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Te tango whenua – Māori land alienation

by  Richard Boast

He maha ngā take i riro atu ai ngā whenua o te Maori. I hokona he whenua ki te kāwanatanga me ētahi atu kaihoko. He tino iti te utu mō ēnei whenua. I raupatungia ngā whenua o te Māori whai muri i ngā pakanga o Aotearoa hei aha, hei whakanoho i ngā Pākehā tauhou. Ka tahuri te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakataka i ngā whenua Māori ki raro i ngā tikanga pupuri whenua a te Pākehā. Nā tēnei mahi ka nui atu ngā whenua i riro.


Land tenure and alienation

Te mana Māori me te ture Pākehā

Kapi ai te whenua me te moana i te mana Māori, ka mutu, ehara i te mea kotahi anake te tikanga e riro ai taua mana. Waihoki, ka aro te ture Pākehā ki te mana whenua o te tangata whenua, tae rawa atu ki te wā ka unuhia taua mana e te mana kāwanatanga hou.

Heoi, kīhai i mārama mēnā i hāngai te ture Pākehā ki Aotearoa. Whakapono ai ētahi kaiwhakawā me ngā pūkenga o te ture, i te wā ka tau te mana o te Karauna ki runga o Aotearoa, ka riro ki a ia te mana ki ngā whenua katoa – me kī, ki ngā whenua kīia ai he ‘whenua koraha’. Heoi, ki tā te kāwanatanga, he whenua Māori te katoa o Niu Tīreni, mā te hoko i ngā whenua ka tinei te mana a te Māori, ka taea ai te tuku ki ngā tāngata whai.

Tatū ki ēnei rā ka whakaae ngā kōti o Aotearoa ka whai wāhi ngā tikanga a te Māori e pā ana ki te whenua ki ngā ture o Aotearoa. Ka whai tēnei tirohanga i ngā whanonga o te kāwanatanga mai anō.

Te wehe i te Māori i ōna whenua

He maha ngā tikanga i ngaro ai ngā whenua o te Māori ki te Karauna me te hunga hokohoko. Nā te Karauna i tango te nuinga o ngā whenua, mā te hoko, mā tētahi atu tikanga rānei, whai muri tonu i te whakamanatanga o ngā Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1862 me te tau 1865. Ka whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori hei rangahau i ngā taitara ki ngā whenua Māori.

I tēnei te rau tau 2000, kei te rangahau te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i ngā hokonga whenua tōmua hei aha, hei whakaea i ngā nawe o ngā rā ki mua.


Pre-Treaty transactions

Ngā hokonga tōmua

Nō mua i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka tīmata te hokohoko i ngā whenua o te Māori. Ko ngā mihinare ērā, ko ngā tāngata whai tōmua ērā, ko ngā tāngata kaipakihi o Poihākena ērā, katoa rātou i hoko whenua mai i te Māori. Hei tauira, ko Nōpera Pana-kareao te rangatira o Te Rarawa i ōna rā; i tuku i te 1,000 eka (e 405 heketea) i Kaitāia ki te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare hei whakatū mīhana. He maha ngā mīhana i whakatūria i raro i ēnei tūmomo whakaritenga.

Nā ngā whakaritenga arumoni ka wātea he whenua mō te poro rākau, mō te whakatū tauranga waka rānei. Nāwai, ka moemoe ētahi wāhine Māori ki ngā tāngata whai, ngā kaipatu tohorā me ngā tāngata tauhokohoko; whāia, ka wehea e ngā rangatira Māori he whenua mō ō rātou whānau. Hāunga, he maha tonu ngā hokonga whenua whakapatipati. I ruku hōhonu te hunga kaipakihi o Poihākena ki ngā hokonga whenua me te Māori, i runga pea i te wawata ka whai mana aua hokonga ina whakatūngia te mana o Peretānia.

Te whakaaro Māori ki ngā hoko

I tēnei wā kei te hōrapa tonu te mana Māori ki runga i a Aotearoa. Whāia, ka titiro rātou ki ngā hokonga whenua i runga i te ahurea me ngā tūmanako Māori. Tērā pea ka titiro rātou ki ēnei hokonga whenua anō nei he tikanga tauutuutu, he tikanga whakawhanaunga, kāpā hei ‘hokohoko’ ake. Ka whakaae ētahi rangatira kia noho he Pākehā ki tētahi wāhi hei utu mō ētahi taputapu i whiwhia. Heoi, ki tā te Māori, ehara tēnei i te tuku i te mana ki te whenua, he tuku kē i ētahi tika, ko te mana whenua ka noho ki te Māori.

Te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni

I whakarite te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni i ētahi tāone ki Aotearoa. I mua tata i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, ka kuhu ngā māngai o te kamupene pērā i a William Wakefield, ki ētahi hokonga whenua me ngā Māori i Pōneke (Te Whanganui-a-Tara), i Porirua, i Tōtaranui. I te hoko whenua te Kamupene i tāna kotahi, kīhai te Karauna i tautoko.

Te rangahau i ngā hokonga nō mua i te Tiriti

Whai muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka whakatū te kāwanatanga i ētahi tikanga rangahau i ngā hokonga whenua nō mua i te Tiriti. Ki te tutuki ngā paearu o aua tikanga, ka whiwhi te kaihoko i tētahi taitara mai i te kāwanatanga mō tētahi wāhanga, te katoa rānei o te whenua nā rātou i hoko mai i te Māori.

I whakatūria a William Spain hei kaikōmihana ki te rangahau i ngā hokonga katoa a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. I whakaae a ia ki ētahi hokonga a te kamupene (Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Whakatū), i whakahē a ia ki ētahi atu (Porirua me Te Wairau). Ka whakaaetia ana he hokonga, ka tukua e te kāwana he karāti Karauna ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, kia taea ai te whakatutuki i ngā hokonga i tīmataria me ngā tāngata whai. Kei ngā karāti mō Whakatū me Te Whanganui-a-Tara, i āta wehea ngā mahinga kai, ngā kāinga, ngā tanunga o te Māori. I āhei hoki ngā Māori ki ngā whenua rāhui ‘tekau’, i runga i te titiro a Wakefield kia wehea te tekau ōrau o ngā whenua rūri i ngā tāone o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni mō te Māori.


Crown pre-emption

Ko te nuinga o ngā hokonga whenua a te Karauna i waenganui i ngā tau 1840 me 1865, i raro i te mana hoko, arā, ko te Karauna anake ka āhei te tinei i te mana tuku iho a te Māori ki ōna whenua. Kīhai i whakaaetia te tangata noa kia hoko whenua mai i te Māori. He tikanga tēnei i hōrapa ki ngā koroni katoa o Peretānia, i whakatakotoria ki te Wāhanga Tuarua o te Tiriti o Waitangi, me te tekiona tuarua o te Land Claims Ordinance o te tau 1841.

Ka whakapae ētahi tumu kōrero nā tēnei ture ārahi i āhei ai te kāwanatanga kia hoko i ngā whenua o te Māori mō te iti o te utu, kātahi ka hoko atu ki ngā tāngata whai mō te nui noa atu o te moni, ko ngā moni hua hei āwhina i te haerenga mai o ngā tāngata whai i Peretānia. Heoi, tērā pea i kuhuna te mana hoko a te Karauna, nā te mea koinei te tikanga i whāia ki ngā koroni katoa o Peretānia. I tua atu, i kuhuna te mana hoko a te Karauna ki ngā hokonga whenua, hei tiaki i te Māori i ngā mahi a ngā kaihoko Pākehā.

Ngā hokonga a te Karauna

I tēnei wā ka ‘hokona’ te e 66% o ngā whenua o Aotearoa mai i te Māori. Ko te tikanga ia, ka haina te tangata Māori i tētahi whakaaetanga (he kirimana hoko) kua tuhia ki te reo Ingarihi me te reo Māori. Ka takoto ki te whakaaetanga he whakamārama mō te whenua ka hokona e te Karauna, te rahi o te moni, tae atu ki ngā tika ki ngā whenua rāhui me ngā rawa pērā i ngā tauranga ika. Kapi ai te tini mano eka i ētahi o ēnei whakaaetanga ā-tuhi, ko ētahi mō ngā poraka whenua ririki noa.

Nā tēnei tikanga hoko, tata ki te katoa o Te Wai Pounamu me te nui whenua kei Tāmaki-makau-rau me Te Whanganui-a-Tara i taka ki ngā ringaringa o te kāwanatanga. Nō muri ka tukua aua whenua ki ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe hei hoko ki ngā tāngata whai. Nā ēnei tūmomo whakaaetanga ā-tuhi i waenganui i ngā tau 1844 me 1864, ka riro ngā whenua o Ngāi Tahu o Te Wai Pounamu ki te Karauna. Ko ētahi atu hokonga nui i te tauihu o te waka a Māui, i Porirua, i Te Matau-a-Māui, i Rangitīkei, i Tāmaki-makau-rau, i Te Tai Tokerau.

Ngā putanga o te hoko whenua

Nā ngā kāwana pērā i a Hōri Kerei rāua ko Thomas Gore Brown i whakatakoto ngā kaupapa here mō ēnei hokonga. Ko Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) te tumuaki o te Tari Hokohoko Whenua Māori. Nāna i whakakīkī te tokomaha o ngā rangatira kia hoko whenua ki te kāwanatanga mō te iti o te moni, me tana kī atu ka whai oranga te Māori i te ūnga o te tini tāngata whai.

Kāore pea i mārama ngā Māori ki ngā putanga katoa o te hoko whenua ki te Karauna. Kāore i te tino mārama ngā Māori i ngā rohe pērā i Te Matau-a-Māui mō tēnei mahi te hoko whenua. He rerekē pea te āhua ki ngā takiwā pērā i a Tāmaki-makau-rau, kua taunga kē ngā Māori ki te whakawhitiwhiti me te Pākehā.

Ka hoko ngā Māori i ō rātou whenua ki te kāwanatanga i runga i te mōhio kua rāhuitia he whenua hei nohoanga mō te iwi. Hei ētahi wā, kāore i mārama i ngā whakaaetanga ā-tuhi kei hea aua whenua rāhui, pēhea rānei te rahi. He maha ngā whenua rāhui paku rawa, ururua rawa, kīhai e ora te iwi kāinga. Koinei te mate o ngā whakaaetanga ā-tuhi a te kāwanatanga me Ngāi Tahu, ririki noa ngā whenua rāhui. Ka noho tēnei nawe hei pēhi i a Ngāi Tahu i roto i ngā tau. Nō te whakatutukitanga o ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1998, kātahi anō ka ea tēnei kapua pōuri.


Raupatu – confiscations

Whai muri i ngā pakanga o tekau tau atu i 1860, he nui ngā whenua o te Māori i raupatungia. Nō te 5 o Mei 1863, ka tuku e Pirimia Alfred Domett he kōrero ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei kia raupatungia ngā whenua o ngā iwi ka whana ki te Pākehā. I te tīmatanga, kāore te raupatu i hōrapa whānui. Nāwai ā, ka nui haere, ka nui haere te whenua ka raupatungia. Kāore he wehewehe i ngā whenua i raupatungia – ka tangohia ngā whenua o ngā iwi whakakeke me ngā iwi kūpapa. Ko te hiahia o te Karauna, ki te whakanoho i ngā tāngata hōia ki runga i aua whenua raupatu.

Nā te Ture mō te Whakanoho i te Hunga Mārie (New Zealand Settlements Act 1863) me āna whakahōunga, ka raupatungia ngā whenua ki te tonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau, ki te riu ki Waikato, ki Tauranga, ki Ōpōtiki me Whakatāne, ki Taranaki, ki Mōhaka-Waikare i Te Matau-a-Māui hoki. I hōrapa anō ngā raupatu whenua ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, heoi, kei raro kē i ture kē.

Ko ngā raupatu i Waikato me Taranaki ngā murunga whenua kaitā rawa. He rerekē te pānga o te raupatu ki tēnā rohe, ki tēnā rohe, heoi, pēhia rawatia ngā iwi o Waikato–Tainui, ngā iwi o Taranaki, a Ngāi Te Rangi ki Tauranga, a Ngāti Awa, a Te Whakatōhea me Ngāi Tūhoe o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi.

Ka hōrapa te raupatu whenua

He rite ngā mahi raupatu i Aotearoa ki ngā mahi raupatu a Peretānia ki ētahi atu whenua, pērā i a Airani i te rau tau atu i 1800 me ngā koroni i te tonga o Āwherika. Ka whakarihariha ngā Māori ki te raupatu whenua, ā, nō te tīmatanga ka whakahē ētahi Pākehā rongonui. I te tau 1863 ka whakaputangia e te Kaiwhakawā Matua o mua e Wiremu Mātene tana tuhinga e kōrero ana mō te hītori o Airani, ‘me te hua kore o te raupatu whenua hei whakamāuru i te taupori.’ Kotahi anake te putanga, arā, ko te ‘pukuriri me te pōuri’.1

He whenua whakahokia

Ehara i te mea ka puritia katoatia e te Karauna ngā whenua raupatu. He nui te whenua i whakahokia, engari kāore i hoki ki ngā tāngata tika. Me te aha, ka hokona e te Karauna ētahi o ngā whenua i ‘hoki’ ki te iwi. He pēnei te mahi ki Tauranga, he nui te whenua i whakahokia ki te iwi, ā, kāore noa iho i roa, ka hokona e ngā rangatira o Ngāi Te Rangi aua whenua ki te Karauna.

Nāwai ā, ka whīwhiwhi ngā korikoringa i ngā whenua raupatu; he nui ngā ture whakahou, ngā pitihana me ngā whakawākanga ki roto o whare kōti. I te tau 1869, kua eke a Te Mākarini hei minita mō ngā take Māori i te kāwanatanga o Fox–Vogel. Ka puta i a ia tana kōrero, he hapa nui te tikanga raupatu a te Karauna.

Footnotes
  1. William Martin, 'Observations on the proposal to take native lands under an Act of the Assembly', reprinted in Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1864, E-2, pp. 7–8. › Back

Establishing the Native Land Court

Te Kōti Whenua Māori, 1865

He mea whakatū te Kōti Whenua Māori i raro i ngā Ture Whenua Māori o 1862 me 1865 hei aha, hei tirotiro i ngā taitara ki ngā whenua Māori. Kei te haere tonu ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori i ēnei rā, ā, kua whakamāramatia te kaupapa me te hōrapa o ngā ture ārahi i te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1993.

Nā te ture o te tau 1862 ka wātea te kāwana ki te whakatū i ngā kōti, arā, ko ētahi tāngata Māori hei āteha, me te kaiwhakawā ki runga ake i a rātou. Nā ngā pakanga me ngā riri o te wā, i tū ngā kōti o tēnei ture ki ētahi wāhi ruarua noa iho, arā, ki ngā takiwā i Te Tai Tokerau. Nō te tau 1865 ka puta te Ture nā te kaiwhakawā matua tuatahi nā Francis Dart Fenton i tāpae. He whānui atu te hōrapa o tēnei ture. Nā tēnei ka tū tētahi kōti whai mana me āna kaiwhakawā whai utu, me āna āteha Māori.

Te unu i te mana hoko

Nā te Ture Whenua Māori i whakakorengia ai te mana hoko a te Karauna. E kī ana te kupu whakataki o te Ture Whenua Māori 1862:

HEOI ANŌ RĀ … Ka hiahia te KŪINI kia unu hei painga mō te Māori, i te mea ko te Tiriti o Waitangi e pupuri ana ki a IA te mana hoko i ō rātou whenua.

Ka āhei te Māori ki te hoko whenua ki te tangata ahakoa ko wai, engari i te tuatahi me rangahaua e te Kōti Whenua Māori te whenua.

Te whakatakitahi i te mana whenua

Ko tētahi wāhanga o te ture, ko te tikanga e tareka ai te whakawhiti i te whenua Māori mai i te taitara ‘māori’ ki te taitara he mea tuku nā te Karauna, he taitara kore-here rānei. Mā tēnei tikanga, ka rite te whenua Māori me te whenua nō te tangata Pākehā i raro i te ture. E toru ngā wāhanga o tēnei tikanga.

Ka whakamana anō te ture kia whakarerekē te Māori i te taitara whenua mai i te whenua Māori ki te whenua here kore, pērā i ngā whenua i puritia e te Pākehā. E toru ngā hātepe mō tēnei āhuatanga.

  • Tuatahi ake, ka rangahau te Kōti Whenua Māori ko wai te hunga whai mana ki tētahi poraka whenua. He hātepe roa tēnei, he nui ngā tautohetohe.
  • Ka oti ana ngā whiriwhiringa, ka tuku e te Kōti tētahi tiwhikete taitara ki te hunga whai mana ki te whenua.
  • Ka tāpae e te hunga nō rātou te whenua i tō rātou tiwhikete ki te kāwana, ka tukua he karāti Karauna mō taua whenua. I konei, kua whiwhi te hunga whai mana i tētahi taitara here kore. Ka āhei rātou te hoko i te whenua rānei, te rīhi i te whenua rānei, te mahi moni rānei, te noho me te pāmu rānei i te whenua.

Ka mutu te taitara māori

Kakama kē te kōti ki te rangahau i ngā taitara ki ngā whenua Māori. I te tau 1872 ka puta te kōrero a te Kaiwhakawā Matua Fenton e mea ana, mai i te marama o Nōema i te tau 1865 ki te marama o Hune i te tau 1872, i tukua e te kōti he taitara mō ngā whenua e 5,013,839 eka (tata ki te e 2 miriona heketea), ko te nuinga i ngā porowini o Ākarana, o Pōneke, o Te Matau-a-Māui.

Ehara i te mea me heria e te Māori ōna whenua ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōti Whenua Māori – ka taea te waiho i te whenua i raro i te taitara māori mēnā koira te hiahia. Heoi, tata ki te katoa o ngā whenua i roto tonu i ngā ringaringa o te Māori i te tau 1865, i tāpaea ki mua i te aroaro o te kōti ka huri ki te taitara here kore. Iti noa te whenua kei raro i te taitara māori.


The Native Land Court in practice

He nui ngā raruraru i hua ake i te Ture Whenua Māori me te Kōti Whenua Māori, tae rawa ake ki ngā mahi i Te Matau-a-Māui.

Tekau ngā kaipupuri

Ko tētahi raruraru i ahu mai i te Ture o te tau 1865, ko te ritenga kia kaua e rahi atu i te tekau ngā kaipupuri i te taitara o tētahi pihi whenua. Ko te whakaaro pea ia, ka noho ēnei tāngata tekau hei māngai, hei kaitiaki i ngā pānga o te katoa. Hāunga tērā, ina whiwhi taua kotahi tekau rā i ngā karāti a te Karauna, ka noho ko rātou kē te mana whenua i raro i te ture.

Tokomaha ngā rangatira i Te Matau-a-Māui ka tuku i ō rātou whenua hei hoko taputapu hanga whare, waea taiepa, hikā momi, waipiro, tae rawa atu ki ngā kākahu hutu. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira ka tata toremi i te nui o ā rātou nama. I te tau 1867, ka kōrero te āpiha Kāwanatanga a G. S. Cooper, i whakaaetia, i whakawaia ngā rangatira kia kaha te hoko taputapu, ‘i te mutunga, hei utu i aua nama, kāhore he huringa mō ngā rangatira i tua atu i te hokohoko i ō rātou whenua.’1

He kōmihana whenua

Nā ngā whakakīkī a te Māori me ētahi Pākehā, i te tau 1873 ka whakatūria e te minita mō ngā take Māori e Te Mākarini he kōmihana hei tirotiro i ngā hoko whenua ki Te Matau-a-Māui. Tokorua ngā tāngata Māori, tokorua ngā tāngata Pākehā, ko te Kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Matua ko C. W. Richmond hei heamana. Nāna te pūrongo matua i tuhi, i whakahē i ngā whakapae a ngā Māori mō ngā hoko mūrere a ngā Pākehā i te Matau-a-Māui. Haunga tērā, i takoto ki te pūrongo tana whakahē ki ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Te Ture Whenua Māori 1873

I te tau 1873, i raro i ngā whakahaere a Te Mākarini, ka whakamanatia he Ture Whenua Māori hou me ngā whakarerekētanga. Ko te whakarerekētanga nui ko te tango i te ritenga kia ‘Kotahi tekau ngā kaipupuri’, ka whakanoho i tētahi ritenga hou e mau ai i te kōti ngā ingoa katoa o te hunga whai pānga ki tētahi poraka whenua.

E ai ki te Kaiwhakawā Matua a Fenton, ko te mate ia o te ture o te tau 1873, ‘ka whai kia hua ko te mutunga rawa mai o te tika; mōku nei, kīhai e tutuki i tēnei ao matemate.’2

Waihoki, ka tipu he raruraru i te ture hou. Hei tauira, me uaua te whakahaere i te poraka whenua he tokomaha te hunga whai pānga, ā, ka heke haere i ngā tau ki ngā tamariki, ki ngā mokopuna, kātahi ka uaua rawa atu. Tatū ki ēnei rā, kua tino whīwhiwhi rawa atu tēnei āhuatanga; inarā he manomano te hunga whai pānga ki ētahi poraka whenua Māori.

Ka haere tonu ngā rangahau a te Kōti Whenua Māori i te nui o te whenua, tae rawa ki te tau 1900. Kua oti te nuinga o ngā whenua te rangahau – i tua atu i ngā rohe pērā i Te Urewera, i rāhuitia i raro i ētahi atu hanganga ture.

Footnotes
  1. G. S. Cooper, ‘Report on the subject of native lands in the province of Hawke’s Bay.’ Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1867, A-15. › Back
  2. ‘Evidence given by Chief Judge Fenton to the Royal Commission on Native Lands and Native Land Tenure.’ Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1891, G-1, p. 47. › Back

Problems with the Land Court

Kāore i pai ki ētahi tumu kōrero ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori me te pānga o ngā ture whenua Māori. Tuatahi ake, he māmā noa te hoko atu i te whenua, me te aha, ka wawe te ngaro o ngā whenua Māori, ka rongo te iwi i ngā whiu o te rawakore. Tuarua, he nui rawa atu ngā utu ki te Māori ka haere ki mua i te aroaro o te kōti. Tuatoru, ka kino te pānga o te taitara takitahi ki te noho me te āhua o te iwi Māori.

He hātepe utu nui

He hātepe utu nui te Kōti Whenua Māori mō te Māori. He nui ngā utu mō ngā rūri whenua me ngā utu kōti, ā, he nui hoki te utu mō te kai, mō ngā haerenga ki ngā kōti kei ngā tāone (pērā i a Kemureti, i a Heretaunga, i a Marton). Ka kōrero te rangatira nui o Tūranganui, a Wī Pere:

Ka nui rawa atu te taumahatanga kei runga i ngā Māori. Ka rongo au i ngā aurere a ngā Māori ka mate te haere ki ngā tāone pāmamao kei reira te Kōti Whenua Māori e noho ana. Tērā te nohoanga a te Kōti Whenua Māori i Kemureti, ka mate ngā Māori te haere atu i Taupō, i Rotorua me ngā wāhi tawhiti. Nā te nui o ngā whakapaunga, ka pau te whenua te utu i ēnei nama. Tērā tētahi kamupene ka hoko taputapu, kai ki ētahi Māori, ka pau ō rātou whenua te hoko hei whakaea i ngā nama. Kīhai he paku aha ka mahue ki ngā Māori.1

He nui rawa atu ngā utu mō te hātepe nei. Kāore he aha te kainga o te e 20–25% o te uara o tētahi poraka whenua i ngā utu rūri. Hei ētahi wā i whakarerekēhia te ture kia taea ai e te kōti te mahi i āna mahi me tētahi mahere hukihuki, kāpā tētahi mahere kua āta rūritia. Heoi, tērā he mate ka tipu i tēnei huarahi (hei tauira – tērā kei te hē te ine i te korahi o te poraka).

Te taenga atu o te iwi

Me mātua tae te hunga whai pānga ki tētahi poraka whenua ki ngā nohoanga o te kōti. E ai ki te ture, me whakapā wawe ki te hunga whai pānga hei mua noa atu i ngā nohoanga, heoi, hei ētahi wā kīhai ngā Māori i te mōhio kei te kōtitia ngā whenua he pānga ō rātou. Heoi anō, hei ngā wā kāore ētahi tāngata e wātea kia tae atu, hei ngā wā rānei kei te whakataka ki te kēhi, kei te ngaki kai rānei i te māra, ka hikitia te noho a te kōti.

He rākau nā te kāwanatanga?

Ko te whakapae, he ringa noa te Kōti Whenua Māori nā te kāwanatanga, kīhai i te motuhake te tū. Hāunga tērā, he nui ngā pakanga ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga ki ngā āpiha a te kōti. Hei tauira, ka puta te whakahau a te kāwanatanga me kaua te kōti e whakawā i ngā whenua kua raupatutia. Hauware ake, ka rangona tonutia aua take e te kōti. Me hanga rā anō i tētahi ture hei aukati i te kōti i Tauranga. I tohetohe anō te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te kāwanatanga i te rohe o Tūranganui. I pūmau a Kaiwhakawā Matua Fenton kia motuhake te tū a te kōti.

Footnotes
  1. ‘Evidence given by Wī Pere to the Royal Commission on Native Lands and Native Land Tenure.’ Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1891, G-1, p. 9. › Back

Crown and private purchasing to the 1920s

Te kaihoko nui rawa

Hāunga te mea i whakatūria te Kōti Whenua Māori kia wawe ai te hoko i te whenua Maori ki te hunga tūmataiti, ka noho tonu ko te Karauna te kaihoko nui rawa atu. Kei waenganui i ngā tau 1870 ki 1928, ka riro te 4 miriona heketea o te whenua Māori ki ngā ringaringa o te Karauna, ko te nuinga i te Rohe Pōtae, i Te Urewera, i te Tai Rāwhiti atu i Whanga-o-keno ki Ahuriri.

He uaua te ine i te nui o te whenua i ngā hoko whenua tūmataiti o te wā; ko te whakapae, e 1.5 ki te e 2 miriona heketea. He nui te whenua i hokona e te Karauna, ka hokona atu ki ngā tāngata whai, haunga anō ngā whenua kei roto tonu i ngā ringaringa o te Karauna.

Te hoko me te roherohe whenua

Ka tahuri te Karauna ki te hoko hea ki tēnā poraka whenua, ki tēnā poraka whenua. Ka whakatauria kia hokona tētahi poraka, kua kuhu ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga ki te hoko i te nui rawa atu o ngā hea ā tēnā tangata, ā tēnā tangata. Kātahi ka roherohea te poraka e te Kōti Whenua Māori, ko tētahi wāhanga ki a ia, ko tētahi wāhanga ki ngā tāngata Māori ka whai pānga. Hei ētahi wā, ka pēneitia haeretia te mahi kia tata pau rā anō ngā whenua o ngā Māori.

Ka hiahia te kāwanatanga ki te nui o te whenua i Te Ika-a-Māui, hei aha, hei whakatutuki i te whāinga ‘kia piri te noho’, arā, kia maha atu ngā pāmu ririki, kia tini atu ai te hunga pupuri whenua. I whāia tēnei whakaaro e ngā rōpū tōrangapū katoa, heoi, ko te kāwanatanga Rīpera o ngā tau 1891 ki te 1912 te mea kaha rawa te whai i tēnei huarahi. He nui ngā whenua i riro i ngā hokonga i te tekau tau atu i 1890.

Te tiaki i te whenua

Waihoki, ka toko te hiahia i ētahi o te hunga tōrangapū kia tiaki i ngā maramara whenua o te Māori. Nā Te Paranihi (John Balance) rātou ko William Rees, ko Timi Kara, ko Āpirana Ngata mā ētahi kaupapa tiaki whenua Māori i tāpae. Nō te tau 1900 ka whakamanatia e te kāwanatanga Rīpera te Ture Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori, te ture nāna i whakarato te kaupapa e taea ai te whakatū ngā poari whenua, riro ana i ngā Māori te mana whakahaere, hei whakarite i te hokonga, te rīhitanga rānei i ō rātou whenua. Ahakoa tōna pai, ka hinga te kaupapa.

I te tau 1907, ka tīmata anō te tikanga hoko a te Karauna. Tae rawa ki te tau 1920, he nui te whenua i hokona. Ka takoto i te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1909 tētahi whakahounga nui, arā, me pānui rawa ngā hui hei whakatau i te hokonga, rīhitanga rānei o tētahi whenua Māori. Nō te tau 1913 ka whakawātea te kāwanatanga i a ia i ngā here o tēnei ture. I te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, he nui ngā whenua i hokona hei tuku ki ngā hōia i te hokinga mai.


20th-century developments

I te tau 1921 ka makere mai a Te Hērihi (W. H. Herries) hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, ka eke ake ko Te Kōti (Gordon Coates). I konei ka iti te whenua Māori ka riro atu. I tipu ake a Te Kōti i waenganui i te iwi Māori i Te Tai Tokerau, ka aroha atu ki te iwi Māori kua riro nei ō rātou whenua. I mahi tahi a Te Kōti rāua ko Āpirana Ngata, te mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Rāwhiti (hāunga te mea he āpitihana a Ngata tae noa ki te tau 1928).

Atu i 1920 ka arotahi te kāwanatanga ki ngā raruraru kei te hua nā te tokomaha rawa atu o te hunga whai pānga ki te whenua Māori. Ka mutu te hokohoko a te kāwanatanga i ngā whenua o te Māori. I te tau 1928, ka eke ko Ngata hei minita mō ngā take Māori; nō te tau o muri mai ka mana he ture hei tuku pūtea taurewa hei whakawhanake i ngā whenua Māori. He maha ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua Māori i te tekau tau atu i 1930, heoi, ko ētahi ka hua, ko ētahi ka hinga.

Ngā mahi nunui

Tangohia ai ngā whenua o te Māori mō ngā mahi nunui, hāunga ngā whenua o ētahi atu. I aua wā, kīhai i kaha te reo o te Māori ki te aroaro o te kāwanatanga ā-rohe, kāwanatanga matua rānei, nā reira hauwarea ake āna tono. I tua atu, nā ngā ritenga ā-ture, he maha ngā wā kāore te Māori i whiwhi i te paku aha mō ōna whenua ka murua. Hei ngā wā ruarua ka whai utunga paremata te tangata Māori, nā te mea he ururua te whenua, kīhai kia ahuahua, iti noa te uara o te paremata ka whiwhia ki a ia.

Ngā huringa

Nāwai ā, ka hua tētahi mate nui i te rapunga o tētahi oranga i te tokomaha rawa atu o te hunga whai pānga ki tētahi pihi whenua. Otirā, i raro i te Ture mō ngā Take Māori i te tau 1953, mehemea kei raro iho i te e rau tekau mā rima pāuna te uara o ngā hea o tētahi Māori, mātua hokona e ia aua hea ki te Kaitiaki Māori, māna aua hea e hoko ki tētahi atu (me kī, ko (t)ētahi atu Māori he nui atu ngā hea i taua pihi whenua).

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka puta te pūrongo a Hunn me te pūrongo a Prichard-Waetford, ka tūtohu kia kaha te whai i te huarahi nei. Hāunga ngā whakahē a te iwi Māori, nō te tau 1967 ka whakamanatia he whakahounga ki te Ture mō ngā Take Māori. Whāia, ka mātua hokona ngā hea whenua kei raro iho i te e $50 te uara ka māmā ai te hoko a te Kaitiaki Māori i aua whenua ki te Karauna. Kāore i atawhaingia tēnei tikanga hou, he kore e aro ki te whenua hei tūrangawaewae mō te Māori, hei aha te arumoni.

Nā te minita mō ngā take Māori a Matiu Rata i hāpai te Ture Whakatikatika 1974 i te Ture mō ngā Take Māori, kia whakakorengia ai te mahi nei. Ko ngā kupu whakamahuki o te Ture Whenua Māori i te tau 1993 e mea ana, ‘He mea pai kia aro ki te whenua anō he taonga tuku iho ki te iwi Māori, nā reira, me ngana kia puritia aua whenua ki ngā ringaringa o te hunga kei a rātou te mana, arā, ngā whānau, ngā hapū, me te tiaki i ngā wāhi tapu.’

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I whakatūria te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975, hei rangahau i ngā takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Heoi, kīhai i āhei te rangahau i ngā kerēme hītori, ka whāiti kē āna mahi ki ngā tohenga a ngā iwi mō ngā whenua i tangohia. I taua tau anō, ko te hīkoi nui mai i Te Rēinga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara mō te whenua te take. Hei whakatairanga i ngā nawe, ka tīmata te nohonoho a ētahi Māori i runga i ngā whenua mautohe, i Takaparawhā me Whāingaroa pea ngā noho mautohe rongonui rawa.

I te tau 1985 ka whai mana te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi kia tirotiro ki ngā take whenua hoki rā anō ki te tau 1840.

Ngā whakataunga a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

Kua takoto ētahi kerēme hītori ki mua i te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko te whenua te take. Kua āhei ki ētahi pihi whenua, pērā i:

  • ngā whenua hokia, tae atu ki ngā wāhi nui pērā i ngā wāhi tapu, ngā urupā, ngā pā tahito
  • ngā nohoanga ka whai tikanga tuku iho
  • te whitiwhiti kōrero me te Karauna kia takoto ai he tikanga mō te haere ki runga i ngā whenua whai mana ki te Māori engari kei raro i te mana o te Karauna
  • te tika ki te hoko i ētahi whenua ka āta tohungia, mai i te Karauna, mō te utu mākete, i roto i tētahi wā ka whakaaetia.

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Richard Boast, 'Te tango whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tango-whenua/print (accessed 12 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Richard Boast, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008, updated 1 Jul 2015