha, hei aromātai i ngā takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Waihoki, nō te tau 1975 ka hīkoi te iwi Māori mai i te hiku o Te Ika-a-Māui ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te whakahē i ngā rironga whenua.

Mai i te tau 1985, i āhei te Taraipiunara te titiro ki ngā kerēme hoki rā anō ki te tau 1840. He maha ngā iwi kua tāpae kerēme mō ngā whenua kua riro. Kua hoki mai ētahi o ngā whenua, pērā i ngā urupā me ngā pā tawhito.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Richard Boast, 'Te tango whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tango-whenua (accessed 18 October 2019)

Story by Richard Boast, published 24 Nov 2008, updated 1 Jul 2015