Kōrero: Te tango whenua

Whārangi 6. Ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

He nui ngā raruraru i hua ake i te Ture Whenua Māori me te Kōti Whenua Māori, tae rawa ake ki ngā mahi i Te Matau-a-Māui.

Tekau ngā kaipupuri

Ko tētahi raruraru i ahu mai i te Ture o te tau 1865, ko te ritenga kia kaua e rahi atu i te tekau ngā kaipupuri i te taitara o tētahi pihi whenua. Ko te whakaaro pea ia, ka noho ēnei tāngata tekau hei māngai, hei kaitiaki i ngā pānga o te katoa. Hāunga tērā, ina whiwhi taua kotahi tekau rā i ngā karāti a te Karauna, ka noho ko rātou kē te mana whenua i raro i te ture.

Tokomaha ngā rangatira i Te Matau-a-Māui ka tuku i ō rātou whenua hei hoko taputapu hanga whare, waea taiepa, hikā momi, waipiro, tae rawa atu ki ngā kākahu hutu. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira ka tata toremi i te nui o ā rātou nama. I te tau 1867, ka kōrero te āpiha Kāwanatanga a G. S. Cooper, i whakaaetia, i whakawaia ngā rangatira kia kaha te hoko taputapu, ‘i te mutunga, hei utu i aua nama, kāhore he huringa mō ngā rangatira i tua atu i te hokohoko i ō rātou whenua.’1

He kōmihana whenua

Nā ngā whakakīkī a te Māori me ētahi Pākehā, i te tau 1873 ka whakatūria e te minita mō ngā take Māori e Te Mākarini he kōmihana hei tirotiro i ngā hoko whenua ki Te Matau-a-Māui. Tokorua ngā tāngata Māori, tokorua ngā tāngata Pākehā, ko te Kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Matua ko C. W. Richmond hei heamana. Nāna te pūrongo matua i tuhi, i whakahē i ngā whakapae a ngā Māori mō ngā hoko mūrere a ngā Pākehā i te Matau-a-Māui. Haunga tērā, i takoto ki te pūrongo tana whakahē ki ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Te Ture Whenua Māori 1873

I te tau 1873, i raro i ngā whakahaere a Te Mākarini, ka whakamanatia he Ture Whenua Māori hou me ngā whakarerekētanga. Ko te whakarerekētanga nui ko te tango i te ritenga kia ‘Kotahi tekau ngā kaipupuri’, ka whakanoho i tētahi ritenga hou e mau ai i te kōti ngā ingoa katoa o te hunga whai pānga ki tētahi poraka whenua.

E ai ki te Kaiwhakawā Matua a Fenton, ko te mate ia o te ture o te tau 1873, ‘ka whai kia hua ko te mutunga rawa mai o te tika; mōku nei, kīhai e tutuki i tēnei ao matemate.’2

Waihoki, ka tipu he raruraru i te ture hou. Hei tauira, me uaua te whakahaere i te poraka whenua he tokomaha te hunga whai pānga, ā, ka heke haere i ngā tau ki ngā tamariki, ki ngā mokopuna, kātahi ka uaua rawa atu. Tatū ki ēnei rā, kua tino whīwhiwhi rawa atu tēnei āhuatanga; inarā he manomano te hunga whai pānga ki ētahi poraka whenua Māori.

Ka haere tonu ngā rangahau a te Kōti Whenua Māori i te nui o te whenua, tae rawa ki te tau 1900. Kua oti te nuinga o ngā whenua te rangahau – i tua atu i ngā rohe pērā i Te Urewera, i rāhuitia i raro i ētahi atu hanganga ture.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. G. S. Cooper, ‘Report on the subject of native lands in the province of Hawke’s Bay.’ Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1867, A-15. › Back
  2. ‘Evidence given by Chief Judge Fenton to the Royal Commission on Native Lands and Native Land Tenure.’ Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1891, G-1, p. 47. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Richard Boast, 'Te tango whenua - Ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tango-whenua/page-6 (accessed 12 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Richard Boast, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008, updated 1 Jul 2015