Kōrero: Te ture – Māori and legislation

Whārangi 3. Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1862 me te tau 1865

Nā ngā Ture Whenua Māori o 1862 me 1865 i tū ai te Kōti Whenua Māori.  Nā tēnei i wātea ake ai ngā whenua Māori kia hokona e ngā Pākeha i te mea he whenua Māori i whai mana ki raro i te taitara kotahi. E ai ki te minita ture, ki a Henry Sewell “kia whakahuihuitia te nuinga o ngā whenua o te Ika-a-Māui…kia horomia te iwi Māori, ā kia mawehe ai te Māori  – mehemea ka taea kia whakakorea ngā mātāpono pūnaha whanaungatanga  Māori, kia horomia te iwi Māori ki roto i ngā pūnaha whakawhanaungatanga me ngā pūnaha tōrangapū Pākehā.1

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ahakoa te hiahia o ētahi Māori ki te hoko atu i ō rātou whenua, nā ngā whakahaere o te Kōti Whenua Māori ka totohe te Māori, kātahi ka raru te hauora me te noho whanaunga o te Māori.

Ko te ‘tangata Māori whai whakaaro’ i āhei te tono hui ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia hokona atu e ia ōna whenua. Mō te nuinga  ka hokona atu te whenua e te tangata kotahi i mua i te mōhiotanga o te iwi ki ngā tangata tāhae whenua.  He mea anō, ko ngā hui o te Kooti i whakahaeretia mai i tawhiti. Ko te raru mo ngā rangatira nō rātou ngā whenua ko ngā utu mō ngā haerenga tawhiti, ko ngā utu ki te noho ki te whenua nō ētahi kē. Kātahi ka riro mā rātou anō ngā utu kōti, ngā utu rūri whenua me nga utu rōia. I toa te rangatira o Ngāti Kahungungu ā Renata Kawepo i ana whawhai ki ngā tangata tāhae whenua ki roto o Kahungungu, engari nā te taumaha o ngā nama rōia i hokona atu e ia te nuinga o ōna whenua hei utu.

I te tau 1883 i tuhia e te New Zealand Herald: ‘Kāore tētahi i te mōhio āhea ka kōrerotia te poraka e hiahiatia ana, nā reira ko tāna mahi he tatari i runga i te ngakau māhaki kia karangatia ia. Nā te roa o te tāringa kia karangatia ka pau ngā wiki, i ētahi wā ka pau ngā marama, ā, mehe kāore i nui te wāriu o te whenua he moumou noa iho, i te mea i rahi ake te moni i whakapaua i te wāriu o te whenua i wawatatia ai kia whakahokia ki a rātou.2

Te ture kaipupuri tekau

E ai ki te tikanga Māori nā te iwi te mana ki te whenua. Kāore te Kōti Whenua Māori i aro ki tēnei tikanga.

I tōna tīmatanga ake 10 anake ngā kaipupuri ka whiwhi hea mai i te kōti mēnā he iti iho i te 5,000 eka (2,023 heketea) taua whenua. He maha kē noa atu pea te hunga tono taitara i te tekau. I te tau 1873 ka whakakorea te ture ’10 owner rule’, ā, ka whai wāhi ngā kaipupuri katoa. Heoi nō te hekenga ki ngā uri, ka whāiti rawa ngā hea.

E ai ki te mema pāremata, ki a Robert Bruce ‘kāore i tua atu i ngā kōti whenua mō te patu i te Māori. Ka heke mai ngā Māori i ō rātou kāinga i uta, ā, ka noho i te taha o te Pākehā mō te hia marama…kātahi ka pāpāngia e ngā mate katoa.’3

Te mahi uaua

I te tau 1885 ka tuhi te New Zealand Herald mō te pānga o te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te iwi Māori: ‘kua whakarērea ngā mahi e te hunga nei, tāne mai, wahine mai…i te nuinga o te wā he moenga tēneti, moenga parahau noa iho nei. He mea pana ēnei hunga kia hūnuku mai i tētahi pito o te motu ki tētahi kia tae ki ngā kōti. Ko ā rātou kai kua kōtero, ā, ka tahuri ētahi ki te waipiro. Koinā rātou ka mate taurekareka, me he hipi kua pirau. Ko tōna hua ko te whakatipuranga kāore e ora roa i te mata o te whenua.’4

Pire Tika Tangata whenua 1894

I te tau 1894 ka whai wāhi Te Kotahitanga ki te whakatakotoranga o te Pire Mana Tangata. He rōpū ā-iwi tēnei rōpū i whakatakoto i tā rātou pire ki te Whare Pāremata ki mua tonu i te aroaro o ngā minita Māori. Ko te aronga o tēnei pire he whakakore i te Kōti Whenua Māori; he whakamana i ngā ture a te Māori ake ki ōna whenua; kia whai mana ake ai te Māori ki ōna whenua. I te pānuitanga tuatahi o te pire ka hīkoi atu ngā mema Pākehā katoa ki waho. I te tau 1896 ka whakahētia te pire e te Pāremata. Ē ai ki te māngai Māori a Wī Pere, ‘E kore e whakamanaia tēnei pire kia ngaro rā anō te katoa o ngā whenua Māori. Hei reira kua kore he taunga mō tēnei pire.’5

Kupu tāpiri
  1. New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, 1870, vol. 9, p. 361. Back
  2. New Zealand Herald, 8 Tīhema 1883. Back
  3. New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, 1885, vol. 52, p. 515. Back
  4. New Zealand Herald, 1 Ākuhata 1885. Back
  5. Tohutoro R. J. Walker, ‘The genesis of Maori activism.’ The Journal of the Polynesian Society 93, no. 3 (1984), p. 273. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Te ture – Māori and legislation - Te Kōti Whenua Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ture-maori-and-legislation/page-3 (accessed 21 October 2020)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012