Kōrero: Te tango whenua

Whārangi 9. Te rau tau atu i 1900

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I te tau 1921 ka makere mai a Te Hērihi (W. H. Herries) hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, ka eke ake ko Te Kōti (Gordon Coates). I konei ka iti te whenua Māori ka riro atu. I tipu ake a Te Kōti i waenganui i te iwi Māori i Te Tai Tokerau, ka aroha atu ki te iwi Māori kua riro nei ō rātou whenua. I mahi tahi a Te Kōti rāua ko Āpirana Ngata, te mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Rāwhiti (hāunga te mea he āpitihana a Ngata tae noa ki te tau 1928).

Atu i 1920 ka arotahi te kāwanatanga ki ngā raruraru kei te hua nā te tokomaha rawa atu o te hunga whai pānga ki te whenua Māori. Ka mutu te hokohoko a te kāwanatanga i ngā whenua o te Māori. I te tau 1928, ka eke ko Ngata hei minita mō ngā take Māori; nō te tau o muri mai ka mana he ture hei tuku pūtea taurewa hei whakawhanake i ngā whenua Māori. He maha ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua Māori i te tekau tau atu i 1930, heoi, ko ētahi ka hua, ko ētahi ka hinga.

Ngā mahi nunui

Tangohia ai ngā whenua o te Māori mō ngā mahi nunui, hāunga ngā whenua o ētahi atu. I aua wā, kīhai i kaha te reo o te Māori ki te aroaro o te kāwanatanga ā-rohe, kāwanatanga matua rānei, nā reira hauwarea ake āna tono. I tua atu, nā ngā ritenga ā-ture, he maha ngā wā kāore te Māori i whiwhi i te paku aha mō ōna whenua ka murua. Hei ngā wā ruarua ka whai utunga paremata te tangata Māori, nā te mea he ururua te whenua, kīhai kia ahuahua, iti noa te uara o te paremata ka whiwhia ki a ia.

Ngā huringa

Nāwai ā, ka hua tētahi mate nui i te rapunga o tētahi oranga i te tokomaha rawa atu o te hunga whai pānga ki tētahi pihi whenua. Otirā, i raro i te Ture mō ngā Take Māori i te tau 1953, mehemea kei raro iho i te e rau tekau mā rima pāuna te uara o ngā hea o tētahi Māori, mātua hokona e ia aua hea ki te Kaitiaki Māori, māna aua hea e hoko ki tētahi atu (me kī, ko (t)ētahi atu Māori he nui atu ngā hea i taua pihi whenua).

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka puta te pūrongo a Hunn me te pūrongo a Prichard-Waetford, ka tūtohu kia kaha te whai i te huarahi nei. Hāunga ngā whakahē a te iwi Māori, nō te tau 1967 ka whakamanatia he whakahounga ki te Ture mō ngā Take Māori. Whāia, ka mātua hokona ngā hea whenua kei raro iho i te e $50 te uara ka māmā ai te hoko a te Kaitiaki Māori i aua whenua ki te Karauna. Kāore i atawhaingia tēnei tikanga hou, he kore e aro ki te whenua hei tūrangawaewae mō te Māori, hei aha te arumoni.

Nā te minita mō ngā take Māori a Matiu Rata i hāpai te Ture Whakatikatika 1974 i te Ture mō ngā Take Māori, kia whakakorengia ai te mahi nei. Ko ngā kupu whakamahuki o te Ture Whenua Māori i te tau 1993 e mea ana, ‘He mea pai kia aro ki te whenua anō he taonga tuku iho ki te iwi Māori, nā reira, me ngana kia puritia aua whenua ki ngā ringaringa o te hunga kei a rātou te mana, arā, ngā whānau, ngā hapū, me te tiaki i ngā wāhi tapu.’

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I whakatūria te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975, hei rangahau i ngā takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Heoi, kīhai i āhei te rangahau i ngā kerēme hītori, ka whāiti kē āna mahi ki ngā tohenga a ngā iwi mō ngā whenua i tangohia. I taua tau anō, ko te hīkoi nui mai i Te Rēinga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara mō te whenua te take. Hei whakatairanga i ngā nawe, ka tīmata te nohonoho a ētahi Māori i runga i ngā whenua mautohe, i Takaparawhā me Whāingaroa pea ngā noho mautohe rongonui rawa.

I te tau 1985 ka whai mana te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi kia tirotiro ki ngā take whenua hoki rā anō ki te tau 1840.

Ngā whakataunga a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

Kua takoto ētahi kerēme hītori ki mua i te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko te whenua te take. Kua āhei ki ētahi pihi whenua, pērā i:

  • ngā whenua hokia, tae atu ki ngā wāhi nui pērā i ngā wāhi tapu, ngā urupā, ngā pā tahito
  • ngā nohoanga ka whai tikanga tuku iho
  • te whitiwhiti kōrero me te Karauna kia takoto ai he tikanga mō te haere ki runga i ngā whenua whai mana ki te Māori engari kei raro i te mana o te Karauna
  • te tika ki te hoko i ētahi whenua ka āta tohungia, mai i te Karauna, mō te utu mākete, i roto i tētahi wā ka whakaaetia.
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Richard Boast, 'Te tango whenua - Te rau tau atu i 1900', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tango-whenua/page-9 (accessed 12 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Richard Boast, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008, updated 1 Jul 2015