Kōrero: Te tango whenua

Whārangi 4. Raupatu

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Whai muri i ngā pakanga o tekau tau atu i 1860, he nui ngā whenua o te Māori i raupatungia. Nō te 5 o Mei 1863, ka tuku e Pirimia Alfred Domett he kōrero ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei kia raupatungia ngā whenua o ngā iwi ka whana ki te Pākehā. I te tīmatanga, kāore te raupatu i hōrapa whānui. Nāwai ā, ka nui haere, ka nui haere te whenua ka raupatungia. Kāore he wehewehe i ngā whenua i raupatungia – ka tangohia ngā whenua o ngā iwi whakakeke me ngā iwi kūpapa. Ko te hiahia o te Karauna, ki te whakanoho i ngā tāngata hōia ki runga i aua whenua raupatu.

Nā te Ture mō te Whakanoho i te Hunga Mārie (New Zealand Settlements Act 1863) me āna whakahōunga, ka raupatungia ngā whenua ki te tonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau, ki te riu ki Waikato, ki Tauranga, ki Ōpōtiki me Whakatāne, ki Taranaki, ki Mōhaka-Waikare i Te Matau-a-Māui hoki. I hōrapa anō ngā raupatu whenua ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, heoi, kei raro kē i ture kē.

Ko ngā raupatu i Waikato me Taranaki ngā murunga whenua kaitā rawa. He rerekē te pānga o te raupatu ki tēnā rohe, ki tēnā rohe, heoi, pēhia rawatia ngā iwi o Waikato–Tainui, ngā iwi o Taranaki, a Ngāi Te Rangi ki Tauranga, a Ngāti Awa, a Te Whakatōhea me Ngāi Tūhoe o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi.

Ka hōrapa te raupatu whenua

He rite ngā mahi raupatu i Aotearoa ki ngā mahi raupatu a Peretānia ki ētahi atu whenua, pērā i a Airani i te rau tau atu i 1800 me ngā koroni i te tonga o Āwherika. Ka whakarihariha ngā Māori ki te raupatu whenua, ā, nō te tīmatanga ka whakahē ētahi Pākehā rongonui. I te tau 1863 ka whakaputangia e te Kaiwhakawā Matua o mua e Wiremu Mātene tana tuhinga e kōrero ana mō te hītori o Airani, ‘me te hua kore o te raupatu whenua hei whakamāuru i te taupori.’ Kotahi anake te putanga, arā, ko te ‘pukuriri me te pōuri’.1

He whenua whakahokia

Ehara i te mea ka puritia katoatia e te Karauna ngā whenua raupatu. He nui te whenua i whakahokia, engari kāore i hoki ki ngā tāngata tika. Me te aha, ka hokona e te Karauna ētahi o ngā whenua i ‘hoki’ ki te iwi. He pēnei te mahi ki Tauranga, he nui te whenua i whakahokia ki te iwi, ā, kāore noa iho i roa, ka hokona e ngā rangatira o Ngāi Te Rangi aua whenua ki te Karauna.

Nāwai ā, ka whīwhiwhi ngā korikoringa i ngā whenua raupatu; he nui ngā ture whakahou, ngā pitihana me ngā whakawākanga ki roto o whare kōti. I te tau 1869, kua eke a Te Mākarini hei minita mō ngā take Māori i te kāwanatanga o Fox–Vogel. Ka puta i a ia tana kōrero, he hapa nui te tikanga raupatu a te Karauna.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. William Martin, 'Observations on the proposal to take native lands under an Act of the Assembly', reprinted in Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1864, E-2, pp. 7–8. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Richard Boast, 'Te tango whenua - Raupatu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tango-whenua/page-4 (accessed 12 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Richard Boast, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008, updated 1 Jul 2015